Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 13 Providing Employee Benefits"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 13 Providing Employee Benefits fundamentals of Human Resource Management 4th edition by R.A. Noe, J.R. Hollenbeck, B. Gerhart, and P.M. WrightCHAPTER 13Providing Employee BenefitsThis chapter describes the contents of an employee benefits package and the way organizations administer employee benefits.
2What Do I Need to Know?Discuss the importance of benefits as a part of employee compensation.Summarize the types of employee benefits required by law.Describe the most common forms of paid leave.Identify the kinds of insurance benefits offered by employers.After reading and discussing this chapter, you should be able to:
3What Do I Need to Know? (continued) Define the types of retirement plans offered by employers.Describe how organizations use other benefits to match employees’ wants and needs.Explain how to choose the contents of an employee benefits package.After reading and discussing this chapter, you should be able to:
4What Do I Need to Know? (continued) Summarize the regulations affecting how employers design and administer benefits programs.Discuss the importance of effectively communicating the nature and value of benefits to employees.After reading and discussing this chapter, you should be able to:
5Figure 13.1: Benefits as a Percentage of Total Compensation On average, out of every dollar spent on compensation, 30 cents or more go to benefits.As Figure 13.1 shows, this share has grown over the decades. These numbers indicate that an organization managing its labor costs must pay careful attention to the cost of its employee benefits.
6The Role of Employee Benefits Benefits contribute to attracting, retaining, and motivating employees.The variety of possible benefits helps employers tailor their compensation to the kinds of employees they need.Employees have come to expect that benefits will help them maintain economic security.Benefits impose significant costs.As part of a the total compensation paid to employees, benefits serve functions similar to pay.
7The Role of Employee Benefits (continued) Benefits packages are more complex than pay structures, making them harder for employees to understand and appreciate.The important role of benefits is one reason that benefits are subject to government regulation.Legally required benefits.Tax laws can make benefits favorable.
8Table 13.1: Benefits Required by Law The federal and state governments require various forms of social insurance to protect workers from the financial hardships of being out of work.Table 13.1 summarizes legally required benefits
9Benefits Required by Law: Social Security The federal Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI) program which combines:Old age (retirement) insuranceSurvivor’s insuranceDisability insuranceHospital insurance (Medicare Part A)Supplementary medical insurance (Medicare Part B)In 1935 the federal Social Security Act established old-age insurance and unemployment insurance. Congress later amended the act to add survivor’s insurance (1939), disability insurance (1956), hospital insurance (Medicare Part A, 1965), and supplementary medical insurance (Medicare Part B, 1965) for the elderly.Together, the law and its amendments created what is now the Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI) program, informally known as Social Security.
10Benefits Required by Law: Social Security (continued) Employers and employees share the cost of Social Security through a payroll tax. The percentage is set by law.In 2009, employers and employees each paid a tax of 7.65% on the first $106,800 of the employee’s earnings6.2% of earnings goes to OASDHI1.45% of earnings goes to Medicare (Part A)For earnings above $106,800 only the 1.45% for Medicare is assessedWorkers who meet eligibility requirements receive the retirement benefits according to their age and earnings history.Employers and employees share the cost of Social Security through a payroll tax.
11Benefits Required by Law: Unemployment Insurance A federally mandated program administered by the states.Focuses on minimizing the hardships of unemployment:Payments to unemployed workers.Help in finding new jobs.Incentives to stabilize employment.Most funding comes from federal and state taxes on employers.Along with OASDHI, the Social Security Act of 1935 established a program of unemployment insurance.Technically, the federal government left it to each state’s discretion to establish an unemployment insurance program. At the same time, the Social Security Act created a tax incentive structure that quickly led every state to establish the program.
12Benefits Required by Law: Unemployment Insurance (continued) The size of the unemployment tax imposed on each employer depends on the employer’s experience rating:The number of employees a company has laid off in the past and the cost of providing them with unemployment benefits.Careful human resource planning can minimize layoffs and keep their experience rating favorable.Employers with a history of laying off a large share of their workforces pay higher taxes than those with fewer layoffs.The use of experience ratings gives employers some control over the cost of unemployment insurance.Careful human resource planning can minimize layoffs and keep their experience rating favorable.
