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Presentation on theme: "THE NORTH BY: BAILEY, ISAAC, ALISA, HAYDEN, MARY, KYAH, ANDREW, JUSTIN, AND LEE."— Presentation transcript:


2 INNOVATIONS IN TRANSPORTATION STEAMBOATS Companies that made steamboats could speed up transportation of people and freight. Some were unsafe and were soon subjected to federal regulation. The trip from Ohio to New Orleans used to take several moths, but with a steamboat could take 10 days. Increasing trade and coal sales promoting economic growth. CANALS Erie Canal was made 363 miles long and 4 feet deep which would create jobs to build it. Then stonemasons would build aqueducts and locks. Brought commercial success when completed in November 1825. Forty thousand people used the Erie Canal in 1825. Freight shipping twenty days to six days. Making trade foster, cheaper and more useful.

3 INNOVATIONS IN TRANSPORTATION RAILROADS Before the civil war railroads were a new and relatively untested invention. There was three times the amount of railroads in the north as the south. Trade was much faster and easier. TELEGRAPH Before the civil there were 3 major telegraph companies: The American Telegraph Company held most of the area east of the Hudson River. The western union extended as far west as California. The southwest included Texas and Arkansas

4 INDUSTRIALIZATION Textile mills were factories that made textiles (Fabric) The largest mills were located in Lowell, MA. Many women and children left home for mill work in Lowell. The boarding houses at mills were usually crowded and noisy by livable. The working conditions, however, were terrible. The days were 12-16 hours long with sparse, short breaks. There were no sick days allowed, or vacation days. The mills were hot, dark, crowded and dirty. The tasks were repetitive and the pay was horrible, at an average of $297 a year for women. Children were paid as little as 27 cents for 14-hour days. The equipment was extremely dangerous and often faulty, so many workers contracted serious injuries (losing limbs, scalps, etc.) or died during their work. No reimbursement was given for injuries on the job. All in all, working in a mill was really terrible. Textile Mills and Working Conditions

5 INDUSTRIALIZATION Owners of textile mills increase hours, decreased pay, and improved production in the pursuit for profit. Employees went on strike several times unsuccessfully. Women teamed with workers to alter legislation regarding work hours Courts provided protection from conspiracy laws. Journeymen shoemakers organized at the turn of the century Boot makers were given the right to strike in a manner that serves their interest Unions arose in woodwork, tailoring, and printing The movement disintegrated due to wage cuts during the hard times of the 1830’s. Protest and Unionization

6 GROWTH People in Urban areas grew from just over 7% in 1820 to nearly 20% in 1860 Most of this growth took place in the Northeast and Mid-west Most Northerners lived on farms or in small villages Population of individual cities boomed The residents were temporary and moved to the country side. Cities represented economic advancement Cities

7 GROWTH Immigration rose between 1830- 1860 in the U.S. They faced prejudice because they were Roman Catholic and because they were poor. Between 1845-1859 3 million immigrants were added to the population. 1.5 million Germans 150,000 Britain's Irish came in 1845 Germans came in 1848 Americans were worried that the Germans would out breed, out vote, and over whelm Took jobs from Americans Immigration

8 GROWTH African American migrated to the northern cities to work in railroad yards, packing houses, steel mills, shipyards, and coal mines. Cleveland’s black population increased by 300% Detroit’s by more than 600% Chicago’s by 150% Half a million African Americans moved to the North Most were males, young, unmarried and skilled or semiskilled. Migration (movement within the U.S.)

9 GROWTH Jobs weren’t too good. Didn’t earn a lot of money Sometimes there wasn’t a lot of work. Workers were paid so little, they couldn’t even buy things they made in the factories Kids had to go to work at 10 to help their families Many people all lived together because they couldn’t afford a place of their own. People began drinking to forget about things and started dying. What little money they had they wasted on drinking Lots of fights and robberies Police were untrained and underpaid and couldn’t control it. Living Conditions

10 NORTHERN SOCIETY  In 1800’s 7-8 children per family were born but in 1860 5-6 children were born per family. There was a decline in children born even with immigrants  Most wage-earning women provided essential income for their families and could not stay home, so they left their children at home to care for themselves, work, or scavenge around rather than attending school.  Most women who worked were single parents  Most-middle class women stayed at home doing cleaning while wealthier women paid for domestic servants to perform the duties at home.  Unmarried/girls became domestic servants  married/widows became laundresses, seamstresses or cooks  young girls worked in textile mills  In 1823, the beecher sisters established the Hartford female seminary and offered history, science and religion  Catherine Beecher campaigned for teacher training schools for women. She argued that women didn’t get paid as much as male teacher and to be paid as much they had to have been married

11 NORTHERN SOCIETY  The unmarried women didn’t even get paid half as much as male teachers  In 1850 it became a women profession to be a teacher  Women work paid poorly, those who weren’t married faced serious challenges leaving the single women to rely on charitable or family assistance.  For entertainment people watched theater, went to dance halls, circuses, lamp-lit promenade, knickerboxing clubs and night clubs. During the day people watched the racetrack, horse-racing, walk racing, baseball, and went to Museums. In 1831, a all-sports newspaper was created called Spirit of the time.  The Penny Press was also create to entertain the public. This newspaper focused on daily life. This gave individuals of all social classes the opportunity to peer into the lives of different classes, ethnicities, and races.

12 NORTHERN SOCIETY In this time period, the difference between home and work became increasly separated. It became the new middle class ideal in which men worked and operated n the public while women functioned at home in the private eye. Men were increasingly focused on work. Men strived to improve and be successful in the business world and afraid of failure because unpredictable market economy. I was frowned upon and rare for a couple to marry for economic reasons and advantages rather than marrying for love. A child’s main priority changed rom work to education. Children also lived at home until late teens early 20’s. The separation between male and female spheres of work and home became known as separates=sphere ideology. Young single women should be teachers because of their natural superiority but once married should be at home. In smaller families, mothers could give children more attention, better education and financial help. Children no longer play a vital economic role. Urban families produced fewer household goods. Commercial farmers needed less workers year=round.


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