Presentation on theme: "Women, peace and security concepts, mandates and the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security."— Presentation transcript:
Women, peace and security concepts, mandates and the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security
Outline of the presentation What is the situation of women and men in times of peace? What is the current peace and conflict situation in the country? How does conflict affect women and men? What has been done so far in addressing women’s issues and concerns in the context of conflict?
What is sex and gender? Sex Natural, biological characteristics of being a man or a woman Physical attributes pertaining to a person’s chromosomes, body contour, features, genitals, hormones, genes, chromosomes and reproductive organs (Social construction of) Gender Socially differentiated roles, characteristics and expectations attributed by culture to women and men. Social behaviour of women and men and the relationship between them. May vary according to age, class, race, ethnicity, religion and other beliefs and ideologies, socio-economic and political environments
Building blocks to gender analysis (1): Gender division of labour Reproductive rolesProductive rolesCommunity managing roles Community politics roles Child bearing and rearing responsibilities Work being done for pay in cash or in kind Activities at the community level to ensure accomplishment of reproductive roles Activities at the community level that are within the frame of local and national politics; provides status or power in the community UnpaidPaidUsually unpaidCan be paid or unpaid Usually attributed to women Men are usually expected to do productive roles Women are paid lower than their male counterparts Voluntarily undertaken by women Usually done by men
Building blocks to gender analysis (2): Practical and strategic gender needs Practical gender needsStrategic gender needs Formulated from concrete conditionsFormulated by an analysis of women’s subordination in society Do not challenge the subordinate position of women Challenge the nature of the relationship of men and women May include: Water Health care Income for household Housing and basic services Family food provision May include: Alleviation of burden of domestic work and child care Rights to land or property Access to credit and other resources Freedom of choice over child bearing Measures against violence
Building blocks to gender analysis (3): Manifestations of gender bias Manifestations of gender bias Description Multiple burdenPerformance of multiple roles despite limited time, energy and resources Gender stereotyping Assigning unquestioned and unexamined roles, beliefs and perceptions on women and men MarginalizationRelegating women and men in traditionally acceptable activities, connected with gender division of labour SubordinationLower status attributed, most especially to women, brought about by gender stereotyping Gender-based violence Any harm inflicted against a person’s will. Maybe physically, sexual, psychological, economic or socio- cultural (see also RA 9262 or Anti-VAWC Law)
Building blocks to gender analysis (4): Levels of empowerment Levels of empowerment Description WelfareLevel of women’s material welfare (income, food, health care) relative to men AccessLevel of women’s access to factors of production (land, labour, credit, training, market facilities, etc.) on an equal basis with men. ConscientizationLevel of conscious understanding of the difference between sex and gender and that gender division of labour should be fair and agreeable to both sexes ParticipationLevel of women’s equal participation in decision-making processes, policy-making, planning and administration ControlLevel of women’s control over the decision-making process
Such inequalities are exacerbated in times of conflict. In times of peace, there are already existing inequalities between women and men.
Differentiating conflict, violence and armed conflict Conflict – A state of affairs wherein 2 or more key players have or perceive that they have opposed goals – May be handled constructively or destructively Violence – Is one way of handling conflict – A destructive means of pursuing one’s goals Armed conflict – A state of affairs where key players in a conflict relationship engage in violent acts that are purposefully enacted to hurt other key players
CAR Bicol-Quezon-Mindoro Samar Island CARAGA- Compostela Valley- Davao Corridor Negros-Panay Island Central Mindanao and ARMM ZamBaSulTa Bangsamoro Fronts Closure Area: CBA-CPLA Closure Area: RPMP/RPA/ABB Areas Affected by the CPP/NPA/NDF
How does conflict affect women and men? During conflict situations Elements of conflict situationsPossible gender dimensions Mobilization of people for conflict. Everyday life and work disrupted. With men’s mobilization for combat, women have often taken over traditionally male occupations and responsibilities. Women have challenged traditional gender stereotypes by becoming combatants and taking on non-traditional roles. Material shortagesWomen’s role as provider of everyday family needs may mean increased stress and work as basic goods are more difficult to locate. Non-combatant men may also experience stress related to their domestic gender roles if they are expected, but unable to provide for their families. Gender Equality and Peacebuilding: An Operational Framework, 2001
How does conflict affect women and men? During conflict situations Elements of conflict situationsPossible gender dimensions Psychological trauma, physical violence, casualties and death Women and girls are often victims of sexual violence during times of conflict. Social networks disrupted and destroyed – changes in family structures and composition Gender relations can be subject to stress and change. The traditional division of labor within a family may change for survival. Women may become responsible for an increased number of dependents. Gender Equality and Peacebuilding: An Operational Framework, 2001
