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The United Nations Development Fund for Women 1 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia Workshop Day 2 21-23 May 2003 Funded by UNDP-PGE and UN-ESCAP.

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Presentation on theme: "The United Nations Development Fund for Women 1 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia Workshop Day 2 21-23 May 2003 Funded by UNDP-PGE and UN-ESCAP."— Presentation transcript:

1 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 1 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia Workshop Day May 2003 Funded by UNDP-PGE and UN-ESCAP Organized by UNDP-PGE and UNIFEM

2 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 2 Review of Day 1 Teena & Chhorvy

3 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 3 Review Questions  What did you like about the session yesterday?  What is the link between gender & statistics?  What is not so clear?

4 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 4 Lecture Lorraine

5 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 5 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia Engendered data covers all activities carried out by women & men

6 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 6 Human activities include  Economic (market) activities – paid & unpaid labour force activities  Unpaid household & family non-market activities  Personal services (non-market)

7 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 7 Paid economic (market) activities  Wage labour  Own account workers  Formal sector  Informal sector  Employers

8 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 8 Unpaid economic (market) activities  Unpaid work on family enterprises  Subsistence production  Production for own consumption  Collection of free goods – water, fuel

9 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 9 Unpaid household & family (non- market) activities  Domestic services – cooking, cleaning, laundry  Care-related work – child care, care of the elderly  Voluntary work – community service

10 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 10 Personal services (non-market)  Third party definition  Activities that CANNOT be done for you by someone else  eg. eating  rest  recreation  learning  enjoying entertainment

11 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 11 Group work Teena & Lorraine – Movement Flip Charts

12 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 12 Small Group Discussion  Form 5 groups & identify human activities that:  can move from market to household (non-market) [Group 1]  can move from household (non-market) to market [Group 2]  cannot move from market to household (non-market) [Group 3]  cannot move from household (non-market) to market [Group 4]  can move from personal services to the market [Group 5]  Discuss for 15 minutes  Write examples on cards & post on group flip chart  Review all 5 flip charts individually (5 minutes)

13 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 13 Plenary Report Back Synthesis Lorraine

14 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 14 Activity boundaries are not fixed MarketHousehold Non-market Personal Services       ??

15 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 15 Key Points  Activities can move from market to non- market  Activities can move from non-market to market  Very few activities cannot move  heavy industry stays in market  conjugal love stays in the family  The same activity could be non-market at one time or for one person and market in another time or for another person

16 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 16 Where are women? Where are men? Market activities Household activities Personal services

17 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 17 Lecture Lorraine

18 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 18 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia Gender analysis of activity shifts (changes in division of labour)

19 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 19 Development changes gender-based division of activities  Traditional gender roles  Men are breadwinners – market  Women are housewives & mothers – household  Women move into the market  Smaller increase in men’s household work  Double burden for women: household & family + market  Women have less time:  for personal services  participation in other activities  access to programmes & services

20 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 20 Macro-economic policies change gender- based division of labour  Macro policies designed to affect the market  But may shift activities between market & household  Recession/economic liberalization/privatisation  cuts in public expenditure  cuts in social expenditure – health, education etc  Market services replaced by households (women)

21 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 21  Most statistical systems provide limited data on household sector and personal services  Therefore, statistical systems  Do not capture movement between market & non-market  Do not equally capture the activities of women & men

22 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 22 Informal group work Lorraine

23 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 23 Informal group exercise As you are seated, form groups of three and discuss:  What are the negative effects when the statistical system does not provide data on:  all 3 kinds of activities of both women and men; and  the movement between market and households?

24 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 24 Synthesis Lorraine

25 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 25 Statistics must be engendered Engendering requires that statistics 1.Are disaggregated by sex All individual data must be:  Presented by sex  Analyzed by sex market and non-market activities 2.Cover both market and non-market activities of women and men 3.?? engendered statistics The resulting data can be called engendered statistics

26 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 26 Lecture Lorraine

27 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 27 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia Time use surveys provide data on all activities of women and men

28 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 28 Time use data  Records time used in various activities  Paid work  Unpaid work  Household maintenance  Childcare  Rest  Personal services  Usually collected for 24 hour period  Recall method is most useful for developing countries

29 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 29 Time use data provide  Background information on household & individual characteristics  A comprehensive picture of activities & interactions  Classification of activities  Contextual variables  Can be linked with other data

30 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 30 Sex differences in time use  Women tend to do several activities at the same time - experience more time stress than men  Women spend more time on non-market household activities than men  Men spend more time on economic activities but women’s time in economic activities is increasing  Women predominate in unpaid (economic and non economic) activities  Women have less time for rest & recreation

31 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 31 Some lessons from time use data  Economic crisis & economic reforms often cause an increase in women’s unpaid household activities  Most countries lack data on a large part of women’s daily activities  Data on time use are necessary to formulate sound national policies  Collecting time use data is one way of engendering statistics

32 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 32 Group work Teena - Meta Cards

33 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 33 Small Group Discussion  Each participant will write one comment or reaction about time use surveys on a Meta card.  Form 5 groups  In the groups, discuss your comments and reactions for 10 minutes  Choose one significant positive and one significant negative comment/reaction and a reporter to present to the plenary.

