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9 PowerPoint ® Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition and You
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Assessing Eating Behaviors: Are You What You Eat? What Drives Us to Eat? Hunger Appetite Cultural and social meaning attached to food Convenience and advertising Habit or custom Emotional comfort Nutritional value Social interactions Regional/seasonal trends
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Eating for Health Nutrition The science of the relationship between physiological functions and essential elements of food Calorie Unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a food Characteristics of a Healthy Diet Adequate Moderate Balanced Varied Nutrient dense
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Estimated Daily Caloric Needs
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Trends in Per Capita Nutrient Consumption
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Digestive Process Sequence of functions by which the body breaks down larger food particles into smaller, more usable forms Our bodies cannot synthesize some essential nutrients. Some essential nutrients are obtained from food.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Digestive Process
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Water: A Crucial Nutrient 50 to 60 percent of the body is water Too little water can cause dehydration, an abnormal depletion of body fluids. Too much water can cause hyponatremia, a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood Water is necessary for: Electrolyte and pH balance Transporting cells and molecules Recommended amount is 8 glasses/day (64 ounces) Is bottled water better?
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Bottled Water Boom: Who Pays the Price? Environmental Consequences Factories use about 18 million barrels of oil and 130 billion gallons of fresh water to make bottled water. Systems such as reverse osmosis purifiers use about 2 liters of fresh water running through a system. About 900,000 tons of plastic is needed to package bottles. Negative health risks are found in plastic bottles in bisphenol A (BPA), a component in some plastics. Bottled water is considered a “food” and requires much less frequent monitoring by the FDA for safety than tap water. In California alone, more than 1 billion water bottles are thrown into the trash. Entire populations are being left vulnerable to water shortages.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Bottled Water Boom: Who Pays the Price? To Help to Curb the Environmental Threats: Don’t buy bottled water; instead use reusable stainless steel containers. When you have parties, use covered pitchers of ice water. Buy a water filter. Recycle any plastic bottles you use or see. Become involved in initiatives to ensure quality tap water in your community.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Proteins Second most abundant substance in humans next to water Key to all cells, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones Transport oxygen and nutrients Important role in developing/repairing bone, muscle, and skin Vital for human life May need additional protein if fighting off infection, recovering from surgery or blood loss, or recovering from burns
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Amino acids Building blocks of protein 20 essential amino acids must be obtained from food. 11 nonessential amino acids are produced by the body. Link together to form Complete protein— supplies all essential amino acids Incomplete protein— may lack some amino acids, but these can be easily obtained from different sources. Few Americans suffer from protein deficiencies. Can you give examples of complete proteins?
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Complementary Proteins
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates Are the best fuel source and provide energy quickly and efficiently Simple Carbohydrates Glucose (monosaccharide)—most common form Fructose (monosaccharide)—fruit sugar Sucrose (disaccharide)—granulated table sugar Lactose (disaccharide)—milk sugar Maltose (disaccharide)—malt sugar Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) Starches—grains, cereals, and vegetables Stored in the body as glycogen Fiber—“bulk” or “roughage”
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Fiber Insoluble Found in bran, whole-grain breads, and most fruits and vegetables Found to reduce risk of several forms of cancer Soluble Found in oat bran, dried beans, and some fruits and vegetables Helps lower blood cholesterol levels Helps reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Benefits of fiber include protection against Colon and rectal cancer Breast cancer Constipation Diverticulosis Heart disease Diabetes Obesity Recommended amount is 20 to 35 grams/day
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL) The Glycemic Index is a system for rating the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels. Foods that break down quickly and result in fast blood glucose surge have a high GI index rating. Combining carbohydrates with fats and proteins can lower the overall GI. Glycemic load refers to the amount of carbohydrates in the food you eat multiplied by the glycemic index of that food.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Fats Also called lipids Misunderstood but a vital group of basic nutrients Maintain healthy skin Insulate body organs Maintain body temperature Promote healthy cell function Carry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K Are a concentrated form of energy
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Triglycerides make up 95 percent of total body fat Cholesterol makes up 5 percent of total body fat Can accumulate on inner walls of arteries and contribute to cardiovascular disease Ratio of cholesterol HDL/LDL helps determine risk for heart disease Types of Dietary Fat Saturated are mainly from animal sources and are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated generally come from plants and are usually liquid at room temperature.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Percentages of Saturated, Monounsaturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans Fats in Common Vegetable Oils
