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Struggling with Sources Struggling with Sources: The Citation Project Portrait of Composition Students’ Researched Writing August 9, 2011 Rebecca Moore.

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Presentation on theme: "Struggling with Sources Struggling with Sources: The Citation Project Portrait of Composition Students’ Researched Writing August 9, 2011 Rebecca Moore."— Presentation transcript:

1 Struggling with Sources Struggling with Sources: The Citation Project Portrait of Composition Students’ Researched Writing August 9, 2011 Rebecca Moore Howard Professor of Writing and Rhetoric Syracuse University ©2011 Sandra Jamieson and Rebecca Moore Howard

2 Principal researchers Sandra Jamieson (Drew University) Rebecca Moore Howard (Syracuse University) Contributing researchers Crystal Benedicks (Wabash College) Erin Carroll (Monmouth University) Sara B. Chaney (Dartmouth College) Kristi Murray Costello (Binghamton University) Dennis Coyle (Drew University) Christiane K. Donahue (Dartmouth College) Bess Fox (Marymount University, Virginia) TJ Geiger (Syracuse University) Jennifer Holly Wells (Drew University) Nicole Gonzales-Howell (Syracuse University) Santosh Khadka (Syracuse University) Kelly Kinney (Binghamton University) Elizabeth Kleinfeld (Metropolitan State College of Denver) Kathryn Navickas (Syracuse University) Tanya K. Rodrigue (Wheaton College) Samantha Roy (Albright College) Tricia Serviss (Auburn University) Wendy Sutherland-Smith (Deakin University, Australia) Missy Watson (Syracuse University) The Citation Project research team

3 Participating Sites Participating Sites: 16 U.S. colleges and universities From— Alabama Colorado Georgia Idaho Indiana Kansas Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Texas Washington Representing— Community colleges Ivy League institutions Liberal arts colleges Religious colleges Private colleges and universities State colleges and universities

4 Types of source use Exact copying word for word Exact copying word for word Paraphrase Restating a passage from a source in fresh language, though sometimes with keywords retained from that passage. Paraphrase Restating a passage from a source in fresh language, though sometimes with keywords retained from that passage. Summary 1.restating in fresh language (though sometimes with keywords retained from that passage) 2.and compressing by at least 50% 3.the main points of at least three or more consecutive sentences. Summary 1.restating in fresh language (though sometimes with keywords retained from that passage) 2.and compressing by at least 50% 3.the main points of at least three or more consecutive sentences. Patchwriting Copying source language while deleting or adding some words, altering some grammatical structures, or substituting some synonyms. Patchwriting Copying source language while deleting or adding some words, altering some grammatical structures, or substituting some synonyms.

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7 Preliminary insights: Issues for teaching Writing from sentences Writing from reference sources Recognizing and representing publishers

8 Preliminary insights: Issues for teaching Recognizing and representing publishers

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11 Preliminary insights: Issues for teaching Writing from reference sources Recognizing and representing publishers

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19 Preliminary insights: Issues for teaching Writing from sentences Writing from reference sources Recognizing and representing publishers

20 Paragraph from pp. 7-8, paper S03 Studies show that children, as well as parents, in low-income families have very few assets, so eliminating asset tests for coverage could increase enrollment (Cox, Ray, and Lawler). Also, states could use "presumability eligibility for pregnant women and children" covered under Medicaid or SCHIP. Through this, children or pregnant women who seem eligible for the programs can be immediately enrolled until a final determination of eligibility can be produced. To determine who "seems" eligible for health care coverage, school staff could be trained to judge who should be enrolled. Studies show that children with health insurance have fewer sick days from school, so this could "yield educational benefits" (Broaddus). With the increasing diversity and immigration status of our society, Medicaid and SCHIP should also provide information on eligibility and enrollment in many different languages, and in both documentation or letters and personal visits. In every state, many lose coverage by Medicaid and SCHIP when it is time to renew. In order to change this trend, the programs should change their period to a 12-month plan, rather than the 6- month plan now. Also, to eliminate confusion and difficulty for a family, states with separate Medicaid and SCHIP programs should coincide their renewal times and conduct renewal by mail or telephone. States with call centers, and reminder letters for renewal should increase recertification of coverage. Lastly, they should consider enforcing a grace period of about one to three months for renewal (Cox, Ray, and Lawler). Some states have finally begun to take an initiative on solving these low enrollment problems.

