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Economics of Gender Chapter 3 Assist.Prof.Dr.Meltem INCE YENILMEZ.

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Presentation on theme: "Economics of Gender Chapter 3 Assist.Prof.Dr.Meltem INCE YENILMEZ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Economics of Gender Chapter 3 Assist.Prof.Dr.Meltem INCE YENILMEZ

2 Globalization United Nations definition: The removal of barriers to increase the flow of capital between and within nations Globalization impacts women and men differently 1995 United Nations Conference on Women – Twelve critical issues – Poverty was #1 – Education, health, employment

3 Women, Globalization, and Development United Nations Development Program – Working to reduce gender gap in human capability – Women and girls worldwide are more likely to live in poverty, be illiterate, be unemployed, and engage in unpaid labor

4 Women, Globalization, and Development, cont. Impacts of globalization on women – Lack access to technology – Decline of subsistence farming – Men travel to cities for higher-paying jobs – Women’s unpaid labor is discounted – Women have fewer employment options

5 A Model of Women and Development Global stratification system Capitalism and colonialism are intertwined Economic definitions of productivity should account for women’s unpaid labor Draw from Sociology, anthropology, economics and the affected community Challenge a patriarchal status quo

6 Russia The collapse of the Soviet Union brought hope of capitalism and democracy In Russia’s economic transition women have lost resources and power – Gender discrimination and stereotypes in employment – Double burden – Lack of affordable birth control – Feminism is identified as communism

7 China: Before the Chinese Revolution Confucian principle of male authority Females were seen as inferior and their lives were greatly restricted Arranged marriages Young couple lived with husband’s family Bride was duty bound to all male relatives and to mother-in-law Subordination of women – Footbinding

8 China: After the Chinese Revolution Marriage Law of 1950 – Free-choice marriage – Both genders gained equal rights to divorce – Eliminated the practices of child brides, bride price, concubinage, plural marriage, restrictions on remarriage of widows – Some resistance on the part of traditional males – Difficult to enforce

9 China: After the Chinese Revolution, cont. The One-Child Policy – To reduce population growth – Penalties Reward for one-child must be returned Excess child levy Loss of bonus and raises at work – Not strictly enforced in rural areas or for wealthy families – Son preference has led to unbalanced sex ratio Female infanticide, neglect, and abandonment

10 Market-Driven Development Women’s employment has increased Special Economic Zones High levels of internal migration Disruption to rural families Gender segregation in employment Women are paid less

11 India Second most populous nation Hinduism & Laws of Manu – Legitimized gender inequality Inhumane treatment of women – Sati – Child marriage – Lack of property rights – Purdah

12 The Gender Gap in Human Development Half of Indian women are illiterate Indian women lack education and employment Less healthy and more likely to be in poverty Son preference High maternal infant mortality High rates of HIV

13 Feminism in an Indian Context Revitalized women’s movement led by NGOs Efforts to combat AIDS Outreach programs for poor women and families Women are becoming more involved in local government

14 Japan The Occupation, 1945 Showa Constitution, 1947 – Provided for equal rights of women Protectionist laws served to inhibit women’s advancement and stereotyped women Equal Employment Opportunity Law, 1986 – No viable enforcement Gender Equity Bureau, 1994 – Clashed with cultural attitudes

15 Marriage and the Family Perceived incompatibility between work and family roles for women Socialization into traditional gender roles Japanese female labor force participation declined in 20 th century Women’s identity as mother is primary Japan has lowest rates of fertility and highest life expectancy in the world

16 Latin America Political, ecological, and cultural diversity Common features are rigid class structure, Catholicism, znd heritage Gender divide – Machismo Virility, sexual prowess, male dominance, and violence – Marianismo Glorification of motherhood, stoic acceptance of difficult lives, moral superiority

17 Latin American Women, Globalization, and Development Increasing foreign investments have eroded the success of subsistence farming Men migrate to cities Dependency Theory – Unequal relationship between Latin America and world markets – Unequal relationship between men and women

18 Israel Religion – Strong patriarchal roots – Family and home is the focus for women – Until 1970s they were child-centered, egalitarian, agricultural collectives – Children were all raised together – Parents shared instrumental and expressive roles – Now they have moved toward family-centered approach – Gender segregation and job segregation increased

19 Israel, cont. Education – No gender gap in education – Higher education for both genders is encouraged Workplace – Occupational gender segregation – More unemployment for women – Equal Opportunity Law, 1988 – Lax enforcement – Women do not challenge the discrimination

20 The Muslim World Religious fundamentalist interpretations of the Qur’an endorse the inferior status of women Countermodernism and Islamization as a remedy against corrupt Western values Religion and the State are inseparable

21 Islamization in Afghanistan Women are denied: – Reproductive rights – Education – Paid employment – Health care – Cannot go out in public alone Women face severe punishment for infractions – Beatings, amputations, death

22 Islamization in Iran Women’s lives are not as harsh as in Afghanistan Receive medical care in women’s facilities Receive gender-segregated education Under control of fathers or husbands May run for public office Make up half of university students

23 The Arab Middle-East More modern in views of women Opportunities are increasing in education, employment, literacy, political reform in: – Saudi Arabia – Egypt – Jordan – Kuwait – Palestine

24 Scandinavia Scandinavian countries have the best record for gender parity in economic participation, education, political power, and health and survival Gender perspective is central to political decisions in Norway In Sweden, men’s roles are changing Social programs leading to gender equity are costly


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