Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd

2 2 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. In the twentieth century, enormous change occurred in the attitudes, expectations, behaviours, and social roles of men and women in Canada. But gender inequality – hierarchical asymmetries between women and men in the distribution of power, material rewards, and prestige – still exists. GENDER INEQUALITY

3 3 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. GENDER STEREOTYPES Gender inequality is reinforced by gender stereotypes – oversimplified beliefs that men and women possess different personality traits. Gender is learned and continually altered through social interaction. Implications: Gender identities are constructed (i.e., not stable or fixed). Gender identities are not binary and polar opposites, contrary to popular belief.

4 4 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Male domination and female subordination are evident in all social relations – political, economic, familial, and sexual. Gender inequality derives from the historical fact that women have been allocated the private sphere and men the public sphere. This has created differential opportunities for acquiring wealth, power, and prestige. THE SCOPE AND SOURCES OF GENDER INEQUALITY

5 5 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. In 1901, only 1 out of 7 women were employed in the Canadian paid labour force. By the end of the century, 4 out of 7 were so employed. Female labour force participation rose because of: increased demand for service workers; a decrease in the average number of children born per woman; and increased financial pressures on families. FEMALE LABOUR-FORCE PARTICIPATION

6 6 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. LABOUR-FORCE PARTICIPATION AND SIZE OF LABOUR FORCE

7 7 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. DOMESTIC LABOUR As female labour force activity has increased: Men have begun to share some domestic labour. But the number of hours of unpaid work done by women has not decreased much. Women active in the paid labour force typically work a “double day.” As a result, women spend less time on recreational activities than men and are more likely to report feeling stressed.

8 8 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. UNPAID HOUSEWORK AND CHILD CARE

9 9 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION AND SEX-TYPING I Women in the paid labour force typically do jobs that involve care-giving, nurturing, and household-type management. Men tend to be managers, doctors, construction workers, etc. This is the sex segregation of occupations. Sex segregation has decreased somewhat since the 1960s because women have entered some previously male-dominated occupations. The notion that a given occupation is appropriate for one sex is called sex typing.

10 TEN MOST COMMON JOBS FOR WOMEN

11 TEN MOST COMMON JOBS FOR MEN

12 12 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Women’s occupations are usually lower than men’s in terms of prestige, authority, earnings, responsibility, skill requirements, and opportunities for upward mobility. About 25% of women versus 40% of men describe themselves as supervisors. Women typically supervise fewer employees than men and are less likely to hold top positions. Only rarely do men have female supervisors. OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION AND SEX-TYPING II

13 13 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. GENDER AND SKILL Women are less likely to have high-skilled jobs because of gender bias in the definition of skill. Gender bias in the definition of skill is problematic because: wage levels are associated with skill levels, and pay equity policies may be undermined because “worth” is defined partly in terms of skill.

14 14 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. NON-STANDARD WORK Non-standard work: includes part-time work, part-year work, limited term contract employment, multiple job holding, etc.; involves less job security, fewer benefits, and lower pay; is becoming more and more common; and employs a disproportionately large share of women (in 1996, 45% of women 25–64 years old, compared to 33% of men).

15 15 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. EARNINGS I In the early 1970s, hourly wages for women were 46 cents for every dollar earned by men, and in 1997 they were 81 cents for every dollar earned by men. Four explanations for why women earn less than men: gender differences in the characteristics that influence pay rates (e.g., education, effort); gender differences in the type of work done; discrimination; and societal devaluation of women’s work.

16 16 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Little evidence supports the idea that there exist gender differences in education or productivity. Most sociologists think that most of the gender gap in wages is due to discrimination and the societal devaluation of women’s work. EARNINGS II

17 17 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. GENDER, BIRTHPLACE, AND COLOUR Gender inequality is intertwined with inequality stemming from birthplace and colour. Women born outside the country and women who are members of a visible minority achieve a lower socioeconomic status than men and other women. The level and type of gender inequality varies in different groups defined by birthplace and visible-minority status.

18 18 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. PERCENTAGES OF WOMEN WHO ARE IN THE LOWEST- SKILL OCCUPATIONS

19 19 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. AVERAGE WEEKLY 1995 EARNINGS, WOMEN, AGE 25–64

20 20 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. GENDER IN POLITICS I Since World War I, women have: obtained the vote; become active participants in party politics; and formed special-interest associations that promote: access to abortion; accessible day care; equality in the labour force; and programs to combat spousal violence and child abuse.

