2Ethical DilemmaSulina just returned from a long day of shopping in another city, an hour’s drive from her home. She purchased several things and as she is unpacking her purchases, she realizes the clerk included a fifty dollar item of clothing in one of the bags that Sulina didn’t pay for. What should Sulina do about the unpaid-for purchase?
3Utilitarian TheoryA normative ethical theory where right and wrong is determined solely by the consequences of choosing one behavior or action over another. It moves beyond the scope of self-interest and takes into consideration the interests of other people. (Cavalier, 2006)
4Utilitarian Theory Values Justice: the fairest choice in the eyes of the lawFairness: wanting the best possible choice for the group as a wholeEquality: wanting everyone to have a fair choice or chanceConcern for others: wanting the best possible outcome for society as a whole
5Utilitarian Theory Vocabulary Fecundity: will more of the same follow?Purity: pleasure will not be followed by painHedonism: pursuit of or devotion to pleasure and self-gratificationUtility: concern for maximizing the value of the universeAct utilitarianismWhen faced with a choice, the principle of utility is applied to each alternativeThe right act is defined as that which brings the best results (or least amount of bad results)Rule utilitarianismThe principle of utility is used to determine the validity of rules of conduct or moral principlesRight and wrong are defined as following or breaking those rules or principles(Cavalier, 2006)
6Utilitarian Theory Contributors Jeremy Bentham ( )Developed the principle of utilityPleasure and pain play a fundamental role in human lifeApproval or disproval of an action is based on the amount of pleasure or pain its consequences bringGood equates with pleasure and evil with painPleasure and pain can be quantified and are thus measurableIntroduced criteria to measure pleasure and pain(Cavalier, 2006)
7Utilitarian Theory Contributors John Stuart Mill ( ) adjusted the hedonistic qualities of Bentham’s philosophy by emphasizing the followingThe quantity of happiness is what is central to utilitarianism not the quantity of pleasureQuantities cannot be quantified but distinctions can be made between ‘higher’ and ‘lower’ pleasureUtilitarianism refers to the Greatest Happiness Principle because it seeks to promote happiness for the most amount of people(Cavalier, 2006)
8Utilitarian Theory Strengths Utilitarians can compare past situations with what is currently happening to decide what choice is the most useful for the most people, regardless of personal feelings or the lawRule utilitarians want the best conceivable result for the most amount of people but they take into consideration people’s feelings (kindness) and they respect the law (justice), all of which is better for society
9Utilitarian Theory Criticisms As humans we are not capable of knowing the exact outcome of a situation.It is highly unlikely that all people will devote their lives to helping other people for the common good of allNot all Utilitarians are concerned with justice as long as an action benefits most peopleThere exists the potential of conflicting or counteracting laws, especially in rule utilitarianism, thus making an ethically correct answer difficult to determine (if one exists at all).
10Utilitarian Theory Sulina’s Dilemma According to Utilitarianism, Sulina should return the unpaid-for item of clothing because this would be the best possible outcome for society. As a result of this choice, Sulina would be acting in accordance with the law (justice) and could help the employee not get in trouble for his/her mistake (kindness).