13Benefits Required by Law: Unemployment Insurance (continued) To receive benefits, workers must meet four conditions:They meet requirements demonstrating they had been employed.They are available for work.They are actively seeking work.They were not discharged for cause, did not quit voluntarily, and are not out of work because of a labor dispute.Workers who meet these conditions receive benefits at the level set by the state – typically about half the person’s previous earnings – for a period of 26 weeks.All states have minimum and maximum weekly benefit levels.
14Benefits Required by Law: Workers’ Compensation State programs that provide benefits to workers who suffer work-related injuries or illnesses, or to their survivors.They operate under a principle of no-fault liability:An employee does not need to show that the employer was grossly negligent in order to receive compensation.The employer is protected from lawsuits.Prior to workers’ compensation laws, employees who suffered work-related injury or illness had to bear the cost unless they won a lawsuit against their employer. Those who sued often lost the case because of the defenses available to employers.
15Benefits Required by Law: Workers’ Compensation (continued) Major categories of benefits:Disability incomeMedical careDeath benefitsRehabilitative benefitsThe amount of benefits income varies from state to state. It is generally two-thirds of the worker’s earnings before the disability.The benefits are tax free.The cost of workers’ compensation is borne by the employer.The states differ in terms of how they fund workers’ compensation insurance. Some states have a single state fund. Most states allow employers to purchase coverage from private insurance companies. Most also permit self-funding by employers.
16Benefits Required by Law: Workers’ Compensation (continued) The cost of the workers’ compensation insurance depend on the:Kinds of occupations involvedState where the company is locatedEmployer’s experience ratingUnfavorable experience ratings lead to higher insurance premiums.
17Benefits Required by Law: Unpaid Family and Medical Leave Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993Requires organizations with 50 or more employees to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave:After childbirth or adoptionTo care for a seriously ill family memberFor an employee’s own serious illnessEmployers must also guarantee these employees the same or comparable job when they return to work.In the United States, unpaid leave is required by law for certain family needs.Recent amendments signed into law expand the coverage for time off to care for an injured family member returning home from military combat.
18Benefits Required by Law: Unpaid Family and Medical Leave (continued) When employees experience pregnancy and childbirth, employers must also comply with the Pregnancy Discrimination Act.If an employee is temporarily unable to perform her job due to pregnancy, the employer must treat her in the same way as any other disabled employee.e.g., modified tasks, alternative assignments, disability leave, or leave without pay
19Test Your KnowledgeXYZ company has determined that they will have to reduce their benefits costs to stay competitive. Which of the following solutions is not a choice for XYZ?Eliminate health coverageReduce the percentage of employees’ Social Security insurance they pay.Reduce their unemployment insurance costs by managing their workforce to avoid layoffs.Institute a safety program to minimize worker’s compensation costs.XYZ company evaluated their benefits costs and determined they will have to reduce their costs to stay competitive. Which of the following solutions is not a choice for XYZ?Eliminate health coverageReduce the percentage of employees’ Social Security insurance they pay.Reduce their unemployment insurance costs by managing their workforce to avoid layoffs.Institute a safety program to minimize worker’s compensation costs.Answer: B
20Optional Benefits Programs Paid LeaveGroup InsuranceRetirement Plans“Family-Friendly” BenefitsOther Quality of Work-Life BenefitsOther types of benefits are optional. These include various kinds of insurance, retirement plans, and paid leave.
21Figure 13.2: Percentage of Full-Time Workers with Access to Selected Benefit Programs Figure 13.2 shows the percentage of full-time workers receiving the most common employee benefits.Part-time workers often receive fewer benefits.The most widely offered benefits are paid leave for vacations and holidays, life and medical insurance, and retirement plans.