How does conflict affect women and men? During conflict situations Elements of conflict situationsPossible gender dimensions Creation of refugees and displaced people Women and men refugees (as well as boys and girls) often have different needs and priorities. Scarcity of employment or income- generating opportunities in the camps increases vulnerability of women and children for trafficking Gender Equality and Peacebuilding: An Operational Framework, 2001
How does conflict affect women and men? Families may struggle to surmount the debts they have incurred, to rebuild homes and businesses, to recuperate from ill health, and to return children to schools. IDPs who settle with kin or host communities or in temporary makeshift camps may have little access to services provided by the government and international organizations. The Asia Foundation, 2010
How does conflict affect women and men? Many women complain of lack of privacy for bathing or dressing and the constant presence of unknown armed men in IDP camps. Lack of food, clean water and sanitary facilities promotes diseases with diarrheal illnesses and pneumonia as major causes of IDP deaths. The Asia Foundation, 2010
How does conflict affect women and men? Many lacked privacy and felt unsafe at night because of the lack of electricity (no lights) and the passing through of military in the camps. (WASH, July 2009) Displaced women often become source of extremely cheap labour and the money they make is often below the minimum necessary to survive. The adverse impact of forced displacement on women’s physical and mental health and livelihoods affects their diet, which is of special significance when accompanying pregnancies and motherhood. IDMC, June 2011
How does conflict affect women and men? Young men in conflict- affected areas of Mindanao are forced to take on adult roles and responsibilities many of them are not ready for. Widespread firearms and constant insecurity encourage young boys to carry arms. Armed groups use children in their ranks, mostly for non-combat duties, despite all groups maintaining a policy of non-recruitment of children for direct hostilities. IDMC, June 2011
How does conflict affect women and men? During reconstruction and rehabilitation Elements of conflict situations Possible gender dimensions Political negotiations and planning to implement peace accords Men’s and women’s participation in these process tends to vary, with women often playing only minor roles in formal negotiations or policy making Demobilization of combatants Combatants often assumed to be male. If priority is granted to young men, women do not benefit from land allocation, credit, etc. Gender Equality and Peacebuilding: An Operational Framework, 2001
CEDAW (1979) - International Bill of Rights for Women - General Recommendation 30 (2013): on women in conflict prevention, conflict and post- conflict situations Beijing Platform for Action (1995) 12 Critical Areas of Concern including ‘women and armed conflict’ and ‘the girl-child’ International Criminal Court (1998) VAW in armed conflict (e.g. rape and sexual violence) recognized as - war crimes - crimes against humanity - crimes constitutive of genocide UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security (2000-present) Progressive Gender-Sensitive Developments in IHRL and IHL
International Legal and Normative Frames on WPS United Nations Security Council Resolutions UNSCR 1325 (2000) UNSCR 1820 (2008) UNSCR 1888 (2009) UNSCR 1889 (2009) UNSCR 1960 (2010) UNSCR 2106 (2013) UNSCR 2122 (2013) Women’s participation in peacebuilding, peacekeeping and peacemaking Prevention of and protection from sexual violence
NAP-WPS around the world http://www.peacewomen.org/naps/
What is the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (NAP)? Adopted in 2010 Response to UNSCRs 1325 and 1820 and anchored on Republic Act 9710 or Magna Carta of Women Contains two main pillars stated in UNSCRs 1325 and 1820, with indicators: – Protection and Prevention – Empowerment and Participation Contains two support pillars, with indicators: – Promotion and Mainstreaming – Monitoring and Evaluation
National Law Basis Bill of Rights of Filipino women Translation of CEDAW into Philippine context Contains provisions on protection from violence in situations of armed conflict and militarization, women affected by crisis situations, women in the military
National Policy Basis Chapter 8 on Peace and Development (updated) -“Human security is the ultimate aim of national security.” -Ensure women’s participation in the peace process (Track 1) and in conflict resolution, peacebuilding, and post-conflict rehabilitation (grassroots) -“Strengthen capabilities and skills of security forces and services delivery agents to respond to sexual and gender-based violence in affected areas, and be able to provide victims with appropriate support.” -“Mainstreaming of conflict- sensitive, peacebuilding, and gender-sensitive lens.”
NAP WPS NSC and PAMANA Partners/Implementing Agencies National Steering Committee on Women, Peace and Security Office of the Presidential Adviser in the Peace Process (OPAPP) --- Chair Philippine Commission on Women (PCW) --- Vice-Chair Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Department of Justice (DOJ) Department of National Defense (DND) Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP) National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) PAMANA Implementing Agencies Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Department of Agriculture (DA) Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) Department of Health (DOH) Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Philippine Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) Technical Educational Services Development Authority (TESDA) National Electrification Administration (NEA)
NAP strengthens the gender mainstreaming strategy of the government, particularly in the context of peacebuilding. NAP programs, activities and projects (PAPs) should be present in GAD Plans and Budgets and GAD Accomplishment Reports.
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