11Rights TheoryA right is a justified claim that individuals or groups can make upon others wherein the right of one implies the duties of another. Typically moral rights have four features; natural, universal, equal, and inalienable.(Fieser, 2009)In rights theory, rights are determined to be ethically correct and valid because the majority of people accept them as so. As a result, society protects these rights and gives them high priority.(Rainbow, 2002)
12Rights Theory Values Justice: each person gets what s/he deserves Rights: a justified claim that individuals or groups can make upon others or societyDuty: an obligation one person has to anotherEquality: rights are the same for all people, regardless of gender, race, etc.Validity: having a premise from which a conclusion may logically derived
13Rights Theory Vocabulary Right: a justified claim that individuals or groups can make upon others or society(Edwards, 2003)Correlativity of rights and duties: the rights of one person imply the duties of anotherFeatures of moral rightsNatural: not invented or created by governmentUniversal: are the same across different societiesEqual: rights are the same for all peopleInalienable: cannot give our rights over to another person(Cavalier, 2006)
14Rights Theory Contributors Thomas Hobbes ( )Conceived natural rights as an extension of man’s “state of nature” and argued the essential human right was to use power as a means of self-preservationFurther stipulated that humans won’t follow the laws of nature without first being subjected to a sovereign powerJohn Locke ( ) argued that our natural rights, laws of nature given to us by God, shouldn’t harm anyone’s life, health, liberty, or possessionsImmanuel Kant ( ) claimed to derive natural rights from reason aloneThomas Jefferson ( ) maintained that we derive more specific rights from our natural ones, including rights of property, movement, speech, and religious expression(Fieser, 2009)
15Rights Theory Strengths Rights provide protection for life, health, liberty, and property and thus provide a moral framework for lawMoral, legal, and institutional rules are developed to distinguish valid rights from those which are invalidRights and duties are correlative which provides clarity for actionThis theory is widely accepted and therefore can provide a common basis for discussing ethical problems(Edwards, 2003)
16Rights Theory Criticisms This theory is complicated by the fact that society has to determine what rights to uphold and what rights to give its citizensDetermining rights requires society to first decide what its goals and ethical priorities areAs a result, rights theory must be used in addition to another which establishes and explains the goals and priorities of society(Rainbow, 2002)
17Rights Theory Sulina’s Dilemma According to Rights Theory, Sulina should bring the unpaid-for item of clothing back to the store. She should do this because society’s goal is to have working order and no theft. Sulina should bring the item back because she did not pay for it. Furthermore, the employee has a right to make an honest mistake and it follows that Sulina has a duty to inform the employee of his/her mistake so s/he can learn from the experience and not make the same mistake again.
18Fairness/Justice Theory The theory of justice as fairness and a form of social contract theory. Essentially, in the original position, behind the veil of ignorance, the rational choice of fundamental principles for society would be those which provide the highest minimum standards of justice for all people. (Kay, 1997)
19Fairness/Justice Theory Values Fairness: the ability to make specific judgments about something particular; the ability to judge without referring to feelings or interestsJustice: giving each person what s/he deserves (i.e. “their due”); used to refer to a standard of what is rightLiberty: the freedom from control and restrictionsEquality: the existence of being equal to others
20Fairness/Justice Theory Vocabulary Equal Liberty PrincipleWhen someone has more of something it means someone else has lost an equivalent amountOne principle of justice = equalityVeil of ignoranceNot knowing who we are or where our standing in the social hierarchy isMain distinguishing feature of the original positionOriginal position: a fair and impartial perspective required to reason about the principles of justiceDifference PrincipleBehind a veil of ignorance we try to make sure that any inequalities which arise bring those least well-off, up as far as possibleA second, more subtle principle of justice(Weston, 2008, p )
21Fairness/Justice Theory Contributors John Rawls ( )Author of the classic work A Theory of Justice where he developed the concept of justice as fairnessKey components of his theory include the veil of ignorance and original positionBoth integral in determining the construction of a fair society without any preconceived notions or prejudices(Wenar, 2012)Envisioned a society of free citizens holding basic equal rights cooperating with one another within an egalitarian system Fairness regardless of social status is emphasizedConservatives have argued that the American political system gives everyone an equal chance and that most would choose this system from behind a veil of ignorance(Travis, 2010)
22Fairness/Justice Theory Strengths The two principles of justice (Equal Liberty Principle and the Difference Principle) mean that everyone benefits from cooperationThese principals also ensure a sense of self-respect (an important good) through the respect for others(Chilton, 2005)
23Fairness/Justice Theory Criticisms People cannot really forget who they are and what society is like, thus any conclusions reached from the original position or from behind the veil of ignorance will be influenced by self-interestPrimary concern is social institutions and the equal distribution of goods
24Fairness/Justice Theory Sulina’s Dilemma According to one interpretation of this theory, Sulina would bring the unpaid-for item back to the store. She would put her feelings aside as well as any thoughts of what she has to gain by keeping the item, and look at the situation from behind a veil of ignorance. Essentially she would take a step back and try to consider the situation from the perspective of what would she do if she didn’t know which side of the issue she were on – the person given an extra item or the employee who has made a mistake. After thoughtful consideration she would decide that the just and fair thing to do is bring the item back.