22Optional Benefits Programs: Paid Time Off VacationHolidaysSick LeavePersonal DaysFloating HolidaysJury DutyFuneralsMilitary DutyTime Off to VotePaid Time Off (PTO) BankMost flexible approachEmployer pools pools personal days, sick days, and vacation days for employees to use as the need arisesEmployers should also establish policies for leaves without pay – for example leaves of absence to pursue non-work goals or to meet family needs.Unpaid leave is an employee benefit because the employee usually retains seniority and other benefits during the leave.
23Ask students: “Is paid time off an important criteria for you when accepting a position?” Paid time off is a way for employees to enjoy time with their families and to refresh their bodies and spirits.
24U.S. and Japanese Workers Take Short Vacations On average, workers in the United States take 11 of their 13 vacation days.Japanese workers , on average, receive 15 vacation days but only take 7.See the Did You Know box on page 392 in the text.
25Optional Benefits Programs: Group Insurance Medical InsuranceLife InsuranceDisability InsuranceLong-Term Care InsuranceRates for group insurance are typically lower than for individual policies. Also, insurance benefits are not subject to income tax, as wages and salaries are.When employees receive insurance as a benefit, rather than higher pay so they can buy their own insurance, employees can get more for their money. Because of this, most employees value group insurance.The most common types of insurance offered as employee benefits are medical, life, and disability insurance.
26Medical Insurance70% of all full-time employees in the U.S. receive medical benefitsPolicies typically cover:Hospital expensesSurgical expensesVisits to physiciansAdditional coverage may include:Dental careVision careBirthing centersPrescription drug programsMental Health Parity Act (1996)For the average person, the most important benefit by far is medical insurance.
27Medical Insurance (continued) Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) of 1985Federal law that requires employers to permit employees or their dependents to extend their health insurance coverage at group rates for up to 36 months following a qualifying event:LayoffReduction in hoursEmployee’s death
28Medical Insurance (continued) Employer approaches to controlling health care benefits costs:Managed CareHealth Maintenance Organizations (HMO)Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO)Flexible Spending AccountsConsumer-Driven Health Plans (CDHP)Employee Wellness Programs (EWP)Health insurance is a significant and fast-growing share of benefits costs at U.S. organizations.Employers have looked for ways to control the cost of health care coverage while keeping this valuable benefit.
29Figure 13.3: Health Care Costs in Various Countries Figure 13.3 shows that the United States spends more of its total wealth on health care than other countries do.Most Western European countries have nationalized health systems, but the majority of Americans with coverage for health care expenses get it through their own or a family members’ employer. As a result, a growing number of employees whose employers cannot afford this benefit are left without insurance to cover health care expenses.
30Life InsuranceEmployers may provide life insurance to employees or offer the opportunity to buy coverage at low group rates.Term life insurance – if the employee dies during the term of the policy, the employee’s beneficiaries receive a death benefit payment.Usually twice the employee’s yearly pay.Additional benefits may include accidental death and dismemberment.
31Disability InsuranceShort-Term Disability InsuranceLong-Term Disability InsuranceInsurance that pays a percentage of a disabled employee’s salary as benefits to the employee for six months or less.Insurance that pays a percentage of a disabled employee’s salary after an initial period and potentially for the rest of the employee’s life.Employees risk losing their incomes if a disability makes them unable to work. Disability insurance provides protection against this loss of income.
32Optional Benefits Programs: Retirement Plans About half of employees working in the private business sector have employer-sponsored retirement plans.Contributory plan - retirement plan funded by contributions from the employer and employee.Noncontributory plan - retirement plan funded entirely by contributions from the employer.About half of employees working for private businesses (non-government) have employer-sponsored retirement plans. Retirement plans may be:Contributory plansNon-contributory plans
33Figure 13.4: Sources of Income for Persons 65 and Older Despite the image of retired people living on their Social Security checks, Figure 13.4 shows that those checks amount to less than half of a retired person’s income. Among persons over age 65, pensions provided a significant share of income in Employers have no obligation to offer retirement plans beyond the protection of Social Security, but most offer some form of pension or retirement savings plan.
34Optional Benefits Programs: Retirement Plans (continued) Defined benefit plan – pension plan that guarantees a specified level of retirement income.The employer sets up a pension fund to invest the contributions.Such plans must meet the funding requirements of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974.The employer must contribute enough for the plan to cover all the benefits to be paid out to retirees.
