Presentation on theme: "PERSONAL FINANCE PRIMER Covering Your Bases!. DEBT: Using Debt Wisely I. CREDIT CARDS 1. Advantages: –Interest Free Loan Know your billing date Know your."— Presentation transcript:
PERSONAL FINANCE PRIMER Covering Your Bases!
DEBT: Using Debt Wisely I. CREDIT CARDS 1. Advantages: –Interest Free Loan Know your billing date Know your billing date Grace period: days Grace period: days –Simplified Record Keeping –Convenience –Simplifies return of goods and resolution of purchase disputes –Emergencies
Debt (cont…) 2. Disadvantages –Tendency to Overspend Undisciplined sense of buying power not supported by available income Undisciplined sense of buying power not supported by available income –High Interest costs 12% Annual Percentage Rate 12% Annual Percentage Rate Minimum Payment: $30/month Minimum Payment: $30/month –Assume $1000 Credit Card balance –It will take 41 months to pay off your $1000 credit card balance with a total payment of $
INTEREST RATES Interest rates on credit cards are the highest of any form of consumer credit. Rates, % –National average nearly 12% –Variable rate, tied to prime leading rate –Rates will vary from Bank to Bank, so shop around –If you are carrying a balance, interest will be charged on your old balance purchases –On cash advances, interest begins on the day the advance is taken OTHER FEES: –Annual Fees –Late Payment Fees –Over-the-Limit Fees –Transaction Fees – Typically on Cash Advances
HOW MUCH CREDIT? Be sure your monthly repayment burden does not exceed 20% of your monthly take-home pay. Recommended debt safety ratio -10% to 15% of your take-home pay Debt Safety Ratio = Total Monthly Consumer Credit Monthly Take-Home excludes monthly mortgage payment Remember, if credit is used properly, it can help you manage your finances. Misuse it and it is big-time trouble. Remember, if credit is used properly, it can help you manage your finances. Misuse it and it is big-time trouble.
Average credit card holder has 11 cards Approximately $3,300 in annual charges Average unpaid balance of about $1,700 Danger Signs of Using Too Much Credit: Regular Impulse buying Postdating checks to keep them from bouncing Regularly exceeding borrowing limit Taking days to pay bills that should be paid in 30 days Borrowing to meet normal living expenses Using one credit card to make payments on another Using more than 20% of take home pay on consumer debt, credit card bills Dodging collection agencies Having zero savings
Risk Management Generally we deal with Risk Exposure by Aquiring Related Insurance Products 1. Health Insurance – employer provided 2. Disability Insurance – employer provided 3. Home Owner’s Insurance 4. Auto Insurance 5. Life Insurance
Life Insurance Two Purposes for Life Insurance Coverage 1. Primary Purpose Provide funds for our dependent beneficiaries in the event of death 2. Secondary Purposes Estate planning to provide needed liquidity to our estate and our heirs
Types of Life Insurance 1. WHOLE LIFE Includes an insurance feature and a savings/investment feature Premium costs are fixed and high 2. TERM LIFE 2. TERM LIFE Remains in existence for a certain term (period) and then expires This is ‘pure’ insurance coverage and is less expensive than whole life You can get the most insurance coverage for the lowest premium cost Negative – premium costs will continue to rise as we age ***IMPORTANT: Before you buy an insurance coverage check the financial stability rating of the insurance company. Look for an A.M. Best rating of A++
Saving Vs. Investing Saving: Primarily for funds we may need in a short period of time. Major Concern: Preservation of principle Selection: choose saving investments of low risk Savings Accounts Money Market Accounts Short Term Certificates of Deposit
HOW MUCH SHOULD I HAVE IN SAVING? 3 Months to 6 months take home Pay WHY? To cover unanticipated Financial Shocks e.g.: Employer downsizing – lost our job * WARNING: BE CAREFUL OF INFLATION
Inflation What is it? What is it? Why do you have to be concerned about it? Why do you have to be concerned about it?Example:Assume -We have $100 -Pizza (only consumer item available) costs $5 each. Therefore we can purchase 20 pizzas. -We can invest 15.5% -We will have $115.50, 1 year from now -The inflation rate is 5%, so -Pizza will cost $ year from now. Therefore $ $5.25 = 22 pizzas Notice: We have a 15.5% return on our financial assets, however, the number of pizzas we can consume only increased from 20 to 22 pizzas.
Inflation (cont…) What if you invested your $100 and Received a 5% Rate of Return, equal to the Inflation? -1 year later you have $105 -Pizza also increased 5% $5.25/each -You can buy 20 pizzas This is exactly the same number of Pizzas you could have purchased a year earlier for your $100. You now have more dollars $105, but the quantity of Pizzas you could purchase has remained the same. STAGNATION! - Your standard of living has not changed.
