Presentation on theme: "Faculty Have Families Too. Why are work/family issues important? Almost all faculty members will face some kind of family issue during their careers,"— Presentation transcript:
Why are work/family issues important? Almost all faculty members will face some kind of family issue during their careers, and the growing participation of women in the faculty has increased concern about balancing work and family. Sensitivity to work/family issues can make faculty more satisfied and productive.
Why are work/family issues important? Family policies may affect recruitment and retention of qualified faculty and may be particularly important to female faculty. “The success of faculty members in balancing their academic careers with family responsibilities is a matter of more than individual happiness: it is also a matter of addressing structural inequities and attracting the most qualified candidates to the academic profession.” John W. Curtis (2004), "Balancing work and Family for the Faculty: Why It's Important"
What Common Family Issues Do Faculty Face? Children childbirth and adoption finding safe affordable childcare Illness Care giving for aging parents for an ill or disabled child, spouse or other relative Quality of family life finding time for family responsibilities employment for partners
Women faculty and work/family policies: Gender and family issues both men and women have family responsibilities and/or face family and personal emergencies but women have traditionally felt those pressures most strongly, particularly in the case of childcare & eldercare
Women faculty and work/family policies: Gender and family issues Research suggests that women remain important caregivers for aging or ill parents at time when the population of the elderly is growing Only women give birth
"Women who have children soon after receiving their PhDs are much less likely to achieve tenure than men who have children at the same point in their careers.” Joan C. Williams (2004), "Hitting the Maternal Wall" Women faculty and work/family policies:
Childcare: Who is affected? New faculty who want families or who already have families must balance their responsibilities against institutional requirements for tenure. "Biological clocks and tenure clocks have the unfortunate tendency to tick loudly, clearly, and at the same time." Kelly Ward and Lisa Wolf-Wendel (2004), "Fear Factor: How Safe Is It to Make Time for Family"
Even tenured faculty can find themselves part of the "sandwich" generation responsible for both children and aging parents while still trying to fulfill institutional expectations. This may have implications for post-tenure review. Some research suggests that "mommy tracking" explains the concentration of female faculty in contingent positions and non-doctoral institutions. How are women faculty affected?
Family Formation and Academic Careers The tenure probationary period and childrearing occur at the same life stage Women having a baby prior to 5 years after receiving a PhD are less likely than other women to achieve tenure. The same is not true for men. Mason and Goulden, “Do Babies Matter?” Academe, Nov-Dec 2002
Family Formation and Academic Careers Women who earn tenure are much more likely than tenured men not to have children. Tenured women in science are more likely than other tenured women not to have children. Women with children are more likely to consider leaving academia. Mason and Goulden, “Do Babies Matter?” Academe, Nov-Dec 2002
Family Formation and Academic Careers Faculty women who give birth early in their academic careers are more likely to be in the academic “second tier”: in part-time or non- tenure-track positions or at community colleges or non-research institutions. Mason and Goulden, “Do Babies Matter?” Academe, Nov-Dec 2002
There are minimal requirements that all institutions must meet: Federal Law Pregnancy Discrimination Act Requires employers to provide the same disability benefits for pregnancy as for other physical disabilities This usually means 6 weeks of leave for normal childbirth For more information: see “Pregnancy and the Academy: Questions and Answers for Faculty and Administrators” by Saranna R.Thornton, available from the AAUP
There are minimal requirements that all institutions must meet: Federal Law FMLA [Family and Medical Leave Act] Requires 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family responsibilities for eligible faculty (those with 1,250 hours on the job in the previous year) for eligible family responsibilities including childbirth and adoption or serious illness For more information see “Pregnancy and the Academy: Questions and Answers for Faculty and Administrators” by Donna R. Euben and Saranna R.Thornton, available from the AAUP
There are minimal requirements that all institutions must meet: State laws May go beyond FMLA: Recognition of domestic partners Requirements for paid leave for childbirth or other family related responsibilities Eligibility requirements for unpaid leave
Institutions may also have to meet the following: Individual university policies collective bargaining agreements other campus policies individual department or school policies
AAUP Recommendations for Best Practices 1974 “Statement on Leaves of Absence for Child-Bearing, Child-Rearing and Family Emergencies” was superseded by 2001 “Statement of Principles on Family Responsibilities and Academic Work” The full text of the 2001 statement is available on the AAUP website
AAUP Recommendations for Best Practices Some Ways that Institutions Can Help: Information: community resources registered daycare and eldercare centers Counseling: family and marriage counseling caregiver support groups
AAUP Recommendations for Best Practices Ways that Institutions Can Help (cont.) Resources: on-campus daycare eldercare centers family resource centers Time: stopping the tenure clock for family-related leaves when requested schedules that reflect family responsibilities
AAUP Recommendations for Best Practices Ways that Institutions Can Help (cont.) Flexibility in scheduling to accommodate work/family responsibilities Equitable treatment for faculty taking leaves (paid or unpaid) for family or personal emergencies Stopping the tenure clock during the probationary period for a maximum of two years Paid leave for pregnancy, adoption and physical disabilities Subsidized child care Institutional support for faculty caring for relatives, spouses or partners Extend benefits to domestic partners
What’s happening on Your Campus? Some questions to consider University Policies: What are they? Are they clear and readily available? Are they in line with other institutions similar to yours? Do they meet the needs of your faculty?
What’s happening on Your Campus Some questions to consider Practices: Do deans, department chairs and other administrators understand their role in the process? Do faculty feel comfortable asking for leave or other accommodation for family issues? What role do department chairs have in facilitating these policies?
What’s happening on Your Campus Some questions to consider Problems: What real world problems do your faculty face? Are your family policies formal or informal? Informal policies require more negotiation and are less likely to be consistent Do your policies cover staff, graduate students, and contingent faculty as well as tenure-track faculty? Are resources available to make the policies work?
What Next? Tools to identify existing problems Workload surveys Faculty discussions Departmental discussions Focused discussions with junior faculty
What Next? Some possible actions Press for improvement in areas where campus policies fall below the norm for other colleges and universities Provide information for department chairs, deans and others about national law and campus policies Advertise existing policies more effectively
What Next? Some possible actions Use new faculty orientation and other forums to make sure faculty are aware of their rights Identify a particular goal of importance to your faculty and advocate for policy change Track the use of existing policies on your campus and make the results available