25Care Based TheoryThe moral concern of attending to and meeting the needs of people we take responsibility for. This theory values the emotions and relational capabilities which help the morally concerned person – the caregiver – determine what would be in the best interest of the person(s) s/he is caring for. (Bagnoli, 2006)
26Care Based Theory Values Concern for others : looking out for the welfare of others and loving them as we love ourselvesRelationship: being connected to another personResponsibility: having the duty of dealing with something; being accountable for our behaviorBest interest of others: being responsible for taking action we think is the most advantageous for others in any given situation
27Care Based Theory Vocabulary Interdependence: a reciprocal relationship between at least two individuals who depend on one another to get their needs metCaring for: face-to-face encounters where one person takes care of anotherCaring about: something more general that takes us into the public realmAn example: caring about people who are going hungry and wanting to do something about it, like start a food pantryAccording to Noddings, this is the foundation upon which our sense of justice is built on(Smith, 2004)
28Care Based Theory Contributors Nel Noddings (1929-present)In her first major work Caring (1984) she explores a “feminine approach to ethics and moral education”Believes care is basic to all human life and all people want to be cared forAlso asserts that women are guided by ‘natural’ caring and this is a significant aspect of their experiencesConcludes ‘natural’ care is essentially a moral attitude – “a longing for goodness that arises out of the experience or memory of being cared for”More recently has highlighted the differences between the ‘caring for’ and the ‘caring about’Argues ‘caring about’ needs more attention because it is a significant force in societyConcludes ‘caring about’ is “the foundation for our sense of justice”(Smith, 2004)
29Care Based Theory Contributors Carol Gilligan (1936-present)Founder of “difference feminism”Believes women have different moral and psychological tendencies than menMen think in terms of rules and justiceWhereas women tend to think in terms of caring and relationshipsOutlines three stages of moral development that women go throughMoral thinking begins with selfishnessThe “conventional” middle stage is the opposite: self-sacrificeFinal stage is where women find a balance between self and others and understand how they are intertwined with others (i.e. an ethics of relationships)(Weston, 2008, p.200)
30Care Based Theory Strengths Highlights the fact that people, especially women, think about others in a humane and caring wayThe validity of emotions, feelings, and virtues in ethics is recognizedParticular attention is given to the family and has brought the home to the forefront of moral discourseStarts its reasoning from the moral obligation to meet the needs of others instead from some universal principle(Noda, 2001)
31Care Based Theory Criticisms The concept of care, which is central to the ethics of care, is vague and may require an external principle to determine whether the care is right or wrongCare ethics cannot solve the problem of the conflicts of virtues, a problem in all virtue ethicsThere isn’t a mechanism to deal with feelings of vengeance(Noda, 2001)
32Care Based Theory Sulina’s Dilemma According to this theory, Sulina should take the unpaid-for item back to the store. This decision is based on Sulina’s desire to do what is in the best interest of the employee who mistakenly gave her an unpaid-for item. Sulina doesn’t want the employee to get into any trouble for his/her mistake and wants to continue to have a good customer-employee relationship.
