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Introduction to Philosophy What is Philosophy?. Plato’s Myth of the Cave What is Plato’s myth of the cave? Please describe it in your own words.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Philosophy What is Philosophy?. Plato’s Myth of the Cave What is Plato’s myth of the cave? Please describe it in your own words."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Philosophy What is Philosophy?

2 Plato’s Myth of the Cave What is Plato’s myth of the cave? Please describe it in your own words.

3 Autonomy  How does Autonomy relate to philosophy?  Autonomy – self-directing freedom and moral independence.  What does it mean to be morally independent? John Stuart Mill

4 The diversity of philosophy  The search for wisdom is of concern to people of both sexes and all races, yet many philosophy textbooks simply report the various philosophical theories of western males.  Why do you think this might be? Mary Wollstonecraft

5 Some of the fields of philosophy  Epistemology means “the study of knowledge”. How do we know when we know something? What is the difference between knowledge and belief? What about the difference between knowledge and true belief? Among the problems discussed here are those concerning the structure, reliability, and extent of our knowledge, the meaning of truth, logic, and a variety of linguistic concerns, as well as the foundation of knowledge. We will discuss whether or not the notion of one more truth is the same as relativism.

6 Some fields of philosophy  Metaphysics is the study of the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence. These include questions concerning the existence of God, the destiny of the universe, and the immortality of the soul. One of the core questions in metaphysics is that of whether everything in the universe is determined, or are humans able freely to choose for themselves? One important view on this issue is determinism, the view that all things and all humans are not free because everything that occurs happens in accordance with regular patterns or laws. Another is important view is that we are condemned to be free (Sartre).

7 Some fields of philosophy  Ethics is reasoned discourse about morality. It includes questions about virtue and obligation, what moral principles we should adopt, the idea of justice and so forth, as well as related to practical issues such as abortion, the merits of capitalism vs. communism, capital punishment, animal rights, privacy rights. Peter Singer

8 Socrates  In your own words, explain why Socrates is often considered to exemplify the true philosophical spirit. Socrates

9 The Buddha  The Buddhist philosophical tradition has suggested that philosophy is the key to a more profound type of freedom, holding that one we understand the true nature of the universe we will be freed from the otherwise unending wheel of birth, suffering, death, and rebirth.  In your own words, explain the argument that philosophy can offer freedom from the wheel of existence.

10 Actualizing Needs  Abraham Maslow hold that humans also have actualizing needs, which are associated with self-expression, self- fulfillment, and creativity. Philosophy can help by promoting the ideal of self-actualization and hence help to meet the need for this.  Aristotle wrote about harmonizing the faculties in order to achieve eudaemonia. Aristotle

11 Actualizing Needs  In your own words, do you think philosophy can help people actualize their needs? Why or why not?


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