Presentation on theme: "Normal Infant Trust Cycle"— Presentation transcript:
1 Normal Infant Trust Cycle Unpleasant ArousalParent responds with food, comfort, nurturance, eye contact, sound, rocking motion, & warmth of human contactChild learns adults can be relied upon to meet his needsCompleted CycleRecognitionTrust DevelopmentNeed SatisfiedNeedDecreased ArousalBaby CriesAction to Address Need
2 Infant Trust Cycle ATTACHMENT DISORDER Unpleasant ArousalInfant rageRigidityExtreme dependencySuppressed abilitiesLack of foundationCannot Recognize Own NeedsRecognitionLack of TrustInfant’s Needs Not MetNeedBaby CriesCycle IncompleteLack of Adult Response to Infant’s Needs
3 Early Childhood Trust of Limits Cycle Unpleasant ArousalUnpleasant Arousal is ContinuousNeeds = ControlAction— “I must take care of this myself”Limits = ObstacleReinforced Arousal—“ I knew I had to do this myself”Needs Never Totally MetNeedNo Trust of Limits- Attachment DisorderAction to Meet NeedReinforced ArousalPlacement of Limits
4 Dynamics of Attachment Disorder Attachment Figure UnavailableNegative Response CycleSelf Protective DistancingLoss of CaregiversUnmet NeedsLack of Pleasure in Relationships
5 Traumatic Stress Leading to Attachment Disorder Denial of pregnancyDislike for father of childSubstance abusePrematurity risk factorsVariable family supportInadequate diet; poor self-careResentmentPre-Natal Factors
6 Traumatic Stress Leading to Attachment Disorder Lack of parenting skillsVarious caregiversOngoing substance abuse“Mechanical parenting”Neglectful/Abusive parental reactionsPrematurity factorsUndetected/Unrelieved pain in the childPost-Natal Factors
7 Behavioral ChecklistIndiscriminate affection towards strangers, willingness to go with themFace to face compliance with passive-aggressive resistanceAbsence of guilt; no remorse; lack of conscience developmentProvoking of anger in others almost continuallyLack of ability to give and receive affection unless on their terms
8 Behavioral Checklist Chronic, non-sensical lying - “crazy lying” Theatrical displays of emotionStealing or hoarding food; food refusal or gorgingCruelty to animals and/or children, especially younger childrenFiresetting - “controlled” firesPreoccupation with blood, fire, gore
9 Behavioral ChecklistLack of cause & effect thinking - does not learn from consequencesPoor eye contactDenial of accountabilitySelf-injurious behaviorRefusal to answer simple questionsUnusual speech patterns or problemsPoor peer relationshipsLearning disordersTheft, vandalism & destructivenessSeductive behavior or clothingToileting issues
10 Attachment on a Continuum Healthy Attachment-Trust DevelopmentUnattached Child306080100OverindulgedAttachment Issues
11 Emotional Makeup of Attachment Disorder HopelessnessLossAngerAbandonmentHelplessnessNo TrustRageFearPROFOUND SADNESS
13 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder In Parents CausesRepeated rejection by child—no reciprocityRelentless control battles—constant self-controlPersonal and family changes out of controlPrimary SymptomsAvoidance of thoughts and feelingsPsychological and physical distressDecreased affect—detachment from othersSecondary SymptomsSleep problems; hypervigilant, irritable, angryVictim identity; fatigue and depression; loss of securityFeeling unlike others; emotions out of controlHopelessnessHelplessnessANGERRAGE
14 Adult Characteristics for Successful Parenting of Children With RAD Healthy sense of humorConsistency with behavior management, yet flexibleAbility to handle interruptions to social schedulesUnderstanding that one parents a needy child, with parent’s personal needs met elsewhereAbility to advocate for child in a positive mannerAbility to promote positive growthSense of hope for the future, plus tolerance and perseverance
15 Adult Characteristics for Successful Parenting of Children With RAD Support in the marital relationship; communication and belief in what the other spouse saysAbility to react calmly; ability to display parental control of attitudes and abilities in the presence of the childAbility to accept appropriate confrontation if it promotes positive changesAbility to constantly redefine parental goals and expectations for the child; able to redefine “success”Ability to withstand criticism & condemnation from family, friends and community
