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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. CHAPTER VII Rate of Return Analysis: Single Alternative McMc Graw Hill ENGINEERING ECONOMY Fifth Edition Blank and Tarquin Part 1 0f 2

2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7. Rate of Return Analysis –Topics 1.Definition of Rate of Return (ROR) 2.ROR using PW and AW 3.Cautions about ROR 4.Multiple RORs 5.Composite ROR 6.ROR of Bonds

3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. Section 7.1 Definition of Rate of Return

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 4Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 Definition of Rate of Return DEFINITION ROR is either the interest rate paid on the unpaid balance of a loan, or the interest rate earned on the unrecovered investment balance of an investment such that the final payment or receipt brings the terminal value to equal “0”.

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 Interpretation of a Rate of Return Value  PW i* (+ cash flows) – PW i* ( - cash flows) = 0  ROR is not the interest rate earned on the original loan amount or investment amount

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 Unpaid loan Balance  Consider the following loan  You borrow $1,000 at 10% per year for 4 years  You are to make 4 equal end-of-year payments to pay off this loan  Your payments are:  A=$1,000(A/P,10%,4) = $315.47

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 The Loan Schedule YearBOY Bal Payment Interest Amount Prin. Red. Amount UnPaid Balance 0 $1, $1, ,

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 8Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 Unpaid loan Balance  For this loan the unpaid loan balances at the end of each year are: $1, Unpaid loan balance is now “0” at the end of the life

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 9Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 Reconsider the Following  Assume you invest $1,000 over 4 years  The investment generates $315.47/year  Draw the cash-flow diagram P=$-1,000 A =

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 10Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 Unrecovered Investment Balances (UIB)  We set up the following table tC.F(t)Future Value for 1 yearUIB t 0-1, , ,000(1.10) = (1.10) = (1.10) = (1.10) =0

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 11Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 UIB’s for the Example  See Figure 7.1 tC.F(t)UIB t 0-1, Note, all of UIB’s are negative at the 10% rate. This means that the investment is unrecovered throughout the life.

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 12Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 Pure Investment  The basic definition of ROR is the interest rate that will cause the investment balance at the end of the project to exactly equal “0”.  If there is only one such interest rate that will cause this, the investment is said to be a “PURE” investment, or Conventional investment

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 13Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 UIB’s for the Example  See Figure 7.1  This diagram depicts the unpaid loan balance  At the ROR, the URB will be exactly “0” at the end of the life of the project

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 14Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.1 ROR – Summerized  ROR is the interest rate earned on the unrecovered investment balances throughout the life of the investment.  ROR is not the interest rate earned on the original investment  ROR (i*) rate will also cause the NPV(i*) of the cash flow to = “0”.

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. Section 7.2 ROR Using Present Worth

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 16Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.2 ROR using Present Worth PW definition of ROR PW (-CF’s) = PW (+CF’s) PW (-CF’s) - PW (+CF’s) = 0 AW definition of ROR AW (-CF’s) = AW (+CF’s) AW (-CF’s) - AW (+CF’s) = 0

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.2 ROR Criteria Determine the i* rate If i*>= MARR, accept the project If i* < MARR, reject the project

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.2 ROR using Present Worth See Figure $1,000 +$500 +$1,500 Assume you invest $1,000 at t = 0: Receive t=3 and $1,500 at t = 5. What is the ROR of this project?

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.2 Trial and Error Approach If the NPV is not = 0, then another i* value is evaluated. A negative NPV generally indicates the i* value is too high. A positive NPV suggests that the i* value was too low.

20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 20Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.2 Spreadsheet Methods Excel supports ROR analysis RATE(n,A,P,F) can be used when a time t = 0 investment (P) is made followed by “n” equal, end-of-period cash flows (A) This is a special case for annuities only

21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 21Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.2 Example 7.3 – In Excel Excel Setup for ROR =IRR(D6:D16,D19) D19 = Guess Value

22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 22Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.2 Example 7.2 Investment Balances Investment balances at the i* rate The time t = 10 balance = 0 at i* As it should!

23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 23Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. Section 7.3 Cautions When Using the ROR Method

24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 24Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.3 Cautions when using the ROR Method Important Cautions to remember when using the ROR method……

25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 25Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.3 Cautions when using the ROR Method 1. Multiple i* Many real-world cash flows may possess multiple i* values More than one i* value that will satisfy the definitions of ROR If multiple i*’s exist, which one is the correct i*?

26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 26Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.3 Cautions when using the ROR Method. 2. Reinvestment Assumptions PW and AW assume reinvestment at the MARR rate ROR assumes reinvestment at the i* rate Can get conflicting rankings with ROR vs. PW and AW

27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 27Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.3 Cautions when using the ROR Method: 3. Computational Difficulties ROR method is computationally more difficult than PW/AW Can become a numerical analysis problem and the result is an approximation

28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 28Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.3 Cautions when using the ROR Method: 4. Special Procedure for Multiple Alternatives For ROR analysis of multiple alternatives, one must apply an incremental analysis approach.

29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 29Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.3 Cautions When Using the ROR Method: 5. ROR Is More Difficult! ROR is computationally more difficult But is a popular method with financial managers Suggest using PW/AW methods where possible

30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 30Blank & Tarquin: 5th Edition. Ch. 7 Authored by: Dr. Don Smith, Texas A&M University. 7.3 Valid Ranges for Usable i* Rates Mathematically, i* rates must be: If an i* <= -100% this signals total and complete loss of capital. i*’s < -100% are not feasible and not considered One can have a negative i* value (feasible), but not less than -100%!


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