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Workshop on Improving the Integration of a Gender Perspective into Statistics, Amman, Jordan 1 – 4 December 2014 Neda Jafar, Head Statistical Policy and.

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Presentation on theme: "Workshop on Improving the Integration of a Gender Perspective into Statistics, Amman, Jordan 1 – 4 December 2014 Neda Jafar, Head Statistical Policy and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Workshop on Improving the Integration of a Gender Perspective into Statistics, Amman, Jordan 1 – 4 December 2014 Neda Jafar, Head Statistical Policy and Coordination Unit- UNESCWA

2  TUS Background  Objectives and implications for gender statistics  Unpaid work and satellite accounts  Methods of collection and classification

3 20 th Century 1960s1980s 1990s Use of labor force Industrialization Effects on society Alexandre Szalai USSR 1st attempt at international comparison – 12 countries - harmonization Focus on paid work – Productivity-Small samples – Various- government agencies – not statistical offices - Low interest- Commercial purposes – use of leisure time Sharp increase in interest – focus on gender and unpaid work - BPoA – suitable means to recognize and make visible the full extent of the work of women

4  TUS since 1990:  Over 185 Time use surveys were conducted worldwide → 50% in “developing countries” → 50% in “developed countries” (total of 35 countries only)  In total 86 distinct countries: → 28 “developed countries” (that is 80% of developed countries which conducted a TUS) → 58 “developing countries” (that is around 36% of developing countries which conducted a TUS) → At the regional level implemented by → Morocco (1997 and 2011); → Oman (2000 and 2008); → Iraq (2007) → Palestine (2012) → Qatar (2013)

5  Central and strategic importance for policy & research  Wide range of applications to study social change, division of labour, allocation of time for housework and care work, etc.  Identified as :  (a) crucial non-monetary data for the analysis of productive household activities  (b) a common source using a common unit of measure for fundamental descriptive data not otherwise obtainable on human activities in various fields of social, demographic and related economic statistics.

6 Why women are having difficulty in accessing the market ?

7 In Iraq difference of responsibilities between women and men at home preparing food cleaning house care of children House keeping Men Women Ti m e (m in/ da y

8 { عٌمان Level of Education in Oman and distribution of time University Diploma Secondary Primary Literate Illiterate House keeping and Shopping Care of children and elderly

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10 In Morocco data show the double role women play outside and inside their homes ACTIVE WOMEN NON ACTIVE WOMEN

11  Quantitative summaries of how individuals “spend” or allocate their time over a specified period (typically over the 24 hours of a day or over the 7 days of a week)  They shed light on:  What individuals in the reference population do or the activities they engage in  How much time is spent doing each of these activities  In what context the activity took place

12  Time-use surveys can have different objectives, i.e., be designed to study particular sets of activities.  TUS objectives shape the survey’s methodological approach.  These objectives vary from region to region, and from country to country.  An important feature of these objectives is that they must be stated in ways that make them relevant for planning, monitoring and evaluating policy

13  Improve the estimates of SNA Work in primary production activities (animal rearing, rural production for own consumption, etc.) and in fetching wood and water, as well as the estimates of Labour Force Participation, in particular regarding to the informal economy;  Highlight the gender inequalities and gaps in total work (paid and unpaid); in housework and care work; in access to education; in access to technology, sports, personal care, leisure, etc.;  Highlight the inequalities in the provision of care, and in the access to care services, across gender, rural/urban, and income lines;  Highlight the effects of the lack of infrastructure (roads, wells, public transportation, social infrastructure) in the use of time.

