Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER IX TERMS OF PAYMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER IX TERMS OF PAYMENT ConsignmentOpen AccountCash in AdvanceDocumentary DraftDocuments Against Payment(D/P)Documents Against Acceptance(D/A)Letter of Credit
2 Methods of Payments In the order of preference by importers ConsignmentOpen accountTime draft (D/A)Sight draft (D/P)Letter of creditCash in advance
3 ConsignmentBuyer has no obligation to pay until sales are made and money is collected.Surplus inventory or by-product of no or low value
4 Open AccountSeller sends goods to buyer with a future payment date based on his trust in buyer. Buyer has obligation to pay seller on due date but it is not backed by a collateral or a letter of credit.Between well established importers and exporters, family members , main office and its branches.Certain governments may not allow export on open accountUsually banks are not involved in international trade done under an open account
5 Cash In Advance Buyer pays in advance and waits for shipments. Worst term for importer. Buyers normally do not pay in advanceInternational market is buyer's market. Very little business
6 Documentary Draft Draft accompanied by shipping documents Draft (Bill of Exchange) is written demand for paymentDraft is used as payment tool and Bank as intermediary between importer and exporter
7 Document Against Payment (D/P): Sight Draft Exporter sends shipping documentsto his bankExporter's bank relays them to importer's bank.Importer's bank releases them only against payment by importerIf payment is refused by importer, bank has no obligation to pay.Exporter usually buys export credit insurance against importer’s nonpayment
8 Document Against Acceptance (D/A): Time Draft Exporter sends shipping documents to his bank.Exporter's bank relays them to importer's bank.Importer's bank requests importer to accept the draft.Importer's bank releases shipping documents upon acceptance of draft by importer.Importer pays exporter through banks on future due date.
9 Document Against Acceptance (D/A): Time Draft Acceptance of draft is importer's promise to pay on due date by marking "ACCEPTED", signing and dating.Exporter usually buys export credit insurance against importer’s nonpayment.
10 Terminologies of Documentary Draft Drawer-SellerDrawee-BuyerPayer-BuyerPayee-Seller or his BankTenor: A term of a draft: 30, 60, 90 daysProtest: Notice of nonacceptance or nonpaymentBank's acceptance: A draft accepted by a BankCollection instructions: Given by the seller
11 Letter of CreditUniform Customs and Practice(UCP) for Documentary Credit, Publication No (2007 revision) by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
12 Why a Letter of Credit ?Exporter will not ship without assurance of being paid for goods he ships.Importer will not pay without assurance of receiving goods he has ordered.L/C is importer's bank's conditional guarantee of payment for goods exporter ships.Exporter gets paid upon presentation of shipping documents and meeting all conditions stipulated in the L/C. He doesn't have to wait for merchandise to reach importer and to be accepted by him.
13 Why a Letter of Credit ?Importer gets assurance of receiving goods by paying through his bank only against shipping documents bearing title to goods.Payment is made by importer's bank against shipping documents after shipment but before importer receives goods, as long as shipping documents are in order.
14 Parties of a Letter of Credit Opener, Applicant, Accountee: ImporterIssuing bank, Opening bank: Bank that issues an L/CBeneficiary: ExporterAdvising bank: Bank which receives an L/C, authenticates it, and advises (notifies) it to the beneficiaryNominated bank: Bank designated by issuing bank for negotiationNegotiation means the purchase by bank of drafts and shipping documents under a complying presentation
15 Parties of a Letter of Credit Negotiating bank: Bank that receives shipping documents from beneficiary and negotiate them.Nominated bank or any bank if no nominated bankConfirming bank: Bank that adds its confirmation to an L/C by adding its undertaking (guarantee) in addition to that of issuing bankDrawer, payee, shipper: ExporterDrawee, payer: Importer's bank (Issuing bank)
16 Sequence of a Letter of Credit Importer submits Application for Letter of Credit to his bank.Importer's bank opens (issues) L/CImporter's bank (Issuing bank) sends L/C to its correspondent bank (advising bank) in exporter's country to advise it to exporter.Advising bank advises opening of L/C and relays it to beneficiary. Advising bank may "confirm" L/C if requested by opening bank.Upon shipment, exporter prepares or obtains shipping documents.Exporter presents shipping documents to his bank (nominated or negotiating bank) for negotiation.