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Avoiding Trans Fatty Acid Created by process of making liquid oil into a solid Increase LDL levels while lowering HDL levels Eating trans fat increases risk of coronary and heart disease and sudden cardiac death Found in many margarines, baked goods, and restaurant deep- fried foods
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients New Fat Advice: Is More Fat Ever Better? According to the American Heart Association, eating fewer than 15 percent of our calories as fat can actually increase blood triglycerides. Eat fatty fish. Use healthier oils (including olive oil). Eat green, leafy vegetables. Eat walnuts and use walnut oil. Eat ground flaxseed.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Use Moderation with Fat Intake Read food labels. Use olive oil for cooking. Avoid margarine with trans fatty acids. Choose lean meat, fish, and poultry. Eat fewer cold cuts and less bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and organ meats. Choose nonfat dairy products. Use substitutes for higher-fat products. Think of your food intake as an average, over a day or two—if you have a heavy breakfast, eat a light dinner.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Video: Going Green Discussion Questions 1.What can farmer’s markets do for a community? 2.Is it healthier to purchase from a farmer’s market? Is there a difference in nutritional value? | Going Green
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Toward Sustainable Seafood More than 70 percent of the world’s natural fishing grounds have been overfished. High levels of chemicals, parasites, bacteria, and toxins are now found in seafood. Mercury, a waste product of many industries, binds to proteins and stays in an animal’s body. Mercury can cause damage to the nervous system and kidneys, and cause birth defects. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chemicals that can build up in the fatty tissue of fish, are found in seafood. Farmed fish pose additional health risks and environmental concerns. Know where and how your fish is caught.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Vitamins Potent, essential, organic compounds Promote growth and help maintain life and health Two types Fat soluble— absorbed through intestinal tract with the help of fats. A, D, E, and K vitamins are fat soluble. Water soluble— dissolve in water. B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. Few Americans suffer from vitamin deficiencies. Overusing them can lead to a toxic condition known as hypervitaminosis.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Antioxidants Most common are vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene Free radicals damage or kill healthy cells. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, slow their formation, and repair oxidative stress damage. Carotenoids Lycopene (in tomatoes, papaya, pink grapefruit, and guava) reduces the risk of cancer. Lutein (in green leafy vegetables, spinach, broccoli, kale, and brussels sprouts) protects the eyes.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Folate A form of vitamin B that is needed for DNA production in body cells Deficiency can result in spina bifida Dangers of taking too much folate include nerve damage, immunodeficiency problems, anemia, fatigue, headache, constipation, diarrhea, and weight loss.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Guide to Water-Soluble Vitamins
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Guide to Water-Soluble Vitamins
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Guide to Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Minerals Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body Vitamins cannot be absorbed without minerals Macrominerals are needed in large amounts. Sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and chloride Trace minerals are needed in small amounts Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, and iodine Excesses or deficiencies of trace minerals can cause serious problems.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Sodium Necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Recommended consumption less than 1 teaspoon of table salt per day Pickles, snack foods, processed cheeses, canned soups, frozen dinners, breads, smoked meats, and sausages contain large amounts.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Calcium Plays a vital role in building strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heartbeat, and fluid balance within cell Recommended amount 1,000 to 1,200 mg/day Milk, calcium-fortified orange juice, soy milk, broccoli, cauliflower, peas, beans, nuts, and molasses are good sources.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Obtaining Essential Nutrients Iron The most common nutrient deficiency globally Women aged 19 to 50 need about 18 mg per day, and men aged 19 to 50 need about 10 mg. Iron-deficiency anemia—body cells receive less oxygen, and carbon dioxide wastes are removed less efficiently Iron toxicity—ingesting too many iron containing supplements Men who consume excess iron have a higher risk of gallstones.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Guide to Major Minerals Continued
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Guide to Major Minerals
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Guide to Trace Minerals Continued
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. A Guide to Trace Minerals
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Determining Your Nutritional Needs Reading Labels for Health Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) Recommended Daily Intakes (DRIs) U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances (USRDAs) Adequate Intake (AI) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Reading a Food Label
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Video: You Are What You Eat Discussion Questions 1.Is posting calorie counts on menus helpful? What other dietary information would help people make the healthiest choice? 2.Should more restaurants be required to follow this trend? 3.Is it up to a restaurant or a consumer to make people aware of dietary information and healthy choices? 4.Are you surprised by some of the calorie counts? 5.Does seeing calorie counts affect your food choices? | You Are What You Eat