Investing Taking prudent, reasonable risks with your money in order to earn the higher returns that may be necessary to achieve your financial goals. Warning: - All investments involve some risk - The Value of Your Investment Portfolio may decline - No guarantee that you will have gains
Four Issues to Address Before Beginning An Investment Program 1. Determine your financial goals 2. Determine your time horizon 3. Determine your risk tolerance level 4. Determine your personal financial situation
Individual Stocks Vs. Mutual Funds Limited Funds to Invest? Limited Funds to Invest? - Do not invest in individual stocks! Diversification Diversification - Easier to achieve by buying mutual funds
What Are Mutual Funds And How Do They Work? The idea behind Mutual Funds Is Simple: Many people pool their money together into a fund The investment advisor invests their money in various securities Each investor shares proportionality in the fund’s investment returns The investment returns consist of the dividend or interest income paid on the Securities, and any capital gains or losses caused by sales of the securities
Advantages of Mutual Funds Diversification Diversification Professional Management Professional Management Liquidity Liquidity Convenience: Convenience: -Fund shares can be bought/sold (mail, telephone, internet) -Easy to move money from one fund to another -Automatic Investing -Automatic Transfers from a fund to your bank account -Record Keeping Services
Disadvantages of Mutual Funds No Guarantees No Guarantees Diversification “Penalty” Diversification “Penalty” Potentially High Costs Potentially High Costs Tax Impact Tax Impact
General Risk Levels & Types of Investments Lowest Risk: -Money Market Mutual Funds - Large Certificates of Deposit, US Treasury Bills, Commercial Paper Low Risk: -Short Term Bond Funds - Gov’t and Corporate Medium Risk: -Mid-Term Bond Funds - Gov’t and Corporate (Investment Grade) -Balanced Funds -Equity Income Funds -Index Funds
General Risk Levels and Types of Investments (cont…) Higher Risk: -Growth & Income Funds -Growth Funds -Long-Term Bond Funds Highest Risk: -Aggressive Growth Funds
Morning Star Style Boxes For Equity Funds Meridian Value Fund S & P 500 Index American Funds - Euro Pacific Growth - Growth Fund of America Mid Cap Value Index American Funds - Capital Income Builder Mid Cap Growth Index Small Cap Value Index American Funds - Small Cap World Fund Small Cap Growth Index VALUEBLEND GROWTH LARGE CAP MID CAP SMALL CAP
Morning Star Style Boxes For Bond Funds SHORT MEDIUM LONG SHORT MEDIUM LONG High – Treasury & Agency Medium – Corporate Investment Investment Grade Grade Low – Below Investment Grade Money Market Mutual Fund American Funds - US Gov’t Securities Fund American Funds S-T Bond Fund Of America American Funds - Bond Fund of America American Funds - Capital World Bond Fund CREDIT QUALITY
What to Look For Before Buying Any Particular Mutual Fund 1. The Investment Company that Manages the Fund –Examples: The three largest Fund Companies Fidelity Fidelity Vanguard Vanguard American Funds American Funds 2. Long-Term Track Record –5 yr, 10 yr, Life of the Fund –How they performed through both up and down markets
What to Look For Before Buying Any Particular Mutual Fund – cont… 3. The Fund Manager –One Individual Longevity Longevity –Committee 4. Loads and/or Fees –Front end or Backend Load (Sales Charges) –No Loads –Operating Expense Investment Advisory Fees, Legal Frees, Accounting Fees, Administrative Expenses Investment Advisory Fees, Legal Frees, Accounting Fees, Administrative Expenses Marketing (12b.1 Fees) Marketing (12b.1 Fees)
What to Look For Before Buying Any Particular Mutual Fund – cont… 5. Volatility –Equity Funds Beta Beta R – Squared R – Squared –Bond Funds Duration Duration
Asset Allocation How you allocate your investment portfolio between different classes of financial assets. Various studies have found that the asset allocation is more important than the actual selection of securities/investments in determining your overall investment results. Experts argue you should hold a mix of investments from among the asset classes to help reduce the volatility of your portfolio.
Asset Allocation cont… Diversification spreads the risk around. A good performance in one area can temper a sub par performance in another. 80 % 80 %60%50% 15%30%40% 5%10%10% 100%100%100% EQUITY BONDS CASH STRATEGY #1 STRATEGY#2 STRATEGY #3
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA) Roth Earnings grow tax-free Retirement withdrawals are free of federal income taxes Your contributions are not tax deductible You can continue to make contributions after age 70.5.
IRA (cont…) Contributions Who can contribute: -Anyone with earned income and spouses of wage earners who don’t have any insurance of their own Income limitation, Single filers - $ and under. Married Filing Jointly - $159,000 and under. Contribution amounts are phased out at Modified Adjusted Gross Income Levels above these amounts
IRA (cont…) Distributions Withdraw contributions anytime penalty-free Withdraw earnings beginning at age 59.5 penalty-free Income tax on earnings does apply if you’ve held account for less than 5 years No required minimum distributions
Roth IRA Contributions allowed each year, Contributions allowed each year, $5000 Assumptions Assumptions Monthly Contributions$ Term 40 yrs or 480 months Rate of Return 10%/yr or.8333%/month Future Value = $2,634,991 Change the Assumptions Change the Assumptions Monthly Contributions$ Term 40 yrs or 480 months Rate of Return 10%/yr or.8333%/month Future Value = $1,581,020 Remember Remember Withdrawals from your Roth IRA are free from Federal Income Taxes