21 21 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. In 2002, 21% of federal MPs were women. In general, women are underrepresented in politics due to: the masculine way in which politics is defined (involving confrontation and domination); the “gatekeeping” function of political parties which tend to slot women in contests where their chances of winning are poor; women’s limited access to resources (such as money) needed to run for office; and the “anti-family” lifestyle of politicians. GENDER IN POLITICS II

22 22 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. FEDERAL POLITICAL REPRESENTATIVES WHO ARE WOMEN, CANADA, 2002

23 23 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Representation by women is not the same as representation for women: Most Canadian female legislators are white, middle-class, publicly heterosexual, and well- educated. Some commentators suggest that these women do not and cannot speak for aboriginal women, women of colour, elderly women, poor women, lesbians, and other marginalized groups. GENDER IN POLITICS III

24 24 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. ELIMINATING GENDER INEQUALITY I Since the 1970s, it has become widely accepted that gender inequality results from power differentials and the influence of workplace cultures and practices. This implies that gender inequality in the paid labour force can be altered only by changing structural relations (altering job classifications, setting occupational gender quotas, etc.).

25 25 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. The main policies that have been proposed to decrease gender inequality in the paid labour force are: – employment equity, including affirmative action (covering all terms and conditions of employment), and – pay equity, i.e., equal pay for work of equal value (covering remuneration only). Despite a few isolated victories, both policies have had limited coverage and impact so far. ELIMINATING GENDER INEQUALITY II

26 26 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. ELIMINATING GENDER INEQUALITY III Female representation in Canadian politics could be increased by: parties displaying good intentions; reducing the economic constraints women face in running for office; recognizing family responsibilities and the social role of women; eliminating the gate-keeping function of parties; setting quotas for female representation; centralizing party decision-making to give elites more control over women’s representation.

27 27 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. SUPPLEMENTARY SLIDES

28 28 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. GENDER STEREOTYPES AT WORK I HE He has a family picture on his desk. He is a responsible family man! He has a cluttered desk. He is a hard worker!SHE She has a family picture on her desk. She places family before career! She has a cluttered desk. What a scatterbrain!

29 29 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. HE He is talking with co-workers. He must be discussing the latest deal! He is not at his desk. He must be at a meeting!SHE She is talking with co-workers. She must be gossiping! She is not at her desk. She must be in the ladies’ room! GENDER STEREOTYPES AT WORK II

30 30 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. HE He is having lunch with the boss. He must be on his way up! He was criticized by the boss. He will improve his performance!SHE She is having lunch with the boss. They must be having an affair! She was criticized by the boss. She will be very upset! GENDER STEREOTYPES AT WORK III

31 31 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. HE He is getting married. He will be more settled! He is having a baby. He’ll need a raise!SHE She is getting married. She will get pregnant and leave! She is having a baby. She will cost the company plenty in maternity leave! GENDER STEREOTYPES AT WORK IV

32 32 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. HE He is going on a business trip. It is good for his career! He is leaving for a better job. He recognizes a good opportunity!SHE She is going on a business trip. What will her husband say? She is leaving for a better job. Women are not dependable! GENDER STEREOTYPES AT WORK V

33 WOMEN AND EDUCATION Education levels of persons improve especially for women MaleFemaleMaleFemale % Less than high school Completed university % Percentage of graduates who were female Bach Masters Doctorate

34 34 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. POPULATION 15 YRS+ IN FAMILIES, BY SEX, SHOWING HOURS OF UNPAID HOUSEWORK, CANADA, 1996 (IN PERCENT) Percent Hours

35 35 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Percent Hours POPULATION 15 YRS+ IN FAMILIES, BY SEX, SHOWING HOURS OF UNPAID CHILD CARE, CANADA, 1996 (IN PERCENT)

36 36 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Percent Hours POPULATION 15 YRS+ IN FAMILIES, BY SEX, SHOWING HOURS OF UNPAID SENIOR CARE, CANADA, 1996 (IN PERCENT)

37 37 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. RATIO OF WOMEN’S TO MEN’S POVERTY RATE, CIRCA 1991 Ratio

38 38 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. PAID + UNPAID WORK HOURS/ WEEK, AGE 15+ YRS, BY GENDER, CANADA, 1911–1976 Work hours per week

39 39 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. WOMEN IN CANADIAN POLITICAL PARTIES, 1992 (IN PERCENT) Percent

40 WOMEN IN NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS, OCTOBER 2003 (IN PERCENT) Women as percent of total Canada (20.6%) ranks 37 th out of 141 countries


Download ppt "1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd Chapter 9Gender Inequality by Monica Boyd."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google