34 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 34 Synthesis Lorraine

35 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 35 Time use surveys  Increase coverage of statistics system  Better coverage of women’s activities  Household maintenance  Childcare  Unpaid family work – agriculture  Better coverage of informal sector  Can be expensive  Do not always need large-scale – case studies  Can be integrated with other surveys  Need to consider impact on other objectives

36 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 36 Lecture Lorraine

37 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 37 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia National statistical systems

38 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 38 National Statistical System covers all sectors  Economic – agriculture, labour, industry, informal sector  Social – health, nutrition, demography, education  Household - time use [?]

39 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 39 Sources of data for NSS  Censuses & surveys  Household-based  Establishment-based  Special topics – informal sector  Administrative statistics  Health system;  School & education system  Housing & land records  Finance, banking, capital flows, imports, exports  Public sector staffing, commune councils, parliament etc

40 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 40 Users of the NSS  Government  Policy making – Cabinet & Parliament  Policies & planning – Bureaucracy – sectors  Private sector  Planning  Marketing  Civil society – including NGOs  Awareness -identifying issues  Advocacy  Accountability  Researchers  Media

41 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 41 Uses of the NSS  Provides accurate and timely data for:  Policy formulation  Economic & social management  Planning - MDGs  Programming  Monitoring & Evaluation - MDGs  Advocacy - MDGs

42 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 42 Overview  NSS is more than the NIS  NSS is bigger than the National Accounts  NSS is more than the formal data collection & recording systems  Much of this data is unused  Most of it is gender blind

43 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 43 Inadequacies of national statistical systems  Partial Coverage  Lacks data on non-market household activities – gender bias  Lacks data on movement of activities from one to another sector – gender bias  Inadequate base for policy making  Existing data is collected & processed through gender-blind processes

44 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 44 Lecture Lorraine

45 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 45 Engendering the Statistical System in Cambodia Steps in collecting census or survey data

46 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 46 Collecting Census 2001 Nepal  Pre-enumeration stage  Management  Clarification of coverage, concepts & definitions  [Sample design]  Questionnaire design  Tabulation design  Design of manual & training for interviewers  Training of interviewers  Enumeration stage  Recruit interviewers  Training of interviewers  Media awareness campaign  Post-enumeration stage  Data entry & processing  Produce tabulations & other materials  Disseminate data

47 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 47 Group work Lorraine – Meta cards

48 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 48 Small Group Exercise Divide into 5 groups: 1.Discuss how these steps might be engendered 2.Prepare Meta cards from your group: Groups 1 and 2: pre-enumeration Groups 3 and 4: enumeration Group 5: post-enumeration 3.Post your Meta cards on the flip chart provided

49 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 49 Synthesis Lorraine - Prepared chart

50 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 50 Key points – engendering statistics  Gender-sensitive people  Aware of gender differences between women & men  Value gender equality  Gender-responsive processes  Concepts  Definitions  Guiding principles Gender equality Human rights of women and men  Explicitly address gender issues  Differences between women & men  Relationships between women & men

51 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 51 Lecture Lorraine

52 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 52 Engendering Census 2001 Nepal Pre-enumeration  Gender training senior management middle management  Committees on Questionnaire & manual preparation Media Project management Occupation & industry classification  Reviewed concepts, definitions & coding  Reviewed questionnaire design

53 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 53 Engendering Census 2001 Nepal Enumeration Phase  Gender-responsive training  enumerators  supervisors  Recruit women  as enumerators – 20 per cent  as supervisors – 10 per cent  Public Awareness Campaign  Women work  Women’s work is important Engendering Census 2001 Nepal Enumeration

54 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 54  Individual data disaggregated by sex  Reviewed all data tabulations from a gender perspective  Created special tabulations on gender issues  Gender Statistics at a Glance: A Fact Sheet  Publication Engendering Census 2001 Nepal Post-Enumeration Engendering Census 2001 Nepal Post-enumeration

55 The United Nations Development Fund for Women 55 Engendered Statistics are... 1.Sex-disaggregated  Presented by sex  Analyzed by sex market and non-market activities 2.Cover both market and non-market activities of women and men 3.All data processes are engendered  Gender-sensitive people  Gender-responsive processes  Address gender issues


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