17 Sequence of a Letter of Credit Negotiating bank examines shipping documents and if it finds no discrepancy, it send the same documents to opening bank, and requests immediate payment from opening bank or reimbursement bank designated in the L/CNegotiating bank may pay the exporter first and get reimbursed later or pay the exporter after receiving the remittance from reimbursing bank or opening bank.Importer pays issuing bank or arranges a Trust Receipt (T/R) loan and obtain shipping documents from the issuing bank.Importer gives shipping documents to his customs broker for customs clearance.
18 Time to Examine Documents Negotiating bank, confirming bank and issuing bank each shall be given a reasonable time to examine the documents, but no more than 5 banking days after receipt of documents
19 Loss of Interest or any Expense Issuing bank is responsible to the claiming bank (negotiating bank) for any loss of interest or any expense occurred, if reimbursement is not provided on first demand.
20 Types of a Letter of Credit Irrevocable letter of creditConfirmed letter of creditTransferable letter of creditRed clause Letter of creditRevolving Letter of creditBack to Back Letter of creditSight Letter of CreditUsance Letter of Credit
21 Irrevocable Letter of Credit Letter of Credit is irrevocable even if there is no indication to that effect.Binds issuing bank to pay once stipulated documents are presented and all terms & conditions of the credit are met.Credit cannot be amended or canceled without agreement by Issuing Bank, Confirming Bank, if any, and Beneficiary
22 Confirmed Letter of Credit L/C confirmed by another bank at the request of issuing bankUsually used when issuing bank or its country is considered not strong enoughConfirming bank adds its confirmation to pay to that of issuing bank. Double guarantee of paymentAdvising bank can be confirming bank by adding a sentence, ”We confirm this Letter of Credit.” in the advising Letter of Credit.
23 Transferable Letter of Credit Letter of Credit that specifically states “The L/C is transferable“Can be transferred in whole or part to another party or parties (2nd beneficiaries) at the request of 1st beneficiaryCan be transferred only once. The 2nd beneficiary (ies) cannot transfer it againCan be transferred only on the same terms and conditions except forthe amount of the credit,any unit price stated therein,the latest shipment date or given period for shipmentthe period for presentation,the expiry date, any or all of which may be reduced or curtailed,and percentage of insurance cover which may be increased
24 Transferable Letter of Credit Exporter receives a firm offer (quotation) from a manufacturer in Chicago for 2 sets of printing machine at $45,000, CIF Hong Kong. Total amount $90,000Exporter offers Importer $50,000 each, CIF Hong Kong and total amount $100,000Importer opens a transferable letter of credit in favor of Exporter. Documents required.Commercial InvoicePacking listOn board Ocean Bill of LadingMarine insurance certificate or policy
25 Transferable Letter of Credit Importer’s L/C (Transferable L/C)$100,000 for 2 sets of printing machine at $50,000 each, CIF Hong KongLatest shipment date: October 30, 20XXPeriod of presentation: 15 days after shipmentExpiry date: November 15, 20XXMarine Insurance cover: 110% of CIF value, $110,000Exporter’s L/C (Transferred L/C) to Manufacturer in Chicago$90,000 at $45,000 each, CIF Hong KongLatest shipment date: October 25, 20XXPeriod of presentation: 10 days after shipmentExpiry date: November 5, 20XXMarine insurance coverage: % of CIF value
26 Transferable Letter of Credit First beneficiary has right to substitute his own draft and invoice for those of 2nd beneficiaryIf 1st beneficiary fails to provide required documents on first demand or provides documents with discrepancies & fail to correct them, transferring bank has the right to present to issuing bank the 2nd beneficiary’s documents without any obligation to the 1st beneficiaryPresentation of documents by a 2nd beneficiary must be made to transferring bank.