14  The need to improve the measurement of unpaid activities and household production coincides with the general aim of integrating gender perspectives into official statistics  Reveals activities and social phenomena which are not well captured in traditional statistical system  It highlights numerous and complexity of inequalities between women and men are numerous and complex  It corrects and completes the measures of GDP when women’s contribution to work is measured in an economy

15 SNA production activities General production activities General production boundary SNA production boundary –Cleaning, servicing, repairs –Preparation and serving of meals –Care, training and instruction of children –Care of sick, infirm and elderly –Unpaid volunteer services to other households, community, associations Unpaid Work

16 Limitations of conventional labour statistics:  Activities that contribute to the production of goods and services as defined by the SNA and cover mainly market activities and some unpaid non-market activities.  Unpaid work referring to own account production of services are outside the general boundary of SNA and therefore not covered at all

17 Examples of unpaid work:  Unpaid domestic services for own final use within household: cleaning, cooking, do-it-yourslf decoration  Unpaid caregiving services to household members: childcare, adultcare…  Community services and help to other households: volunteering, repairs of dwellings…

18 Why is it important for gender statistics?  Measuring unpaid work is crucial in making the contribution of women to the economy and society more visible. Example: Philippines - unpaid work adds 66% to the GDP - women’s share in GDP rose from 39% to 47% - women account for 60% of all unpaid work  Women, more often than men, tend to be involved and spend a great amount of time in unpaid work in the home and community.  When only cash transactions are taken into account in measuring the economic production, a large portion of women’s work remains unaccounted for.

19  Men and women spend about the same amount of time working: 6 hours a day.  However, females spent 4 hours a day more than males on unpaid work in urban areas  While males spent 3.5 hours a day more than females on paid work in urban areas and 1.5 hr a day in rural areas.  While nearly 60% of males’ work is paid, almost 60% of females’ work is unpaid.

20  Definition: the System of National Accounts recommends the use of supplementary accounts for nonmarket activities rather than the expansion of existing accounts. → Allow for experimentation with changes in scope and measurement. → Consistent and could be used with the existing national accounts without overburdening them

21  Direct application of measuring unpaid work: estimating household production in satellite accounts that extend measurement of gross domestic product (GDP) to include non-SNA production  Makes the national accounts more complete and comparable across countries

22  How to valuate household time: different approaches  Opportunity cost approach: Focus on the intrinsic productivity of the individual. Time spent on doing unpaid work valued as potential time non spent on the labour market regardless of the activity  Market price approach: Focus on the specificity of the unpaid activity which is done. Valued as if it was done by a professional. Within: different concepts and methods to determine the exact hourly compensation  TUS data should be in line with the concepts and the availability of Labour statistics

23 “pre-set” Wording is important Classification of Activities Choose the words from ICATUS

24  Specific questions where the respondents need to recall the amount of time spent on the related activities.  May target specific activities or be designed to be as exhaustive as possible so as to capture a complete period of time (24 hours, a week)

25  Writing verbatim descriptions of activities that are coded later on to an activity classification “Full” diary  Restricts activity descriptions to a limited categorization of “pre- coded” activities “Light” diary

26 2 main choices:  Fixed intervals: non- overlapping segments of uniform length  Open recording: the respondent reports start and finish times of each activity

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28  “Multi-tasking”  Importance to gender statistics?  Many unpaid work activities are done simultaneously  Record all? Record two? Record three?

29 Stylized diaries24-hour diaries Strengths Weaknesses

30 Stylized diaries24-hour diaries Strengths - Used to supplement 24 hours diaries - Preferable for specific short time - Ease of fieldwork (inter viewers have easier task) -Ease of data processing (acts. are pre- coded) - Less expensive Weaknesses

31 Stylized diaries24-hour diaries Strengths - Used to supplement 24 hours diaries - Preferable for specific short time - Ease of fieldwork (inter viewers have easier task) -Ease of data processing (acts. are pre- coded) - Less expensive Weaknesses - Level of aggregation means missing activities (never comprehensive) - Problems of phrasing and ordering - Do not cater for simultaneous activities -No need for activity classification (there are no hierarchical codes) - High degree of errors - Under or over reporting of socially marked activities (ex: childcare versus watching television) - Memory recall errors