33Virtue TheoryThis theory is based on traits. It is the belief that virtues are the kinds of character traits we should seek and sustain, perhaps because they originate from something deep within human nature or the world. It is thought that there exists a relationship between virtues and happiness: maybe virtues make us happy simply because they are virtues. (Weston, 2008, p.173)
34Virtue Theory ValuesCommitment: being dedicated to a particular behavior or course of actionRational self-regulationThe ability to discern an appropriate response or course of action when faced with extreme emotion or behaviorThe ability to follow the middle path, that of moderation
35Virtue Theory Vocabulary VirtuesThe appropriate, rational middle between extremes of emotion, behavior, or actionCharacter traits that allow us to act in ways that develop positive and good morals, values, and attitudeHabit that once acquired become characteristic of a personViceExcessive emotion , behavior, or actionA practice, behavior, or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in societyExamples are insensitivity, discontent, insatiability, willful ignorance, denial, and bad temperDefect: too little emotion, behavior, or action(Weston, 2008, p )
36Virtue Theory Contributors Aristotle ( BCE)Believed everything in the world has a distinct and essential function, a function which in turn determines its admirable traits (i.e. virtues)Suggested the characteristic which defines human function is rational self-regulation, the function which in turn determines our moral virtues(Weston, 2008, p.174)
37Virtue Theory Contributors Saint Thomas Aquinas ( )Borrowed Aristotle’s “logic of virtue”Derived virtue from human activity or functionHowever, understood human activity in very different termsAccording to Aquinas, “reason is not an end in itself”Rather, reason is a means to better understand ourselves and GodBelieves our ultimate purpose is “communion with God, as far as we can achieve it in this life”Added the virtues of faith, hope, and charity to the “natural” virtues like justice and temperance(Weston, 2008, p )
38Virtue Theory Strengths Virtues are beneficial and not just because they’re admirable traits; virtues are valuableThey’re socially and ethically valuable and seen as positive characteristics of peopleThey’re valuable because of the good or positive consequences they tend to bring with themWe should cultivate virtuous dispositions because such dispositions tend to maximize benefits and positive outlooks of people
39Virtue Theory Criticisms There exists a potential difficulty in establishing the nature of virtuesPeople from different cultures and societies often have differing opinions on what constitutes a virtueVirtues are considered ideal character traits and may conflict with one another
40Virtue Theory Sulina’s Dilemma According to Virtue Theory, Sulina should return the item of clothing that she didn’t pay for but was mistakenly placed in her shopping bag. Returning the item would make her a morally good and virtuous individual. By returning the item, she would appear honest and caring, character traits which are deeply valued in our society.
41Divine Command“What’s good is good because God says so. God’s commanding something defines it as good” (Weston, 2008, p.49). Divine Command essentially teaches that something (i.e. action, behavior, choice, etc.) is good because God demands it to be done and evil because God forbids it to be done. Thus, to say it is good to love our neighbors is semantically equivalent to saying God Commands us to love our neighbors. Similarly, it is evil to commit murder because God forbids us to murder.
42Divine Command ValuesTrust: faith; the belief that God and his commandments are goodFaith: reliance that if He commands it, it is goodCourage: resolution to what God deems is good even if it goes against our valuesCommitment: obligation to follow God’s willLoyalty: consistent allegiance to God’s willFortitude: courage to do God’s will
43Divine Command Vocabulary Divine: transcendent or transcendental powerReligion: views established with symbols, beliefs, spirituality, and moral valuesMorality: the difference between right and wrongMoral absolution: the ethical view which states certain actions are absolutely right or wrong
44Divine Command Contributors Augustine ( )Believed ethics to be the pursuit of supreme good, which provides the happiness that all humans are looking forClaimed the way to obtain this happiness is to love the right objects in the right way and this requires we love GodThus, according to Augustine, our love of God helps us love everything else in a way proportional to their value(Austin, 2006)