27 Red Clause Letter of Credit In general, payments under the L/C are made against shipping documents after shipment.An L/C which contains a clause allowing advance payments to beneficiary prior to shipment against his clean draft or receipt.Used to be written in redPartial financing by importer to help exporter’s operations
28 Revolving Letter of Credit Automatically reinstated when amount of L/C is exhausted.Useful for repeated shipments
29 Back to Back Letter of Credit Used when original LC is not transferable or supplier of the goods is not familiar with exporting or wants a different term of paymentSupplier wants payments upon shipment from his place or delivery to the place designated by exporter such as payments against the Dock ReceiptBeneficiary of original L/C (First L/C or Master L/C) pledges his L/C to his bank as collateral to open a second L/C (Back to back L/C)Beneficiary’s bank opens a separate L/C to the supplier of the beneficiary of the 1st L/CEven if first L/C defaults, back-to-back L/C remained bound for paymentRiskier to the Bank than transferable L/C
30 Back to Back Letter of Credit Importer’s L/C$100,000 for 2 sets of printing machine at $50,000 each, CIF Hong KongLatest shipment date: October 30, 20XXPeriod of presentation: 15 days after shipmentExpiry date: November 15, 20XXMarine Insurance cover: 110% of CIF value, $110,000Commercial InvoicePacking listOn board Ocean Bill of LadingMarine insurance certificate or policyExporter’s L/C to Manufacturer in Chicago$80,000 at $40,000 each, delivered to Long Beach, CALatest delivery date of Dock Receipt: October 15, 20XXPeriod of presentation: 10 days after shipmentExpiry date: October 25, 20XXPacking ListDock Receipt
31 Sight Letter of CreditA Letter of Credit requiring a Draft “At sight” (Sight draft)A payment is to be made upon presentation but after the bank’s examination of documents presented by the exporter
32 Usance Letter of Credit A Letter of Credit requiring a Draft with a tenor such as “At 30 days sight.” (Time draft)When all terms and conditions stipulated in the L/C are met, payment is made at maturity.Exporter can discount the time draft for immediate cash at the banker’s acceptance rate which is lower than commercial rates.Exporter can increase price by bank interest amount or have importer insert a clause “the interest is for importer’s account” in the L/C
33 Interpretations of Terminologies Presentation: Delivery of required documents or documents so delivered.Complying presentation: Presentation complying with the terms & conditions of the credit, its rules and international standard banking practicesHonor:- Pay at sight,- Incur a deferred payment undertaking & pay at maturity- Accept draft drawn by beneficiary and pay at maturityAbout or approximately: 10% more or less of amount of LC, quantity or unit price
34 Interpretations of Terminologies 5% tolerance is allowed even if partial shipment not permitted except for quantity in number of packing units or individual itemsInstallments: If skipped, unavailable for subsequent installments“On or about” as to a date: From 5 calendar days before to 5 calendar days after specified date. Use “not later than” in the case of the latest shipment date“To, until, till, from, between”: Include date mentioned. “Before and After”: exclude date
35 Interpretations of Terminologies First half: 1st to 15th, Second half: 16th to end of monthBeginning: 1st to 10th, Middle: 11th to 20th, End: 21st to last day of the monthBranches of a bank in different countries: separate banksCommercial invoice must be issued by beneficiary and made out in applicant's name but needs not be signedDescription of goods, services or performance in commercial invoice must correspond with that appearing in the L/C. In other documents, in general terms
36 Interpretations of Terminologies Transport documents with "Shipper's load and count" or “said by shipper to contain” acceptedThird party transport documents (consignor or shipper of goods being a party other than beneficiary) acceptedTransport documents bearing a reference to charges additional to the freight acceptedExpiry date: Documents must be presented on or before itExtension of expiry date: If it falls on a day closed for reasons other than Force Majeure, it will be extended to the first following banking day. Latest shipment date not extended as a result of expiry date extension.
