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Topic 2: Women and Globalized Labour: Comparing Canada and India or country or countries in Latin America.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 2: Women and Globalized Labour: Comparing Canada and India or country or countries in Latin America."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic 2: Women and Globalized Labour: Comparing Canada and India or country or countries in Latin America

2 Thesis: Globally, most of the poor are in the DW, of which women constitute a considerable majority. In contrast, only a minority of the Canadian women live below the poverty line. While feminization of poverty affects the women in the DW, feminization of labour shapes those in Canada. A result of NDL, poor women in DW, are tied to the commodity chain that extracts surplus/profit through nominal or no wage work. ( Hidden Face of Globalization 9.49 min 2007) On the other hand, in Canada, neoliberal policies encourage extraction of profits through feminized job market. Low wage, gender inequity and declining social programmes impoverish the women.

3 WST & Commodity Chain: Neoliberal deregulation policies, Financial Crisis and recession (Canadian Women) Global Commodity chain (GCC) (Third World Women) 2.33 min

4 Canada Neoliberal State Affluent society Relative poverty (Adult women below poverty line (1.22 mil.) 10.2% (2007) ty_2009_townson.pdf Capital extracts surplus from temp/low wage working women Issue: gender equality in hiring, pay & job status Feminization of labour Poverty line: spend 55% on basics es/PDF-FactSheet-EndPoverty-Jan2013.pdf Periphery: DW Commodity chain Majority in DW are poor Absolute (human) poverty (% Women: India: > 50% *; Mexico (27 mil.) 28% Surplus extraction from most women (low or no wages) unpaid work at home, in agriculture and in unofficial sector Issue: chronic poverty – want basic needs Feminization of poverty *

5 Why & how Canadian women workers are disadvantaged? Canadian neoliberal policies/practices legitimize the extraction of surplus from temps & low waged women workers Canada: Feminization of labour DW: Feminization of Poverty Maquiladora women - spots from the film MAQUILAPOLIS 4min

6 Canada What is ‘Feminization of labour’? Women’s high labour force participation and employment rates Women holding greater % of insecure or temp jobs Periphery: Feminization of Poverty: Compared to men, women in DW experience: Higher incidence of poverty Greater depth/severity of poverty (i.e., extreme) More persistent/longer-term poverty Rising burden of poverty. Face more barriers to lifting themselves out of poverty Women-headed households are the ‘poorest of the poor’..Female household headship transmits poverty to children

7 Feminization of labour: Annual growth rate in labour force: OECD countries (1983 to 1992): 2.1% for econ. active women (men 0.8%). In the US, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, women now make up nearly half the active population (women’s activity rates > 70% in the core age groups).

8 Canada: Certain sectors are feminized Clothing and textile industries Women are vulnerable workers: Hiring: discrimination Work conditions: poor Migrant women Dependent on a male breadwinner Derived rights of settlement

9 Concepts & arguments: Canada Caragata (2003): Gendered and differential benefits Labour force changes Marginalization Retrenching welfare state Commodification of social roles Quintero-Ramirez (2002): Capital mobility Flexible work & vulnerable for firing Feminization of labour.

10 accessed Feb 24 accessed Feb 24, 07 Canadian Women in Poverty (Canadian Women's Foundation, 2004) Of the world's 29 most developed countries, Canada has the 5 th largest wage gap between women and men full-time workers wage gap is due to the presence of children. Childcare ahead of career advancement diminish a woman’s financial status throughout her entire life.

11 Women in the ‘Core’: In Low-Paid Employment (% Labour Force) (Caragata: 2003) Country (year) Total Men Women Australia (1995) 13.8 11.8 17.7 Canada (1994) 23.7 16.1 34.3 France (1994) 13.3 10.6 17.4 Sweden (N/A) 5.2 3.0 8.4 UK (1995) 19.6 12.8 31.2 US (1994) 25.0 19.6 32.5

12 Canada: Poor women means poor children: 2007 37% of lone mothers on paid employment raise a family on <$10/hour. Children make up 33% of people dependent on social assistance for survival. Low income children are more than twice as likely to have problems with vision, hearing, speech, mobility, dexterity, cognition and emotion. The infant mortality rate for the lowest income group in Canada is double that of the highest income group.

13 Statistics Canada's low-income cut-offs i.e, poverty: Poor spend most income on basic needs: Single mother & one child in Ontario: per month Income assistance before deductions: $957 Expenditure: Rent $675 Groceries $200 Remainder $82 (to pay for electricity, telephone, heat, laundry, transportation, school needs for her child, emergencies, aspirin, medicine) Statistics Canada, September 14, 2000

14 Stat Can: Latest release from the Labour Force Survey Friday, January 6, 2012 Women are more likely to work part time than men Canada: 2012 1. 7 out of 10 part-time workers in 2009 were women, a proportion that has changed little over the past three decades. 2.In 2009, 2.2 million women worked part time, that is, fewer than 30 hours a week at their main job. 3.The share of women working part time rose from 23.6% in 1976 to 26.9% in 2009. 4.In comparison, the rate for men in 2009 was 11.9%, less than half that of women, although it more than doubled from 1976.

