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Teledyne Continental Motors “Gold Motor” Textron Lycoming “Grey Motor”

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Presentation on theme: "Teledyne Continental Motors “Gold Motor” Textron Lycoming “Grey Motor”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Teledyne Continental Motors “Gold Motor” Textron Lycoming “Grey Motor”

2 Chad Menne Malibu Aerospace Over 7,000 hours of PA46 time Corporate flight experience Aircraft management Flight test experience Engineering – Research & Development FAA Certification Tests Maintenance / Production Flight Tests

3  Both Lycoming & Continental Engines  How do we operate these engines?  Why do we operate them that way?  What are we missing?  What is my mechanic missing?  What are common problems?

4  Reliability ◦ “Piston engines are comprised of a thousand parts flying in all different directions, looking for a way out.”

5  Reliability ◦ “Piston engines are comprised of a thousand parts flying in all different directions, looking for a way out.”  98 out of 1385 total accidents were due to powerplant failures (7%), representing 21.4Million flight hours (Nall report 2007). That is one accident every 218,367 flight hours caused by engine failures,(turbine & piston). 11 of them resulted in fatalities (0.8%), which equals ONE fatal accident every 1.95Million flight hours due to engine failure. The TOTAL fatal accident rate is 1 per 84,920 flight hours for ALL types of accidents in ALL types of planes.

6  Reliability ◦ “Piston engines are comprised of a thousand parts flying in all different directions, looking for a way out.”  98 out of 1385 total accidents were due to powerplant failures (7%), representing 21.4Million flight hours (Nall report 2007). That is one accident every 218,367 flight hours caused by engine failures,(turbine & piston). 11 of them resulted in fatalities (0.8%), which equals ONE fatal accident every 1.95Million flight hours due to engine failure. The TOTAL fatal accident rate is 1 per 84,920 flight hours for ALL types of accidents in ALL types of planes.  The piston PA46 fleet averages about 150,000 hours/year  That means we should see one accident every 1.5 years and one fatal accident every 13 years due to engine failure (piston & turbine)  Some sources claim a piston engine fails every 3,200 flight hours. Pratt & Whitney claims a PT6 failure every 333,000 flight hours by comparison

7  Both Malibu & Mirage ◦ Exhaust!  Turbo transitions, slip joints, gaskets, clamps ◦ Magnetos  Cam wear, moisture/corrosion, points, dist. block ◦ Turbochargers  Don’t expect them to go to TBO ◦ Cam & lifter corrosion and wear  Excess moisture, fuel dilution, shearing & thermal breakdown of the oil

8  Exhaust valves ◦ Most common cause from high power & high CHT & exhaust temps  Starter drive adapters ◦ Lightweight Iskra starters can cause premature wear ◦ Air conditioner driveshaft seals can leak  Cylinder & ring wear ◦ First to be blamed & rarely the cause  Bearing end play ◦ Check for proper end play during pre-flight and DO NOT fly without end play!  Borescope for detailed inspection before condemning a cylinder  Be sure to use TCM master orifice tool for daily calibration during a compression check

9  Exhaust valve guide wear (high oil consumption and rough running)  Broken oil control rings  Poor break-in results (high oil consumption) ◦ Lycoming does not allow mineral oil  Cracked oil sump at turbo support studs  Cracked internal oil baffle ◦ Be sure to check suction screen for rivets  Fuel servo problems ◦ Unable to get proper ground mixture or full power fuel flow ◦ Can cause surging in cruise  Fuel line AD every 100 hours (cracking due to improper securing of lines)

10 LifterMain bearing

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15  Iron  Cylinders, rotating shafts, valve train and any steel part sharing the oil.  Copper  Brass or bronze parts, bushings, bearings, oil coolers, sacrificial coatings.  Nickel  Valve guides, trace element in steel, some cylinder types.  Chromium  Rings, cylinders, a trace element in steel.  Silver  Sacrificial coatings, a trace element in some types of bearings, bearing cage plating  Magnesium  Engine casings, additives  Aluminum  Pistons, piston pin plugs, bearing overlay, casings.  Lead  Primarily leaded gas blow-by, traces from bearings  Silicon  Abrasive dirt from intake air, silicone sealers and gaskets, sample contamination.  Tin  Bearings, bronze parts (with copper), anti-wear coatings.  Molybdenum  Traces of anti-wear coatings, some cylinder types, and bearings.

16 Leaky GasketColorful clues

17 Heavy, Cast InconelErosion & Blistering

18 .065” Stainless Steel Check at EVERY Oil Change!

