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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Accounting Cycle: Accruals and Deferrals Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Accounting Cycle: Accruals and Deferrals Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Accounting Cycle: Accruals and Deferrals Chapter 4

2 4-2 Adjusting entries are needed whenever revenue or expenses affect more than one accounting period. Every adjusting entry involves a change in either a revenue or expense and an asset or liability. Adjusting Entries

3 4-3  Accruing unpaid expenses  Converting liabilities to revenue  Accruing uncollected revenue Types of Adjusting Entries  Converting assets to expenses

4 4-4 Prior PeriodsCurrent PeriodFuture Periods Transaction Paid cash in advance of incurring expense (creates an asset). Transaction Paid cash in advance of incurring expense (creates an asset). End of Current Period Adjusting Entry  Recognizes portion of asset consumed as expense, and  Reduces balance of asset account. Adjusting Entry  Recognizes portion of asset consumed as expense, and  Reduces balance of asset account. Converting Assets to Expenses

5 4-5 1 Jan.31 Dec. $2,400 Insurance Policy Coverage for 12 Months $200 Monthly Insurance Expense On 1 January, Webb Co. purchased a one-year insurance policy for $2,400. Converting Assets to Expenses

6 4-6 Initially, costs that benefit more than one accounting period are recorded as assets. Converting Assets to Expenses

7 4-7 The costs are expensed as they are used to generate revenue. Converting Assets to Expenses

8 4-8 Income Statement Cost of assets used this period to generate revenue. Income Statement Cost of assets used this period to generate revenue. Balance Sheet Cost of assets that benefit future periods. Balance Sheet Cost of assets that benefit future periods. Converting Assets to Expenses

9 4-9 The Concept of Depreciation Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the cost of a depreciable asset to expense. Cash (credit) Fixed Asset (debit) On date when initial payment is made... The asset’s usefulness is partially consumed during the period. At end of period... Depreciation Expense (debit) Accumulated Depreciation (credit)

10 4-10 On 2 May 2009, JJ’s Lawn Care Service purchased a lawn mower with a useful life of 50 months for $2,500 cash. Using the straight-line method, calculate the monthly depreciation expense. $2, = $50 Depreciation expense (per period) = Cost of the asset Estimated useful life Depreciation Is Only an Estimate

11 4-11 JJ’s Lawn Care Service would make the following adjusting entry. Contra-asset Depreciation Is Only an Estimate

12 4-12 JJ’s $15,000 truck is depreciated over 60 months. Calculate monthly depreciation and make the journal entry. $15,000  60 months = $250 per month Depreciation Is Only an Estimate

13 4-13 Accumulated depreciation would appear on the balance sheet as follows: Depreciation Is Only an Estimate Cost - Accumulated Depreciation = Book Value

14 4-14 Prior PeriodsCurrent PeriodFuture Periods Transaction Collect cash in advance of earning revenue (creates a liability). Transaction Collect cash in advance of earning revenue (creates a liability). End of Current Period Adjusting Entry  Recognizes portion earned as revenue, and  Reduces balance of liability account. Adjusting Entry  Recognizes portion earned as revenue, and  Reduces balance of liability account. Converting Liabilities to Revenue

15 Jan.31 Dec. $6,000 Rental Contract Coverage for 12 Months $500 Monthly Rental Revenue On January 1, Webb Co. received $6,000 in advance for a one-year rental contract. Converting Liabilities to Revenue

16 4-16 Initially, revenues that benefit more than one accounting period are recorded as liabilities. Converting Liabilities to Revenue

17 4-17 Over time, the revenue is recognized as it is earned. Converting Liabilities to Revenue

18 4-18 Income Statement Revenue earned this period. Income Statement Revenue earned this period. Balance Sheet Liability for future periods. Balance Sheet Liability for future periods. Converting Liabilities to Revenue

19 4-19 Prior PeriodsCurrent PeriodFuture Periods Transaction Pay cash in settlement of liability. Transaction Pay cash in settlement of liability. End of Current Period Adjusting Entry  Recognizes expense incurred, and  Records liability for future payment. Adjusting Entry  Recognizes expense incurred, and  Records liability for future payment. Accruing Unpaid Expenses

20 4-20 Monday, 29 May Friday, 2 June $3,000 Wages Expense On 31 May, Webb Co. owes wages of $3,000. Payday is Friday, 2 June. Wednesday, 31 May Accruing Unpaid Expenses

21 4-21 Initially, an expense and a liability are recorded. Accruing Unpaid Expenses

22 4-22 Income Statement Cost incurred this period to generate revenue. Income Statement Cost incurred this period to generate revenue. Balance Sheet Liability to be paid in a future period. Balance Sheet Liability to be paid in a future period. Accruing Unpaid Expenses

23 4-23 Monday, 29 May Friday, 2 June $5,000 Weekly Wages Let’s look at the entry for 2 June. Wednesday, 31 May $2,000 Wages Expense $3,000 Wages Expense Accruing Unpaid Expenses

24 4-24 The liability is extinguished when the debt is paid. Accruing Unpaid Expenses

25 4-25 Prior PeriodsCurrent PeriodFuture Periods Transaction Collect cash in settlement of receivable. Transaction Collect cash in settlement of receivable. End of Current Period Adjusting Entry  Recognizes revenue earned but not yet recorded, and  Records receivable. Adjusting Entry  Recognizes revenue earned but not yet recorded, and  Records receivable. Accruing Uncollected Revenue

26 4-26 Saturday, 15 Jan. Tuesday, 15 Feb. $170 Interest Revenue On 31 Jan., the bank owes Webb Co. interest of $170. Interest is paid on the 15 th day of each month. Monday, 31 Jan. Accruing Uncollected Revenue

27 4-27 Initially, the revenue is recognized and a receivable is created. Accruing Uncollected Revenue

28 4-28 Income Statement Revenue earned this period. Income Statement Revenue earned this period. Balance Sheet Receivable to be collected in a future period. Balance Sheet Receivable to be collected in a future period. Accruing Uncollected Revenue

29 4-29 Saturday, 15 Jan. Tuesday, 15 Feb. $320 Monthly Interest $170 Interest Revenue Let’s look at the entry for 15 February. Monday, 31 Jan. $150 Interest Revenue Accruing Uncollected Revenue

30 4-30 The receivable is collected in a future period. Accruing Uncollected Revenue

31 4-31 As a corporation earns taxable income, it incurs income taxes expense, and also a liability to governmental tax authorities. Accruing Income Taxes Expense: The Final Adjusting Entry

32 4-32 Costs are matched with revenue in two ways:  Direct association of costs with specific revenue transactions.  Systematic allocation of costs over the “useful life” of the expenditure. Adjusting Entries and Accounting Principles

33 4-33 An item is “material” if knowledge of the item might reasonably influence the decisions of users of financial statements. Supplies Light bulbs Many companies immediately charge the cost of immaterial items to expense. The Concept of Materiality

34 4-34 Effects of the Adjusting Entries

35 4-35 All balances are taken from the ledger accounts on 31 May after preparing the two depreciation adjusting entries. Adjusted Trial Balance

36 4-36 End of Chapter 4


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