32 Stylized diaries24-hour diaries Strengths Used to supplement 24 hours diaries - Preferable for specific short time - Ease of fieldwork (inter viewers have easier task) -Ease of data processing (acts. are pre- coded) - Less expensive - Covers 24 hours - Provides information on the duration and timing of the activities – accurate data - Provides information on simultaneous activities - Could be adapted to facilitate fieldwork -ICATUS -More flexible and more powerful for data dissemination Weaknesses - Level of aggregation means missing activities (never comprehensive) - Problems of phrasing and ordering - Do not cater for simultaneous activities -No need for activity classification (there are no hierarchical codes) - High degree of errors - Under or over reporting of socially marked activities (ex: childcare versus watching television) - Memory recall errors

33 Stylized diaries24-hour diaries Strengths -Used to supplement 24 hours diaries - Preferable for specific short time - Ease of fieldwork (inter viewers have easier task) -Ease of data processing (acts. are pre- coded) - Less expensive - Covers 24 hours - Provides information on the duration and timing of the activities – accurate data - Provides information on simultaneous activities - Could be adapted to facilitate fieldwork -ICATUS -More flexible and more powerful for data dissemination Weaknesses - Level of aggregation means missing activities (never comprehensive) - Problems of phrasing and ordering - Do not cater for simultaneous activities -No need for activity classification (there are no hierarchical codes) - High degree of errors - Under or over reporting of socially marked activities (ex: childcare versus watching television) - Memory recall errors - Complex to process (coding) - More costly in terms of data collection and data coding - Burden on the respondents (pressure on the participation rates)

34  … describe the conditions in which an activity takes place  Context variables  What for?  For whom?  With whom?  Paid or non-paid activity?  Location of the activity?

35  The statistician should select the relevant contextual variable required for the main purposes of the survey. Especially, they should be in line with the classification  Example: For unpaid work, whether the activity is “paid”, for whom

36 There are 3 locations to collect contextual variables (diary-based survey):  The diary (for each activity)  The household/individual questionnaire (characteristics of the formal work)  Within the classification (“I cook” vs “I cook for my kids”) The position is strategic because it will determine the scope of the areas that could be covered ↘ Example: Unpaid work and Informal Employment

37 Social and Housing Statistics Section unstats.un.org

38 Social and Housing Statistics Section unstats.un.org Hierarchical structure divisions three-digit code 92 groups four-digit code 200 classes five-digit code 363 sub-classes six-digit code 15 major divisions two-digit code

39 Social and Housing Statistics Section unstats.un.org Major Divisions of ICATUS 2012 (provisional) Productive activitiesNon-productive (personal) Within SNA productive boundary Outside SNA productive boundary 01 Employment in the formal sector 06 Household – services for own use 09 Learning 02 Household – production of primary goods 07 Household – unpaid care 10 Socializing 03 Household – production of non-primary of goods 08 Household – volunteer work 11 Cultural, entertainment 04 Household – Construction12 Hobbies, games 05 Household – services for income 13 Sports 14 Mass media 15 Personal care

40  Implementing ICATUS has implications for the design of the survey instrument, since the questions, among other topics, should provide answers to:  What was the activity?  The purpose of the activity, enabling to distinguish between formal, informal and unpaid work (example of cooking)

41 Reflects the most recurrent activities at the country level (through pilot or previous survey) Detailed enough to identify separately activities mainly undertaken by women or by men Example: ICATUS ↘ Particularly in line with the SNA ↘ Oriented to measure unpaid work and set up satellite accounts ↘ Trial version since 2005 but finalization in progress (Expert Group Meeting in 2012) ↘ Expected to be finalized by 2015

42  TUS transversal topic: opportunity to gather statisticians from diverse backgrounds  Gender statisticians should intervene in two main phases of the survey:  Conception phase: Inform the general public and the administration of the benefits of conducting a TUS (especially because they are costly and need the support of many stakeholders) 1) Participate in the Task force in charge of elaborating the survey

43  Conduct TUS survey at least once in ten years  The statistical community recognizes that the 24 hour diary is the best instrument to collect Time Use data To avoid biases in activity reporting including gender bias.  Implement international guidelines and statistical standards UN “Guide” to producing Statistics on Time Use”

44 Thank you


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