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DFID’s Social Aspects of Construction (SAC) programme 由国际发展部资助的建筑业社会 问题 (SAC) 研究项目 Implementing labour standards in infrastructure programmes: lessons.

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Presentation on theme: "DFID’s Social Aspects of Construction (SAC) programme 由国际发展部资助的建筑业社会 问题 (SAC) 研究项目 Implementing labour standards in infrastructure programmes: lessons."— Presentation transcript:

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2 DFID’s Social Aspects of Construction (SAC) programme 由国际发展部资助的建筑业社会 问题 (SAC) 研究项目 Implementing labour standards in infrastructure programmes: lessons from country pilots 在基建项目中实施劳工标准 试点国家的教训 Mary Jennings Consultant

3 The 9 Labour Standards 9 个国际劳工标准 4 core (ILO) Freedom of association Forced labour Child labour Discrimination 5 broader Health & Safety Wages Hours & pay Casualisation Social Security Broader standards based on international conventions of the ILO & provisions within regional/national laws

4 The international context 国际背景 Organisations working on labour standards in infrastructure: The ILO The World Bank Trade Unions Multilaterals: ADB, IFC, EU, BNDES Bilaterals: DFID, JICA, DANIDA NGOs

5 Labour Standards & Poverty 劳工标准与贫穷 Construction sector – world’s largest employer of temporary workers Impact on livelihoods –Decent working conditions –Security of employment –Economic security & protection from “shocks” –Rights, freedoms, dignity, well-being Promotes productivity

6 Normal site practice – 试点 our starting point 我们的出发点 Notes from site visit, Zambia 2001 4 consecutive union reps dismissed Workers paid $0.68 per day (below min wage) Workers kept as casuals for years to avoid SS Injured workers pay own hospital treatment No women employed No overtime pay Water initially provided then stopped

7 Practical challenges 实际挑战 Gaps between law and practice Low capacity of local private sector firms Constraints in operating environment - access to credit, plant, timely payment Initial resistance Government bias to lowest bid Sustainability? ‘Informal practices’ - incorrect certification level, falsification of records, leakage

8 Things we knew we had to do in the SAC programme : 所要做的: Base contract clauses on national law/ include social clauses Identify processes and issues for implementation & monitoring Make capacity building a central aspect of the programme Provide incentives for contractors Inform workers - and reward them for compliance Address wider constraints - as far as possible - in collaboration with others (government, donors etc.)

9 Labour standards: the SAC story 劳工标准: SAC 的故事 Implementation piloted in three countries: Ghana - formal contracting, bridges and roads programmes (DFID funded) Kerala - community contracting in the context of state decentralisation (government funded) Zambia - unpaid labour and formal contracting in urban water and sanitation programme (International NGO implemented)

10 Ghana: formal contracting 加纳:正规签约 Context: Feeder roads bridges project Comprehensive legal framework but … –Practice! –Monitoring! (weakness of Min of Labour & TUs) Enforcement won’t work – talk, negotiate, draw in all stakeholders - incentives Cost labour standards into the contract Capacity building

11 Kerala – decentralisation: community contracting 克雷拉 —— 放权:社区承包 Context: hospitals, schools, water supply, roads No legislative or regulatory framework Corruption Comprehensive worker protection – in principle 5 of 9 LS being applied When transferring responsibility, how to transfer liability? –Formal workersInformal workers

12 Zambia – “participatory unpaid schemes” 赞比亚 — 参与式义务计划 Context: urban water and sanitation Community contributions “in kind” –materials, free labour or forced work? Objective of unpaid approach - ownership, cost sharing, sustainability? Be clear about conditions of unpaid labour Strong social relations: (+) (-)ve

13 Constraints/misunderstandings 限制 / 误解 Myths 神话 LS are an outside imposition Compliance is required now It is against contractor interests Workers are not interested Reality 现实 Standards are based on (inter)national law Improvement is gradual Contractors welcome LS if supported Workers prefer to work for contractors who opt to address LS

14 Costs 成本 Ghana: physical provision of protective measures 2-3% of project costs + Social security, insurance Facilitation of the process Kerala: insurance for casual workers Rp17 per worker

15 Relevance to the China context 与中国的相关性 Closure of migrant’s detention centres – has made their plight more visible Delays in payment of construction workers – commonplace and publicly visible SARS / TB / HIV/AIDS – construction sites are high risk transmission locations Civil society groups – providing active support to injured migrant workers Research community – documenting the plight of migrants Rural sector reform – bringing movement of people to cities. Need to accord workers their legal rights


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