Presentation on theme: "Better Jobs for Chinese Women with Family Responsibilities: Policy Options Xiao-yuan Dong University of Winnipeg CEA annual conference June 1, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Better Jobs for Chinese Women with Family Responsibilities: Policy Options Xiao-yuan Dong University of Winnipeg CEA annual conference June 1, 2013
World Bank Report (2013): Three main characters of good jobs Living standards - Need both money and time Productivity -Human resources produced daily and across generations Social cohesion -Women’s household responsibilities - major contributor -Gender - a cross-cutting issue.
Chinese women’s market work and household responsibility Chinese women bear major responsibilities for housework Unpaid housework amounts to 30% of China’s GDP: 70% contributed by women. However, the value of housework is not recognized. Chinese government’s concern : to find the most efficient way of restructuring the productive economy They assume that social reproduction will adjust accordingly.
Social protection for women’s reproductive role China’s economic reforms : substantial cutbacks on the support of government and the employer for care provisioning Public spending on social services is low, even by developing country standards a. Public spending on education as share of GDP: China is 3.1%, lower than the level in other countries. b. Pre-school enrolment rate (3-6 years): China in 2008: 47% Chile in 2006: 75.7% Mexico in 2008: 93.1%
Social protection for women’s reproductive role Social protection for women’s reproductive role have been severely eroded. Under pressure for profits, enterprises are increasingly reluctant to accommodate workers’ care-giving needs. Protective labor regulations are not implemented in non-public sectors; Export-oriented FDI and private firms hire primarily young, single migrant women; Female college graduates face labor market discrimination; Workers work long hours and overtime work is widespread.
Patriarchal values became more influential Percentage of people who agree "Men should play a major role in society while women should play a major role at home" Surveys of Chinese Women's Status (2000 and 2010)
Struggle of working women : Labour participation
Working hours and overtime work, 2008 MenWomen All occupations Working hours/week45.743.1 % working ≥ 48 hours44.938.1 Manufacturing Working hours/week48.047.7 % working ≥ 48 hours54.953.6 Commercial services Working hours/week51.049.5 % working ≥ 48 hours61.158.5 Source: China Labor Force Survey
Time allocation among men and women 20 to 49 years old, by sector (hours/week) Source: 2008 China Time Use Survey
Participation rates of men and women in market work, housework and non-work activities over 24 hours on a weekday WomenMen Source: 2008 China Time Use Survey from Qi and Dong (2013)
Housework effects on the monthly earnings of men and women in non-agricultural sectors MenWomen Maximum duration of market work time 0.015***0.023*** Market work being interrupted -0.090***-0.104*** No. of times switching between MW and HW -0.006***-0.005*** Housework time -0.005***-0.004***-0.003***-0.004*** Gender differences in the housework indicators account for 28% of the gender earnings gap (0.226). Source: 2008 China Time Use Survey from Qi and Dong (2013)
Earnings differentials between mothers and childless women in urban China (Fix-effects estimates) Source: CHNS from Jia and Dong (2012)
% rural men and women aged between 18 and 64 are troubled By mental health problems in 2010 Source: The Third Survey of Chinese Women’s Status by ACWF
Acute family-work conflicts may have irreversible demographic consequences Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Database.
Policy options Need social dialogue: - Who should be responsible for taking care of children, the disabled and the elderly? Acknowledge and support the care economy in macroeconomic policy -Increase public spending on social services and time-saving infrastructural investment -Improve access to ECE and daycare programs by parents from disadvantaged social groups Enforce protective labor regulations Promote enterprise social responsibility and family-friendly workplace practice Encourage men to take on more family responsibilities Increase women’s voice and political representation