21 Sentence 1 Student text: Studies show that children, as well as parents, in low- income families have very few assets, so eliminating asset tests for coverage could increase enrollment (Cox, Ray, and Lawler). Source: Cox, Ray, & Lawler Studies have shown that most low-income families have few assets. Eliminating asset tests....

22 Sentences 2-3 Student text: Also, states could use "presumability eligibility for pregnant women and children" covered under Medicaid or SCHIP. Through this, children or pregnant women who seem eligible for the programs can be immediately enrolled until a final determination of eligibility can be produced. Source: Broaddus Use presumptive eligibility for children and pregnant women. This temporarily enrolls children and pregnant women in SCHIP and Medicaid as soon as they apply for benefits, pending a final eligibility determination.

23 Sentence 4 Student text: To determine who "seems" eligible for health care coverage, school staff could be trained to judge who should be enrolled. Source: Broaddus School staff could be trained in how to conduct presumptive eligibility determinations and how to carry out the necessary follow-up activities.

24 Sentence 5 Student text: Studies show that children with health insurance have fewer sick days from school, so this could "yield educational benefits" (Broaddus). Source: Broaddus In addition to helping school children gain better access to health care and prevention services, presumptive eligibility may yield educational benefits; recent research suggests that children who are insured have fewer sick days and miss school less often than children who lack health insurance.

25 Sentence 6 Student text: With the increasing diversity and immigration status of our society, Medicaid and SCHIP should also provide information on eligibility and enrollment in many different languages, and in both documentation or letters and personal visits. Sources: Broaddus ("immigration status"); Cox, Ray, & Lawler Write Letters reminding families to renew SCHIP. Go door-to-door to help families in the renewal process.... Give families materials about renewal in multiple languages.

26 Sentence 7 Student text: In every state, many lose coverage by Medicaid and SCHIP when it is time to renew. Source: Cox, Ray, & Lawler In virtually all states, many people lose Medicaid and SCHIP when it is time to renew or recertify for benefits.

27 Sentence 8 Student text: In order to change this trend, the programs should change their period to a 12-month plan, rather than the 6-month plan now. Source: Cox, Ray, & Lawler Use a 12-month recertification period to ensure that people in need of health care remain covered under Medicaid for a full year, instead of for just six months.

28 Sentence 9 Student text: Also, to eliminate confusion and difficulty for a family, states with separate Medicaid and SCHIP programs should coincide their renewal times and conduct renewal by mail or telephone. Source: Cox, Ray, & Lawler Coincide Renewal Times for Medicaid and SCHIP. In states with separate Medicaid and SCHIP programs, eliminate confusion for a single family by making the renewal times of family members who are Medicaid coincide with the renewal times for family members in SCHIP.... Conduct renewal by telephone.... Mail-in renewal.

29 Sentence 10 Student text: States with call centers, and reminder letters for renewal should increase recertification of coverage. Source: Cox, Ray, & Lawler Establish a call center in which the family is reminded of their SCHIP renewal time and can call for information. Write Letters reminding families to renew SCHIP.

30 Sentence 11 Student text: Lastly, they should consider enforcing a grace period of about one to three months for renewal (Cox, Ray, and Lawler). Source: Cox, Ray, & Lawler If simplified renewal processes exist (that is, a simpler renewal form or fewer documentation requirements at renewal than on initial application), allow applicants to re-apply through this simplified process if they re-apply within a grace period of one to three months after a missed renewal.

31 Bulleted list from Cox, Ray, & Lawler

32 Teaching paraphrase Writing Matters 16c2

33 Teaching summary Writing Matters 16c1

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38 1.Less is more. 2.Work from shared texts. 3.Work from complex texts. 4.Focus on intensive engagement with texts. 5.Teach methods for analyzing the rhetorical moves of a source. 6.Teach methods for interpreting and evaluating sources, especially Web pages. 7.Teach both shallow and deep reading—and the rhetorical occasions for both. 8.Teach paraphrase, summary, and methods for integrating them into written arguments and analyses. 9.Focus on rhetoric rather than mechanics of source use. 10.Less is more. Pedagogical principles for source-based writing instruction from the Citation Project preliminary data

39 citationproject.net

40 Associated Content vs. a scholarly article: students thought the former (which was longer) was the better


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