35Optional Benefits Programs: Retirement Plans (continued) Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA): federal law that increased the responsibility of pension plan trustees to protect retirees, established certain rights related to vesting and portability, and created the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation.Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC): federal agency that insures retirement benefits and guarantees retirees a basic benefit if the employer experiences financial difficulties.
36Optional Benefits Programs: Retirement Plans (continued) Defined contribution plan – retirement plan in which the employer sets up an individual account for each employee and specifies the size of the investment into that account.Money purchase plansProfit-sharing and employee stock ownership plansSection 401(k) plansThese plans free employers from the risks that investments will not perform as well as expected.The responsibility for wise investing is with each employee.
37Figure 13.5: Value of Retirement Savings Invested at Different Ages Many employees do not appreciate the importance of beginning to save early in their careers.As Figure 13.5 shows, an employee who invests $3,000 a year ($250 a month) between the ages of 21 and 29 will have far more at age 65 than an employee who invests the same amount between ages 31 and 39. Another important is to diversify investments.
38Test Your KnowledgeJakar does not know a lot about investing and wants to ensure he has some retirement income when he is old enough to retire. Agnes plans on changing employers every few years and is interested in investing her own money. Which plan would be best for Jakar and Agnes, respectively?Defined contribution; defined benefitContributory; defined benefitDefined benefit; defined contributionDefined contribution; non-contributoryJakar does not know a lot about investing and wants to ensure he has some retirement income when he is old enough to retire. Agnes plans on changing employers every few years and is interested in investing her own money. Which plan would be best for Jakar and Agnes, respectively?Defined contribution; defined benefitContributory; defined benefitDefined benefit; defined contributionDefined contribution; non-contributoryAnswer: C
39Optional Benefits Programs: Retirement Plans (continued) Cash balance plan – retirement plan in which the employer sets up an individual account for each employee and contributes a percentage of the employee’s salary.The account earns interest at a predefined rate.This arrangement helps employers plan their contributions and helps employees predict their retirement benefits.If employees change jobs, they generally can roll over the balance into an individual retirement account (IRA).An increasingly popular way to combine the advantages of defined benefit plans and defined contribution plans is to use a cash balance plan.
40Optional Benefits Programs: Retirement Plans (continued) Vesting RightsSummary Plan DescriptionGuarantee that when employees become participants in a pension plan and work a specified number of years, they will receive a pension at retirement age, regardless of whether they remained with the employer.Report that describes a pension plan’s funding, eligibility requirements, risks, and other details.Employers also provide an individual benefit statement which describes the employee’s vested and unvested benefits.Along with requirements for funding defined benefit plans, ERISA specifies a number of requirements related to eligibility for benefits (vesting) and communication with employees.
41Optional Benefits Programs: “Family-Friendly” Benefits Family LeaveChild Care BenefitsCollege Savings PlansElder CareAs employers have recognized the significance of employees’ need to manage conflicts between their work and family roles, many have added “family-friendly” benefits to their employee benefits programs.
42Figure 13.6: Percentage of Employees with Various Levels of Child Care Benefits
43Optional Benefits Programs: Other Quality of Work-Life Benefits Subsidized cafeteriasOn-site health care servicesMoving and relocation expensesEmployee discounts on productsEmployee buying serviceTuition reimbursementOn-site fitness centerOn-site dry cleaning servicesDues for professional organizationsOff-site company recreation areaPet servicesThe scope of possible employee benefits is limited by the imagination of the organization’s decision makers. Organizations have developed a wide variety of benefits to meet the needs of employees and to attract and keep the kinds of workers who will be of value to the organization.
44Selecting Employee Benefits Decisions about which benefits to offer should take into account:The organization’s goals and objectivesThe organization’s budgetThe expectations of the organization’s current employees and those it wishes to recruit in the future.An organization that does not offer expected benefits will have difficulty attracting and keeping employees.Although the government requires certain benefits, employers have a wide latitude in creating the total benefits package they offer employees.Employees have come to expect certain things from employers.If employees believe their employer feels no commitment to their welfare, they are less likely to feel committed to their employer.
