Presentation on theme: "Energy Level Diagrams. Creating Energy-Level Diagrams The electrons occupy specific energy levels in the atom. The energy-level diagram is a method of."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Level Diagrams
Creating Energy-Level Diagrams The electrons occupy specific energy levels in the atom. The energy-level diagram is a method of representing an atom’s distribution of electrons throughout the various energy shells (n) and subshells or orbitals (l ). The energy-level diagrams can be extended to include all four quantum numbers. Experimental information about atomic matter shows that there are relationships between orbitals and their energy levels. Conventions have been established to attend to these observations.
Conventions for Creating Energy-Level Diagrams Pauli exclusion principle – – no two electrons in an atom may have the same four quantum numbers – no two electrons in the same orbital may have the same spin – only two electrons with opposite spins may occupy an orbital aufbau principle – (German for “building up’) – each electron is added to the lowest available energy orbital Hund’s rule – – one electron is placed in each orbital at the same energy level before the second electron is placed
Conventions for Creating Energy-Level Diagrams Circles or squares are used to represent the orbitals Arrows are used to represent the electrons – up represents one electron rotation (clockwise) while down the other (counter clockwise) – there is no convention as to which one you must start with
Conventions for Creating Energy-Level Diagrams 1s 2s2p 3s3p O (z = 8) 1s 2s2p 3s3p P (z = 15) 1s 2s2p 3s3p Ar (z = 18)
Conventions for Creating Energy-Level Diagrams Energy-level diagrams may be written in a vertical manner to exemplify the energy level subtleties.
Order of filling orbitals 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 2p 3p 4p 6p 5d 4f 5p 4d 3d 2e - 6e - 2e - 6e - 2e - 10e - 6e - 2e - 10e - 6e - 2e - 14e - 10e - 6e - 2e - 8e - 18e - 32e - As the number of energy levels and orbitals increase, so too does the complexity of the energy-level diagram. The diagram indicates nicely the order in which the orbitals are filled
Energy-Level Diagrams for ions The energy-level diagram is created in the same manner as the regular atom. However, a surplus or deficit of electrons are included. – For anions – add the proper number of electrons using regular conventions – For cations – remove the correct number of ions in the proper manner 1s 2s2p 3s3p S 2- (z = 16) 1s 2s2p 3s3p Al 3+ (z = 13)