37 Interpretations of Terminologies Force Majeure:No liability or responsibility to a bank for consequences of force majeure: Act of God, riots, civil commotions, insurrections, wars, acts of terrorism, strikes or lockout or any other causes beyond its controlA bank will not, upon resumption of business, honor or negotiate under a credit that expired during such interruption of its businessPresentation period/date: Within specified period of time after shipment date. If not stipulated in L/C, within 21 daysTransport documents indicating defective condition of goods or packages (Four B/L) not accepted
38 Interpretations of Terminologies A bank must examine a presentation to determine, on the basis of the documents alone, whether or not documents appear on their face to constitute a complying presentation within 5 banking daysWhen a bank determines a presentation is not complying,it may refuse to honor or negotiateIt must give a single notice to that effect to the presenter no later than the close of the 5th banking day of presentationIf a bank fails to act accordingly, it cannot claim that documents do not constitute a complying presentation
39 Interpretations of Terminologies A bank assumes no liability or responsibility forthe form, sufficiency, accuracy, genuineness, falsification or legal effect of any document,the description, quantity, weight, quality, condition, packing, delivery, value or existence of the goods, services or other performance represented by any documentthe good faith or acts or omissions, solvency, performance or standing of the consignor, the carrier, the forwarder, the consignee or the insurer of the goods or any other person
40 Interpretations of Terminologies A bank assumes no liability or responsibility fordelay or loss in transit, mutilation or other errors in the transmission of messages or delivery of letters or documents.errors in translation or interpretation of technical terms. A bank may transmit credit terms without translating them.When a presentation is complying, the issuing bank or confirming bank must honor or negotiate, or reimburse that negotiating bank, even if documents have been lost in transit between banks.
41 DiscrepanciesDiscrepancy is any inconsistency with the conditions of L/CWhen negotiating bank finds discrepancies,Correct discrepancies if possibleIf not, have importer accept discrepancies and amend L/C accordingly. L/C must be amended.Should not send shipping documents to issuing bank on an approval or collection basis
42 Application for Letter of Credit Importer establishes a line of credit with the issuing bank or deposit cash in advanceImporter applies for an L/C based on terms and conditions agreed between importer & exporterImporter must check with Customs office as to documents necessary for his imports and other government agencies’ requirement such as FDA or USDAWise to have one set of documents sent to his customs broker for speedy customs clearance
43 SIGHT DRAFT (BILL OF EXCHANGE) No._________ BILL OF EXCHANGE Date______________At (1) xxxxxxxx SIGHT OF THIS ORIGINAL OF EXCHANGE (DUPLICATE UNPAID)PAY TO THE ORDER OF (2)________________________ U.S. $ (3)________THE SUM OF (4)______________________________________________U.S.DollarsTo (8) __________________________ (9)_____________________________ ___________________________(1) Number of Days ( 2) Name of Negotiating Bank (3) Dollar Amount in Figures (4) Dollar Amount in Words (5) Letter of Credit Number ( 6) Date of the Letter of Credit (7) Name of L/C Issuing Bank (8) Name of Paying Bank (9) Name & Signature of BeneficiaryDRAWN UNDER LETTER OF CREDIT NO. (5)DATED(6)ISSUED BY(7)
44 Time Draft (Bill of Exchange ) No.___________ BILL OF EXCHANGE Date: _____________At (1) 30 Days SIGHT OF THIS ORIGINAL OF EXCHANGE (DUPLICATE UNPAID)PAY TO THE ORDER OF _______________________________ U.S. $________THE SUM OF___________________________________________U.S. DollarsTo __________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________(1) It can be 60 days, 90 days, 120 days, 180 days or longer depending on the agreement between the exporter and the importer.DRAWN UNDER LETTER OF CREDIT NO. (5)DATED(6)ISSUED BY(7)