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 Stress-A negative emotional state in response to events that we perceive as taxing our resources or our ability to cope. ◦ How much stress is in your.

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Presentation on theme: " Stress-A negative emotional state in response to events that we perceive as taxing our resources or our ability to cope. ◦ How much stress is in your."— Presentation transcript:


2  Stress-A negative emotional state in response to events that we perceive as taxing our resources or our ability to cope. ◦ How much stress is in your life?

3  Stressors—events that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging ◦ Name some of the most serious stressor’s in life.  Stress at the office Stress at the office

4  Death of a spouse-100 Life Event Units  Divorce 73 LEU’s  Marriage 50 LEU’s  Fired at work 47 LEU’s  Pregnancy 40 LEU’s  Begin/End school 26 LEU’s  Trouble with boss 23 LEU’s  Vacation 13 LEU’s  Traffic violation 11 LEU’s

5  Get into your presentation teams. 1.After brainstorming come up with the top 3 stressors in American’s lives. 2.What are the top 3 stressors in YOUR lives? 3.What are some techniques you have used to reduce stress in YOUR own lives?

6 1.Concern about weight 2.Not enough money for housing 3.Too many things to do. 4.Traffic ◦ Does daily stress impact your lives?  Men-financial and job related  Women-family demands and interpersonal conflict.

7  Increased class workload  Worry about your future  Fight with significant other  Wasting time  Computer problems  Concerns about failing class  Concerns about money ◦ *What do you think are main college hassles?

8 Change is stressful –e.g., death, marriage, divorce, loss of job, vacations, retirement. –Q: Which life change do you think is most stressful? –Routine makes us comfortable and helps reassure us. Think about the route you take to school or work. You can’t get lost if you go the same way! Life Changes

9 Unpredictable, large-scale events can be extremely stressful and change our lives; can lead to PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) What typical events can lead to PTSD? Catastrophes


11  Social conditions that promote stress ◦ poverty, racism, crime ◦ low SES tend to have highest levels of stress  Culture clashes lead to stress ◦ company owned by different culture ◦ refugees, immigrants suffer ◦ acculturative stress

12  Indirect effects—promote behaviors that jeopardize physical well being. Use of drugs, lack of sleep, poor concentration  Direct effects—promote changes in body functions, leading to illness such as headaches and other physical symptoms

13  Psychological Factors ◦ Perception of control ◦ Explanatory style ◦ Chronic negative emotions ◦ Hostility  Social Factors ◦ Outside resources ◦ Friends and family ◦ Positive relationships

14  Sense of control decreases stress, anxiety, & depression  Perceptions of control must be realistic to be adaptive ◦ How do you feel when you are not in control? ◦ Is anyone here a “control freak”?

15  Optimism ◦ use external, unstable, & specific explanations for negative events ◦ predicts better health outcomes  Pessimism ◦ use internal, stable, & global explanations for negative events ◦ predicts worse health outcomes

16  Coronary heart disease is North America’s leading cause of death  Habitually grouchy people tend to have poorer health outcomes  Chronic negative emotions have negative effect on immune system

17  Type A ◦ time urgency ◦ intense ambition and competitiveness ◦ general hostility ◦ associated with heart disease  Type B ◦ more easygoing ◦ not associated with heart disease

18 Social support—resources provided by others in times of need. Who has been your social support?  Emotional—expressions of concern, empathy, positive regard  Tangible—direct assistance such as lending money, providing meals  Informational—such as making good suggestions, advice, good referrals

19  Improves ability to cope with stress & benefits health ◦ person modifies appraisal of stressor’s significance to be less threatening ◦ helps to decrease intensity of physical reactions to stress ◦ make person less likely to experience negative emotions  Pets as social support ◦ especially for elderly and people who live alone  Gender and social support

20 Behavioral and cognitive responses used to deal with stressors; involves efforts to change circumstances, or our interpretation of them to make them more favorable and less threatening.

21  Escape-avoidance—try to escape stressor  Distancing—minimize impact of stressor  Denial—refuse to acknowledge problem exists

22  Aerobic exercise can reduce stress, depression, & anxiety  Effect above relaxation treatment

23  Meditation can lower blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption  Can it help with stress-related disease? ◦ Waterfall relaxation video Waterfall relaxation video

24  Psychological Disorders

25 Psychopathology—scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders. A pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both. Change a Mind About Mental Illness

26 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V)—describes specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for psychological disorders ◦ Provides a common language to label mental disorders ◦ Comprehensive guidelines to help diagnose mental disorders

27  Approximately 48% of adults experienced symptoms at least once in their lives  Approximately 80% who experienced symptoms in the last year did NOT seek treatment  Women have higher prevalence of depression and anxiety  Men have higher prevalence of substance abuse and antisocial personality disorder

28 Anxiety Disorders Primary disturbance is distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Anxiety—diffuse, vague feelings of fear and apprehension


30  More or less constant worry about many issues  The worry seriously interferes with functioning  Physical symptoms ◦ headaches ◦ stomach aches ◦ muscle tension ◦ Irritability  What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder

31  Panic attacks—sudden episode of helpless terror with high physiological arousal  Very frightening—sufferers live in fear of having them  Agoraphobia often develops as a result Panic Disorder