45Divine Command Contributors Immanuel Kant( )Claimed the requirements of morality are too much for us to bear alone so we must believe in the existence of God who will help us live moral livesAlso believed that being moral does not guarantee happiness, so we must believe in a God who will reward the morally righteous with happinessDid not use his concept of faith as an argument for Divine Command Theory, but contemporaries could use his reasoning to do so(Austin, 2006)
46Divine Command Strengths Provides an objective metaphysical foundation for moralityGood and bad are relevant to God and our sense of what is good or bad corresponds to God’s sense of good and badThose who do evil will be punished and those who live moral lives will be vindicated and even rewarded(Austin, 2006)
47Divine Command Criticisms Morality based entirely on God’s whim makes morality arbitraryWe are morally blind and have no direct knowledge of good and evil, so have to rely solely upon God and His guidanceIt is contingent upon the existence of a person’s religion and beliefs
48Divine Command Sulina’s Dilemma According to this theory, Sulina would need to return the item because keeping something that does not rightfully belong to her is stealing; even though it was mistakenly put in her bag, she did not pay for it. One of God’s commandments states “thou shalt not steal”. In other words, God forbids stealing, making it wrong and as a result, Sulina must return the item
49Natural Law TheoryMoral perspective: the moral standards which govern human behavior derive from the nature of human beings and the nature of the worldLegal perspective: the authority of legal standards derives from the consideration their moral merit
50Natural Law Theory Values Justice: conformity to moral rightness in action or attitudeObedience: compliance with that which is required and subject to rightful restraint or controlRights: we much respect the rights of othersResponsibility: that for which someone is responsible or answerableSelf-discipline: making ourselves do things when we should, even if we don’t want toLaw abiding: abiding by the rules of society
51Natural Law Theory Vocabulary Self preservation: behavior that ensures the survival of an organismMoral judgment: evaluations or opinions formed as to whether some action or inaction, intention, motive, character trait, or person as a whole is more or less good or bad as measured against some standard of goodLegal norm: a mandatory rule of social behavior established by the state
52Natural Law Theory Contributors Thomas Aquinas ( )Catholic priest and an important philosopher and theologianHis goal was to make people good by following the order that exists in nature, obeying what nature has taught all animals, and by pursuing inclinations and tendencies of human reasonBelieved a person does anything and everything because that ‘thing’ at least appears to be good(Garrett, n.d.)
53Natural Law Theory Contributors Hugo Grotius ( )Defined natural law as a perceptive judgment in which things are good or bad by their own natureLaw is what God has shown to be His willBelieved God to be an active, creative God, persistent in the management and application of Divine or natural lawBelieved that human nature, including traits of reason, are divine gifts from God(Miller, 2011)
54Natural Law Theory Strengths Natural law is based on reason and is a “clear-cut” ethical theoryAttempts to connect ethics to the general structure of the universeIt is not based on feelings or emotions but on the mind working out what is natural, according to a rational processFor both the religious and non-religious, making a moral judgment is a matter of listening to one’s reasonThere is no need to look at an individual’s situation to determine what is right and wrong, it’s straightforward
55Natural Law Theory Criticisms What happens when it contradicts Christian teachings?Jesus taught us to ‘turn the other cheek’ when abusedNatural Law suggests we have a right to self-preservationShows what a moral life should be like, on the assumption we are rational beings living in a world designed by a rational creatorIf this is challenged, so is the theoryDo really know what our purpose is?The idea of a single human nature is rejected by manyHow do we decide what is natural and normal?
56Natural Law Theory Sulina’s Dilemma Sulina knows that the extra item does not belong to her. Natural law states that deep down inside herself, Sulina knows the right thing to do – return the unpaid-for item. However, the moral perspective of natural theory also says we make our own choices, thus giving Sulina the choice to do what natural law says or not.
57Ethical RelativismThe belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong because the definition of what is right or what is wrong depends on the view of the individual, cultural, or historical period.