19 Corrosion has its wayHeat Muff - Uncovered

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21 Malibu & Old-Style Mirage Clamps Crack from over-tightening

22 The right wayThe WRONG way

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25  Compressor damage  Bearing failure  Seal failure  Scavenge pump failure  Scavenge hose failure  Wastegate failure or sticking

26 BearingsCompressor Damage

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28  Vent oil cap after shutdown (minimize corrosion)  Watch EGTs and trend data (ignition and fuel injection anomalies)  In-flight mag checks (look for hot or cold EGTs)  Oil samples (watch for iron, nickel, almuminum)  Watch for peak TIT drift (up or down) ◦ Drift up is usually ignition or low compression ◦ Drift down is usually a probe going bad

29  The best way to prolong your engine’s life and improve safety is to know how to balance parameters ◦ Trade one temp for another ◦ Engine limits are not intended to provide longest life, but are instead proven to be acceptable for short durations ◦ Add fuel only as necessary to achieve a good balance during climb  Less fuel means more power! (power means heat)

30 A. 360° CHT – 1650° TIT B. 400° CHT – 1580°TIT

31 A. 360° CHT – 1650° TIT ◦ The TIT is an exhaust gas temp, the CHT affects the engine’s ability to dissipate heat ◦ A cooler CHT can transfer more heat away from a valve B. 400° CHT – 1580°TIT ◦ Less differential from valve to seat and guides removes less heat from valve ◦ Localized oil temps will be hotter at valve guides

32  How hot is too hot??? ◦ CHT or EGT/TIT, not both (valve wear) ◦ High TIT equals more exhaust wear  Lean of Peak, no free lunch ◦ Lose speed (less power at same power setting) ◦ Wear exhaust (higher EGTs, more oxidation) ◦ Not as smooth (slight roughness or surging) ◦ Cooler CHTs (helps offset the higher EGTs and cool valves)

33  Continental ◦ 20% fuel savings ($28,000 over 2000 hours)  1500 hrs x 21GPH x $4.50/gal - 20% ◦ 2% speed loss ($9,000 additional aircraft cost over 2000 hours)  1500 hrs x 200kts - 2% / 196kts x $300/hr ◦ Increased exhaust wear costs ($3000 over 2000 hours)  Lycoming ◦ 25% fuel savings ($35,000 over 2000 hours)  1500 hrs x 21GPH x $4.50/gal -25% ◦ 10% speed loss ($50,000 additional cost over 2000 hours)  1500 hrs x 200kts - 10% / 180kts x $300/hr ◦ Increased exhaust wear costs ($10,000 over 2000 hours)

34  How to change your ignition timing??? ◦ Engine speed  Higher RPM = less advance (less time to burn)  2500 RPM = 1 Revolution every.024 seconds  Lower RPM = more advance (more time to burn)  2300 RPM = 1 Revolution every.026 seconds or 9% more time ◦ Mixture ratio ROP  Leaner mixture = more advance (burns faster – sharper power pulse)  Richer mixture = less advance (burns slower – softer power pulse) ◦ Mixture ratio LOP  Richer mixture = more advance (burns faster – sharper power pulse)  Leaner mixture = less advance (burns slower – softer power pulse)

35  Lower RPM  Higher RPM Earlier Peak Pressure, More Time to Burn, More Cooling Time per Cycle, Less HP, Cooler EGT, Cooler CHT Later Peak Pressure, Less Time to Burn, Less Cooling Time per Cycle, More HP, Hotter EGT, Hotter CHT IntakeCompressionExhaust IntakeCompressionCombustionExhaust Combustion TDC Peak Pressure TDC Peak Pressure

36  ROP Combustion  LOP Combustion Faster Combustion, Sharper Pulse, Cooler EGT, Hotter CHT Slower Combustion, Lower Pressure, Hotter EGT, Cooler CHT IntakeCompressionCombustionExhaust IntakeCompressionCombustionExhaust TDC Peak Pressure TDC Peak Pressure TDC Peak Pressure

37  Rich of peak, lean to peak, lean of peak  TIT peak method, a.k.a.“the factory method”  Fuel flow method  JPI lean find “Lean L” method  JPI lean find “Lean R” method  “The big pull”

38  Continental ◦ LOP, FF x 15 = HP ◦ ROP, FF x = HP (Can vary a lot)  Lycoming ◦ LOP, FF x 14 = HP ◦ ROP, FF x 12 = HP (Can vary a lot)

39  Questions  Comments  me,  Fly Safe!


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