32 Intense, irrational fears that may focus on  Natural environment—heights, water, lightening  Situation—flying, tunnels, crowds, social gathering  Injury—needles, blood, dentist, doctor  Animals or insects—insects, snakes, bats, dogs  Funny Phobia Skit Funny Phobia Skit

33  Ailurophobia—fear of cats  Algobphobia—fear of pain  Anthropophobia—fear of men  Monophobia—fear of being alone  Pyrophobia—fear of fire

34 Social phobias—fear of failing or being embarrassed in public –public speaking (stage fright) –fear of crowds, strangers –meeting new people –eating in public Considered phobic if these fears interfere with normal behavior

35  Follows events that produce intense horror or helplessness (traumatic episodes)  Core symptoms include: ◦ Frequent recollection of traumatic event, often intrusive and interfering with normal thoughts ◦ Avoidance of situations that trigger recall of the event ◦ Increased physical arousal associated with stress

36  Obsessions—irrational, disturbing thoughts that intrude into consciousness  Compulsions—repetitive actions performed to alleviate obsessions ◦ Checking and washing most common compulsions

37 A category of mental disorders in which significant and chronic disruption in mood is the predominant symptom, causing impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning ◦ Major depression ◦ Dysthymic disorder ◦ Bipolar disorder ◦ Cyclothymic disorder

38 A mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness and hopelessness –Prolonged, very severe symptoms –Passes without remission for at least 2 weeks –Global negativity and pessimism –Very low self-esteem –Major Depressive DisorderMajor Depressive Disorder

39  Emotional—sadness, hopelessness, guilt, turning away from others  Behavioral—tearfulness, dejected facial expression, loss of interest in normal activities, slowed movements and gestures, withdrawal from social activities  Cognitive—difficulty thinking and concentrating, global negativity, preoccupation with death/suicide  Physical—appetite and weight changes, excess or diminished sleep, loss of energy, global anxiety, restlessness

40  Cyclic severe depression and elevated mood  Seasonal regularity  Unique cluster of symptoms ◦ intense hunger ◦ gain weight in winter ◦ sleep more than usual ◦ depressed more in evening than morning

41  Positive correlation between stressful life events and onset of depression ◦ Does life stress cause depression?  Most depressogenic life events are losses ◦ spouse or companion ◦ long-term job ◦ health ◦ income

42  Pervasive mistrust and suspiciousness of others are the main characteristic  Distrustful even of close family and friends  Reluctant to form close relationships  Tend to blame others for their own shortcomings

43  Used to be called psychopath or sociopath  Evidence often seen in childhood (conduct disorder)  Manipulative, can be charming, can be cruel and destructive  Seems to lack “conscience”  More prevalent in men than women  Dahmer Interview Dahmer Interview

44  What is dissociation? ◦ literally a dis-association of memory ◦ person suddenly becomes unaware of some aspect of their identity or history ◦ unable to recall except under special circumstances (e.g., hypnosis)  Three types are recognized ◦ dissociative amnesia ◦ dissociative fugue ◦ dissociative identity disorder

45  Originally known as “multiple personality disorder”  2 or more distinct personalities manifested by the same person at different times  VERY rare and controversial disorder  Examples include Sybil, Trudy Chase, Chris Sizemore (“Eve”)  Has been tried as a criminal defense

46  Pattern typically starts prior to age 10 (childhood)  Most people with disorder are women  Most report recall of torture or sexual abuse as children and show symptoms of PTSD

47  A 20th-century artist, Louis Wain, who was fascinated by cats, painted these pictures over a period of time in which he developed schizophrenia. The pictures mark progressive stages in the illness and exemplify what it does to the victim's perception.

48  Comes from Greek meaning “split” and “mind” ◦ ‘split’ refers to loss of touch with reality ◦ not dissociative state ◦ not ‘split personality’  Equally split between genders, males have earlier onset ◦ 18 to 25 for men ◦ 26 to 45 for women

49  Positive symptoms ◦ hallucinations ◦ delusions  Negative symptoms ◦ absence of normal cognition or affect (e.g., flat affect, poverty of speech)  Disorganized symptoms ◦ disorganized speech (e.g., word salad) ◦ disorganized behaviors

50  Delusions of persecution ◦ ‘they’re out to get me’ ◦ paranoia  Delusions of grandeur ◦ “God” complex ◦ megalomania  Delusions of being controlled ◦ the CIA is controlling my brain with a radio signal

51  Hallucinations ◦ hearing or seeing things that aren’t there ◦ contributes to delusions ◦ command hallucinations: voices giving orders  Disorganized speech ◦ Over-inclusion—jumping from idea to idea without the benefit of logical association ◦ Paralogic—on the surface, seems logical, but seriously flawed  e.g., Jesus was a man with a beard, I am a man with a beard, therefore I am Jesus

52 Assignment 5 Observe Gerald and Heather Write down at least 5 symptoms of schizophrenia that they exhibit. Include a description of the specific behavior, and which symptom it exemplifies. Be specific in your examples.

53  Golden Gate Bridge is the most popular suicide spot in the world.  Over 1000 suicides by 1999; one every other week.  http://www.yo ch?v=8PnqVocI ZLY http://www.yo ch?v=8PnqVocI ZLY

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