58Ethical Relativism Values Loving kindness: treat others the way you want to be treatedAccountability: taking responsibility for your behaviorCare for others: feeling and exhibiting concern and empathy for othersHonesty: fairness and straightforwardness of conductFairness: consistent with rules, logic, or ethics
59Ethical Relativism Vocabulary Prevailing view: the view shared by most people of a group or ‘the most commonly accepted view’Primitive notion: an undefined conceptEthical universals: a set of principles which apply to all humans
60Ethical Relativism Contributors Immanuel Kant ( )Formulated a standard that would identify moral lawsBelieved generations that failed this test would contain a logical contradiction or would somehow be self-defeating(Ess, n.d.)G. E. Moore ( )Believed the term ‘good’ was a primitive notion and could not be analyzed into partsConcluded that ‘good’ referred to a “non-natural” property of thingsMelville Herskovits ( )Believed evaluations are relative to the culture they come fromBelieved there might be ethical universals that were the same across cultures(DeLapp, 2011)
61Ethical Relativism Strengths Encourages tolerance of other culturesPromotes respect for other individuals and societiesHelps keep societies from falling apartAllows individuals to choose their own values
62Ethical Relativism Criticisms Confuses what should be done with what is currently being doneNo universals or absolutesThere can be no moral progressUpholds morality of things like slavery, sexism, and racism as long as the culture accepts them
63Ethical Relativism Selena’s Dilemma According to this theory, Sulina’s decision to keep or return the unpaid for item is not objectively right or wrong, but instead depends on what she values and society supports. In this case, Sulina values honesty, a trait that is also valued in society. As a result, the right thing for her to do is return the unpaid-for item.
64Social Contract Theory Sulina’s Dilemma According to Social Contract Theory, Sulina has willfully agreed to follow the laws of society and to hold herself accountable for her behaviors. As a result, she will return the unpaid-for item; keeping it would essentially be stealing, which is in violation of the law. Furthermore, she would not want the employee who mistakenly put the item in her bag, to get in any trouble, as another key tenet of Social Contract Theory is preserving our rights and freedoms by cooperating with other individuals.
65Ethical Egoism Sulina’s Dilemma According to Ethical Egoism, Sulina has the personal freedom decide whether or not she will return the unpaid-for item. On one hand she could keep it, which at first glance appears to be in her best interest – she has a shirt she didn’t have to pay for; however, with the freedom to choose comes the obligation to allow others this same right. And furthermore, ethical egoism also states it is in Sulina’s best interest to look long-term at how her actions affect other people. If Sulina keeps the shirt, other people in the same situation may do the same, and over time this could lead to a price increase which is not in the best interest of anyone. As a result, Sulina returns the unpaid-for item.
66ReferencesAustin, M. (2006). Divine command theory. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from divine-c/. Bagnoli, C. (2006, June 4). The ethics of care: Personal, political, global [Review of the book The ethics of care: Personal, political, global]. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Retrieved from Cavalier, R. (2002). Utilitarian Theories. In Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy. Retrieved from cavalier/80130/part2/sect9.html. Chilton, S. (2005). Notes on John Rawls a theory of justice. Retrieved from Rawls.ATheoryOfJustice.full.html. DeLapp (2011). Metaethics. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from
67ReferencesEdwards, C. (2003). An assessment of rights theory in a specific health care context. Retrieved from Ess (n.d.). Three approaches to Kant. Retrieved from Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from Garrett, J. (n.d.). Aquinas on law. Retrieved from Kay, C. (1997). Justice as fairness. Retrieved from Miller, J. (2011). Hugo Grotius. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from Noda, K. (2011). An ethics of care from a unificationist perspective. Journal of Unification Studies, 12. Retrieved from
68ReferencesRainbow, C. (2002). Descriptions of ethical theories and principles. Retrieved from edu/people/kabernd/Indep/carainbow/Theories. htm. Smith, M. (2004). Nel Noddings, the ethics of care, and education. Retrieved from thinkers/noddings.htm. Travis, C. (2010, March 12). Explanation of John Rawls theory of justice. Retrieved from Wenar, L. (2012). John Rawls. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from entries/rawls/. Weston, A. (2008). A 21st century ethical toolbox (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.