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Determining Your Nutritional Needs Supplements: Research on the Daily Dose Dietary Supplements Products taken by mouth to supplement existing diets Includes vitamins, minerals, and herbs FDA does not evaluate supplements prior to their marketing; companies are responsible for their own monitoring A multivitamin added to a balanced diet will generally do more good than harm. Probiotics—live microorganisms found in fermented foods that optimize the bacterial environment in our intestines
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Determining Your Nutritional Needs The MyPyramid Food Guide Replaced the Food Guide Pyramid to account for varied nutritional needs throughout the U.S. population Emphasizes Personalization Gradual improvement Physical activity Variety Moderation Proportionality
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid Plan
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Determining Your Nutritional Needs Using the MyPyramid Plan Understanding serving sizes Discretionary calories Physical activity Eating nutrient-dense foods
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Serving Size Card
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gender & Health Men and Women Have Different Needs Women have cyclical changes. During pregnancy and lactation, women’s nutritional requirements increase substantially. During the menstrual cycle, many women report significant food cravings. Men have more lean tissue (burn more calories). Men also tend to consume more red meat and less fruits and vegetables than women do.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vegetarianism Reasons for Pursuing a Vegetarian Lifestyle Animal welfare Improving health Environmental concerns Natural approaches to wellness Food safety Weight loss Weight maintenance
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vegetarianism Types of Vegetarian Diets Vegan Lacto-vegetarian Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Pesco-vegetarian Semivegetarian The MyPyramid Plan is adaptable for a vegetarian diet
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vegetarianism Benefits to a Balanced Vegetarian Diet May weigh less. Have better cholesterol levels Have fewer problems with constipation and diarrhea Have lower risk of heart disease Have reduced risk of some cancers, particularly colon cancer Have reduced risk of kidney disease
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutritional Needs for People with Different Energy Requirements
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Improved Eating for the College Student When Time and Money Are Short Ask for nutritional analyses of items. Order salads, but be careful about what you add to them. Avoid lard-based or other saturated-fat products and trans fats. Avoid giant sized portions, and refrain from ordering extras Limit beverages and foods high in added sugars. At least once per week, add a vegetable-based meat substitute into your fast-food choices.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Foodborne Illnesses Foodborne pathogens sicken over 76 million people and cause 400,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths per year. Signs Cramping Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Most of the time, symptoms occur 5 to 8 hours after eating.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Budget Nutrition Tips
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Contributing Factors to the Increase in Foodborne Illnesses Globalization of food supply Introduction of pathogens to new geographic regions Exposure to unfamiliar foodborne hazards Changes in microbial populations Increased susceptibility of varying populations Insufficient education about food safety
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Avoiding Risks in the Home Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Freeze or eat fish, poultry, or meats within 1 or 2 days. Eat leftovers within 3 days. Wash hands, cutting boards, counters, and knives. Use a meat thermometer. Never thaw foods at room temperature.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food Irradiation: How Safe Is It? Approved by USDA in February 2000 Use gamma irradiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, or other X-ray sources Breaks chemical bonds in the DNA of bacteria Rays essentially pass through the food Lengthens shelf life and prevents spread of microorganisms Reduces need for toxic chemicals currently used Marked with the radura logo U.S. FDA label
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food Additives Substances added to food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness, that prevent spoilage, enhance nutrient value, and enhance the look and taste of foods Examples of common additives include Antimicrobial agents Antioxidants Artificial color, nutrient additives, and flavor enhancers such as MSG Sulfites
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food Allergies Abnormal response to a food triggered by the immune system Symptoms include rapid breathing or wheezing, hives, rash, eczema, runny nose, facial swelling, or respiratory problems (anaphylactic reaction) In 2004, Congress passed the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA), which requires food manufacturers to clearly label foods containing ingredients that are common allergens.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food Intolerances Less dramatic reaction than food allergies Not the result of immune system response Generally shows as gastric upset Lactose intolerance is common and also happens in response to food additives (MSG, sulfites, gluten) May have psychological triggers
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Gluten Free Diet Gluten is a protein found in grains Wheat, barley, rye A gluten free diet is used to treat Celiac Disease Gluten causes inflammation of the small intestines There are many foods that you can still eat while maintaining a gluten-free diet Corn Certain flours without gluten Rice Fruits & veggies Wine
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety: A Growing Concern Is Organic for You? Food developed, grown, or raised without use of synthetic pesticides, chemicals, or hormones As of 2010, organic food sales estimated to be about $23.8 billion Foods need to meet criteria set by USDA to be certified organic Locavores—people who eat only food grown or produced locally USDA label for certified organic foods
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