Presentation on theme: "Education and entitlement to household income. A gendered longitudinal analysis of British couples Jerome De Henau and Susan Himmelweit IAFFE annual conference,"— Presentation transcript:
Education and entitlement to household income. A gendered longitudinal analysis of British couples Jerome De Henau and Susan Himmelweit IAFFE annual conference, 22-24 July 2010, Buenos Aires
2 Aims Understanding determinants of satisfaction with household income Indicator of access to household resources? Indicator of material (subjective) well-being? Investigating gender specialisation as source of efficiency (gendered?) Educational homogamy and (gender) equality More similar gender role attitudes Reduced gain from specialisation
3 Motivation Long record of research on income inequality – also gender income inequality Inside household, long record of research attempts to identify how men and women in couples share their resources Also long record of research on financial satisfaction as proxy for subjective (material) well-being (SMWB) Most analyses are carried out at individual level even for couples Very little account of gender Investigating those missing links
4 Research on satisfaction Ferrer-i-Carbonell and van Praag (2003): income satisfaction inequality: if IS is equal for two individuals with different characteristics then their welfare is equal Analysis at individual level: implicit assumption that hh income is equally (or at least fairly) shared between partners Kristoffersen (2010): Measures of satisfaction represent valid accounts of respondents’ evaluation of their situation (e.g. financial situation / income) Interpersonal comparability Possibly interval / difference validity
5 Research on division of work Sigle-Rushton (2010): Weakly rejects Becker’s specialisation (efficiency gains in marriage) – against many studies who found evidence of it (e.g. Blau et al. 2000) Men’s unpaid work reduced probability of divorce But need better account of perceptions Can man’s and woman’s tasks have different economic values for partners? What does it tell us about gains from specialisation / individual access/command to income?
6 Access to income Satisfaction with household income is influenced by: Income, expenditure (costs), assets and debt Efficiency gains (from specialisation), economies of scale (household composition) Degree of security of resources (risk sharing / capacity of mobilising new resources through employment, savings, etc.) Personal access to income for individual purposes (including altruistic use) Unobserved fixed characteristics (personality, degree of adaptation to adverse events) Other (potentially observable) variable characteristics (importance of other aspects such as leisure time, social life, etc., expectations of change and past change)
7 Data British Household Panel Survey (1996-2007) Stable couples of working age with or without children Household information (real annual household income, number and age of children, home ownership) Individual information for each partner (potential wage, earns > 75% of total earnings, weekly hours of housework, working part-time, inactive, unemployed, long term disabled, expectations of future financial situation, change in financial situation since last year, whether saves each month, overall satisfaction with life) Four educational groups (different gender role attitudes, expectations and opportunities) – high/low educ.
8 Descriptive results
10 Model specification Dep. Var.: individual satisfaction with hh income Linear fixed effect regression (Ferrer-i-Carbonell and Frijters 2004), for each partner and jointly with sex inter. Comparison of effects of own and partner’s characteristics on individual satisfaction according to gender; we expect: If specialisation gains (and following gender norms), man’s employment and woman unpaid work to be valued by both (and symmetrically, man’s unpaid work and woman’s full- time work to reduce income satisfaction of both partners) greater specialisation in low educated couples (traditional GRA and more scarce resources) Higher individual expectations with own education Effects of variables presented in terms of the equivalent % change in hh income
11 Selected overall effects (all sig. at 95%)
12 By level of education in hh (sig.>90%)
13 By level of education in hh (sig.>90%)
14 Main results Gender effects quite striking: Men don’t actually care about their partner’s employment of housework situation Both men and women value man’s employment considerably more than woman’s (and so dislike male unpaid work, inactivity or unemployment) A bit less for higher educated partners (but still present) Children remain a woman’s burden (remaining effect seems to be time-use related as costs of young children taken into account in financial situation change), except in low educated couples (cost for both) However, women value their higher share of earnings (especially when man is low educated) and value change in their own situation more than in their partner’s