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Gender and Caring Barbara E. Hopkins, Ph.D. 1Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender and Caring Barbara E. Hopkins, Ph.D. 1Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender and Caring Barbara E. Hopkins, Ph.D. 1Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor

2 2 Power's (2004) Model of Social Provisioning: a consensus of Feminist Political Economy incorporation of caring and unpaid labor as fundamental economic activities use of well-being as a measure of economic success analysis of economic, political, and social processes and power relations inclusion of ethical goals and values as an intrinsic part of the analysis interrogation of differences by class, race-ethnicity, and other factors.

3 3Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor Gender as a Variable in Economic Models Wage = f (education, experience, gender, race, etc.)

4 Gender as Metaphor: Collapsed Categories (Nelson 1996) Masculine + Feminine - Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor4

5 Hierarchical Dualisms Masculine Reason –practical Hard …. Feminine Emotion –caring Soft … Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor5

6 6 Gender Compass

7 M+ Strong-hard F- Weak-soft Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor7

8 8 Gender as Process -- Thinking through Cultural Norms What is the relationship between cultural norms and human behavior –existence of non-conformists Gender as “Habit of thought” (Institutional Economics (old) )

9 Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor9 Folbre’s framework for Collective Action (Folbre 1994) Gender as Non-Chosen Group - Identity for Collective Action Gender as Structure of Constraint

10 Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor10 Folbre’s Model (part I) Structural Factors –Assets (financial assets such as money, real assets such as land, biological assets such as strength or intelligence, acquired assets such as skill) –Rules define the parameters of acceptable behavior, and benefits and penalties associated with following or violating them. –Norms implicit rules not enforced by any external authority –Preferences (many of which are shaped by social structures)

11 Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor11 Folbre’s Model (part 2) Agents –individuals –chosen groups (interest groups) –given groups (race, class, gender, age, nation, sexual orientation, etc.) Processes –coercion –production –exchange –coordination Sites –firms –states –markets –families

12 Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor12 Advantages Allows for the interplay between individual choice and social constraints Multidimensional construction of identity and, thus, of power. Allows for change; groups and individuals can change the rules of the game. Allows researchers to define beneficiaries of structures of unfair constraint –women's choices may be more constrained than men's (which women?) –Men and women may have different rights or responsibilities.

13 Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor13 Folbe on Rational Choice Replace Rational Choice with Purposeful Choice Replace constrained choice with structural constraint

14 Caring Labor Labor undertaken out of affection or a sense of responsibility for other people, with no expectation of immediate pecuniary reward. (Folbre 2003, p. 214) –Caring motive is crucial Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor14

15 Typology of Caring Labor Reciprocity –Informal cooperative contract Interdependent preferences – Altruism –Utility derived from someone else’s happiness Obligation and Responsibility –Political, social and legal enforcement Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor15

16 “family labor” “reproductive labor” “unpaid labor” “social reproduction” Work done in households (the domestic sector) Work done to reproduce the labor force (raise children) Work defined by the lack of remuneration Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor16

17 Women Women do a disproportionate share of caring labor, domestic labor, unpaid labor, etc.. Social norms that develop through an evolutionary process determine the gendered responsibility for all of these forms of work (Himmelweit 2003) Gender as Methodology and Caring Labor17


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