45Table 13.2: An Organization’s Benefits Objectives A logical place to begin selecting employee benefits is to establish objectives for the benefits package. This helps the organization select the most effective benefits and monitor whether the benefits are doing what they should.Table 13.2 is an example of one organization’s benefits objectives. Unfortunately, research suggests that most organizations do not have written benefits objectives.
46Employees’ Expectations and Values Employees expect to receive benefits that are legally required and widely available.They value benefits they are likely to use.The value employees place on various benefits is likely to differ from one employee to another.
47Employee Expectations and Values (continued) Organizations can address differences in employees’ needs and empower their employees by offering flexible benefits plans in place of a single benefits package for all employees.Cafeteria-style plan: a benefits plan that offers employees a set of alternatives from which they can choose the types and amounts of benefits they want.
48Suggested Ways Employers Can Control the Cost of Health Benefits Shop for bargains. Every year, the company should research available plans and compare quotes from different providers.Know what employees care about. Would they be willing to accept a higher deductible if it means the company can also afford prescription drug coverage?If employees are willing to take responsibility for their own health care spending, offer a health- savings account or consumer-driven plan.With the cost of health care continuing to soar, employers are trying to help employees stay healthy and use their benefits efficiently. This slide (and the one that follows) presents some ways companies have slowed the rise in their health benefits costs.For details, see the HR How To box on page 388 of the text.
49Suggested Ways Employers Can Control the Cost of Health Benefits (continued) Review your claims history. You might be able to identify correctable problems.Encourage healthy behavior with incentives like discounts for health club memberships, free health screenings, and lower premiums for employees who participate in a wellness program.Promote a workplace culture that values healthy habits.Measure the results of any initiative you try.
50Legal Requirements for Employee Benefits Benefits required by lawTax treatment of benefitsAntidiscrimination lawsAccounting requirementsBenefits required by law – some benefits are required by law which adds to the cost of compensating employees.Tax treatment of benefits – benefits plans must meet certain requirements to obtain favorable tax treatment and be considered “qualified plans”Antidiscrimination laws – many laws related to equal employment opportunity apply to benefits policies, as wellAccounting Requirements – companies must set aside the funds they need for benefits to be paid when employees retire
51Communicating Benefits to Employees Organizations must communicate benefits information to employees so that they will appreciate the value of their benefits.This is essential so that benefits can achieve their objective of attracting, motivating, and retaining employees.Employees are interested in their benefits, and they need a great deal of detailed information to take advantage of benefits.
52SummaryLike pay, benefits help employers attract, retain, and motivate employees. The variety of possible benefits also helps employers tailor their compensation packages to attract the right kinds of employees.Employees expect at least a minimum level of benefits, and providing more than the minimum helps an organization compete in the labor market.Benefits are also a significant expense, but employers provide benefits because employees value them and many benefits are required by law.
53Summary (continued)Employers must contribute to the Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance program known as Social Security through a payroll tax shared by employers and employees.Employers must also pay federal and state taxes for unemployment insurance.State laws require that employers purchase workers’ compensation insurance.The major categories of paid leave are vacations, holidays, and sick leave.
54Summary (continued)Medical insurance is one of the most valued employee benefits.To manage the costs of health insurance, many organizations offer coverage through a health maintenance organization or preferred provider organization, or they may offer flexible spending accounts.Retirement plans may be contributory or noncontributory. These plans may be defined benefit plans or defined contribution plans.
55Summary (continued)Employers have responded to work-family role conflicts by offering family-friendly benefits.In deciding the contents of a benefits package, organizations need to establish objectives and select benefits that support those objectives.Organizations should also consider employees’ expectations and values.Employers must comply with the numerous laws and regulations affecting how they design and administer benefits programs.
56Summary (continued)Communicating information about benefits is important so that employees will appreciate the value of their benefits.Communicating their value is the main way benefits attract, motivate, and retain employees.