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Estonian Leave Policies 2014 Tallinn seminar Katre Pall.

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Presentation on theme: "Estonian Leave Policies 2014 Tallinn seminar Katre Pall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Estonian Leave Policies 2014 Tallinn seminar Katre Pall

2 Historic overview Right to maternity leave 1913 Fully paid 10 week leave for civil servants 1920

3 Soviet Estonia – full female employment 1946: 11 weeks of paid maternity leave 1959: + 6 months of unpaid leave 1982: 1 year leave compensated at minimum wage level 1989: paid leave 18 months, unpaid leave up to 3 years Entitlements for women only

4 Second Estonian Republic since 1991 Maternity leave + 2 weeks Childcare leave 3 years paid throughout 2 weeks unpaid leave for parents of children under 14 Childcare leave available for fathers 2 week paternity leave flat rate payment Decrease of birth rates from 2.2 to 1.3 (1990- 2002)

5 New paradigm: Swedish model 2004 fully paid parental benefit for 225 days Maternity + parental benefit = 1 year of fully paid leave Right to 3 year childcare leave maintained 2006: + 90 days of full payment 2008: + 120 days of full payment

6 Current leave scheme 140 days of maternity leave 100% + 435 days of parental benefit 100% = 575 days / 19 months fully paid leave Childcare leave until the child reaches 3 years; flat rate benefit Speed premium if children born within 2 and half years

7 Entitlements Maternity leave – employment contract; self employment Parental leave – employment contract Parental benefit - everyone is entiteled Calculation based on average earnings of a previous calendar year; Base rate for those who have not worked

8 Father and Son Paternity leave 10 working days Benefit depends on economic situation Restrictions to parental benefit were abolished in 2007

9 Flexibility Parents can switch benefit recipient every month Working and receiving benefit on reduced amount is possible Working for another employer during leave allowed Parents cannot take leave simultaneously (part-time work is rare, especially for men)

10 Impacts Men’s share among benefit receivers is 6% Around 8 % of benefit recipients have income from work Speed premium effect – more children are born within 1.5 – 2.5 years Children under 3 years are least affected by poverty

11 Impact analyses Policy impacts are monitored regularly (2006; 2009; third study being planned for 2015) Share of parents employed before birth of a child has grown Scheme has impact on employed women giving birth to third, second and also first child Share and number of women with higher education, higher income and in employment giving birth has grown

12 Current policy debates Child poverty Childcare availability for children under 3 yrs. How to make working during leave more appealing Not much interest by politicians in father’s quota No debates around 3 year childcare leave Employer’s role – no issue

13 Thank You For more information: Katre Pall Marre Karu

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