15 Canada: 2012 (cont’d) 5. The majority of employed women continue to work in occupations in which they have been traditionally concentrated, although the proportion has declined slowly over the past two decades. 6.In 2009, 67.0% of employed women worked in teaching, nursing and related health occupations, clerical or other administrative positions, or sales and service occupations. In contrast, 31.0% of employed men worked in these fields. Stat Can: Latest release from the Labour Force Survey Friday, January 6, 2012

16 Household Work: Gender Differences for Home-Based Workers (Caragata: 2003) Work outside Home-based Canada of home work Type of Work Men Women Men Women Child care >15 hrs/wk 16% 25% 14% 40% Housework >15 hrs/wk 5% 16% 9% 41% Elder care 5–9 hrs/wk 3% 5% 13% 16% Source: Caragata (2003) based on data from Menzies (1998).

17 Canada: Employment rates (% of working age pop.)women and men, 1976 to 2011 Source: Statistics Canada, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada acc jan 2013

18 Unemployment rate for women and men in Canada, 1976 to 2011 Source: Statistics Canada, acc.jan 2013

19 % persons living in low-income after tax, by sex of major income earner, select years, 1976 to 2010 Note: Based on after-tax LICOs.LICOs. Source: Statistics Canada. Persons in low income families, annual (CANSIM Table 202-0802). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2012. [ Show Data Table ]

20 ITO (2010) Global Unemployment Trends

21 Canada: women’s problems are not related to basic needs (as in poorer countries) 61 percent of single parents cannot afford a computer (1998) source: Caragata (2003) among single parents, % women are 80% (2011) Stat Can (released 2012 sept.) 2012: acc. Jan 2013 Single parent mothers in poverty: 21% (2011) (Jan 2013)

22 Women in pov 2.26min Ending Poverty Starts With Women 2012 10min Women in pov in Canada 2011 9.47 min

23 Periphery: DW A Report (2005): Women And The World Economy: Hope For The Future? < $2 a day: 50% of World Population. < $1 a day: 1.8 bil.of the above population. 70% of them are women. (1) Women live (age) < 40yrs: 340 mil. in the world (2) 35,000 children die/day of preventable causes. (3) accessed 2006 Notes: 1. Microcredit: A Commercial Model for Poverty Reduction. 2. UNICEF. 3. Ibid 4. The World Bank. 5. IDB and CGAP.

24 Poor in DW in the informal sector: 50-60% of the workforce Women comprise the majority of this workforce 96% of India’s working women are in the informal sector. Women’s micro businesses rely on predatory moneylenders because of limited access to formal financial services Notes: 1. Microcredit: A Commercial Model for Poverty Reduction. 2. UNICEF. 3. Ibid 4. The World Bank. 5. IDB and CGAP.

25 Global women's unpaid work at home, in agriculture and in unofficial sector: unnoticed by statistics, estimated as a third of global GDP

26 Empowering the third billion: Empowering-the-Third-Billion_Full-Report.pdf Global, issue second quarter 2011 Women- Agents of Change

27 Source: ILO. (2009). Global Employment Trends for Women March 2009 Global: Sectors Where Women Work: Change in 10 years

28 Periphery (DW): Women hired & fired - ‘flexible labour’ temporary and part-time women more ‘suitable’ ‘natural’ talent - dexterity and nimble fingers’ cheaper and manipulable endure monotonous tasks

29 Women Dominate Employment in Most Export Processing Zones 2007

30 Table 1. Increase of Female Headed households and Single mothers, and Poverty Rate in Mexico City 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 % Total Female-Headed Households 13.96 14.69 16.17 17.54 18.33 20.01 with Children and No Partner 11.34 12.28 14.28 15.06 15.61 17.11 Percent below Poverty Female-Headed Households 13.48 16.34 28.37 26.07 13.24 13.96 Male-Headed Households 17.70 17.29 30.81 27.31 17.59 14.25 Heeju Shin (2006). Working and Living Arrangement of Single Mother Households and Social Support in Mexico. Center for Latin American Social Policy, Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin City, accessed Mar 1, 2010

31 % Poor Single Woman-headed households: Mexico: 20 % (2002) (UN) (LAm) Ref: SYLVIA CHANT The ‘Feminisation of Poverty’ and the ‘Feminisation’ of Anti-Poverty Programmes: Room for Revision?Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, 165–197, February 2008 See also: Chant, Sylvia (1997) Women-headed households: poorest of the poor? Perspectives from Mexico, Costa Rica and the Philippines. IDS Bulletin, 28 (3). pp. 26-48. ISSN 0265-5012 Wmn –mexico :

32 Latin American countries: fem-male wage gap: 2008 Overall gender pay gap The average pay gap in a few countries Brazil 38.5% Mexico 36.1% Argentina 29% Paraguay 11%

33 CInfoClient.nsf/d29684951174975c8525 6735007fef12/e4bf3b5369a28e6285256c de0074c903/$FILE/challenges.pdf 2003

34 Periphery Women: World workforce 49.1% (2007) World's poor 70 % Women’s share of world household income 40-60 % Work 60 to 90 hr/wk Provide 75% of healthcare Produce 75% of food (of the food consumed throughout Africa) ( Source: WID, 2000;




38 South Asia (India), East Asia and Africa: Poor people in millions (living on $1.25/day) ( WB 2009 data)

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