16 ATTACHMENT DISORDER Parental Response Cycle The cycle is solely dependent on adult reactionsChild’s response is directly relevant to degree of adult’s commitment & amount of consistency in terms of non-abusive or rejecting reactionsUnpleasant ArousalConsistent InconsistencyCOMMITMENTBuilding Trust CapabilitiesNeedCONFUSIONNON ABUSIVE Support ResponseSupportive ControlRAGE
17 Child’s View of Adult-Child Interactions Someone wins; Someone losesAdult doesn’t take charge when child is out of controlChild senses this and becomes frightenedChild continues to set up opportunities for adult to take chargeWhen adult is unwilling or unable to take control, child’s out of control behavior escalates
18 Adult Attachment Disorder Progression Emotional and Attention SeekingDisregard for OthersUnstable and ImpulsiveSelf AbsorbedANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDERBORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDERNARCISSITIC PERSONALITY DISORDERHISTRIONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER
19 The Child Welfare SYSTEM Private Service ProvidersCourtsState Child Welfare AgenciesMedicaidPublic AgenciesMental Health CounselingWelfare, Public AssistanceLocal Child Welfare AgenciesSubstance Abuse Treatment
20 Foster Care Statistics 2001 3 Million referrals made to CPS900,000 children found to be victims of maltreatment290,000 entered the foster care system800,000 children spent some time in the foster care system540,000 children in foster care at any given time**The Future of Children Winter 2004
21 Foster Care Statistics 2001 Nearly one-third of maltreated children were under the age of 3Forty percent of all child fatalities due to child abuse were infants under age 1Over the past 10 years, the number of infants and toddlers coming into foster care has increased by 110%Approximately 1 in 5 of the children entering foster care for the first time are infants under age 1**The Future of Children Winter 2004
22 Is Uncle Sam a Good Parent? When the state assumes custody of a child, in effect the government is stating that it can do a better job of protecting and providing for this child than his or her birth parents can.**The Future of Children Winter 2004
23 Assessing the Degree of Attachment Damage To uphold the government’s responsibility to children in foster care, addressing children’s needs must begin at entry with initial health screening and continue with regular assessments throughout a child’s time in care.**The Future of Children Winter 2004
24 Pay Now or Pay LaterThere is clear evidence that a significant number of youth in the juvenile justice system are suffering from serious emotional and behavioral disorders.**Juvenile Offenders With Mental Health DisordersWho Are They and What Do We Do With Them? By Lisa Melanie Boesky, Ph.D.
25 Diathesis-Stress Model of Illness “Diathesis” = Being vulnerable to, or having a predisposition to, develop a particular disorder. Psychopathology is thought to result when a diathesis interacts with stressful life events, unless there are ample protective factors or resources to offset it.**Hakim-Larson & Essau, 1999, Juvenile Offenders With Mental Health Disorders… Who Are They and What Do We Do With Them?By Lisa Melanie Boesky, Ph.D.
26 Diathesis-Stress Model of Illness Mental health disorders are likely the result of a combination of juveniles’ :Inherited biological or psychological vulnerabilitiesEnvironmental stressorsEnvironmental supportsParticular abilities and coping skillsJuvenile Offenders With Mental Health Disorders… Who Are They and What Do We Do With Them? By Lisa Melanie Boesky, Ph.D.
27 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Biological influences = MR or ADHDEnvironmental influences may be more significant for youth suffering from Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.Juvenile Offenders With Mental Health Disorders… Who Are They and What Do We Do With Them? By Lisa Melanie Boesky, Ph.D.