Presentation on theme: "Objective Our primary objective was to research craters in close proximity to the Mare Orientale basin. We scoured this section of the moon looking for."— Presentation transcript:
Objective Our primary objective was to research craters in close proximity to the Mare Orientale basin. We scoured this section of the moon looking for craters of interest that could possibly be worthy of extended attention and investigation.
Schluter (-5.63135, -83.748168) Observations: This large crater displays several characteristics that exemplify a crater of its size (~90km in diameter) The central peak and impact melt are perfect examples of this. Less obvious than these features is significant shelving on the sides of the crater. In the area of melt there is a significant amount of normal faulting which becomes very interesting around its central peak as the faulting appears to skirt the peak’s perimeter.
Hypotheses: We hypothesize that pattern in the faulting can be attributed to the crust pulling away from two relative points of strength, the central peak and the crater wall. So as the melt cooled, contracted, and pulled back toward these points of strength it is only natural that eventually this type of rift and faulting might result. The other interesting feature for this crater was the wavy pattern present on its walls. We believe this to be a result of the cooling and collapsing strength of the rather large crater walls as the constant cooling and heating and steep slope take their toll.
Maunder B Observations: Maunder B is a crater that is mostly flooded with the mare basalt. What makes this crater unusual is that it does not appear to be uniformly filled in with reference to the crater rim. Also unusual is the normal faulting that breaks the craters rim on the southern edge of the crater. Because of the range in the nature of these abnormalities it is hypothesized that they weren’t the result of a single event but rather the end product of a series of events.
Extrapolating from the observations we hypothesized the following chronology: 1)Maunder B is formed 2)After the original impact the surrounding area began to cool and contract eventually forming the normal faulting now in evidence. 3)The oriental impactor hits 4)The energy released from the impact causes wide spread melting and volcanism that eventually flooded the crater. This chronology is back up by several things easily observable in the photo: 1)In order for the crater to be filled with basaltic flows the crater would have had to be in existence before to basalt arrived there. 2) The normal faulting also had to of occurred before the inflow of basalt because it is partially covered by it in some areas but continues underneath it. 3)And the crater is filled with impactor generated/ initiated lava flows.
Riccioli Observations: The crater is extremely old, and the central peak is barely existent After Riccioli was formed another impactor hit it altering the central peak This inner crater filled up with what is probably mare basalt from one of the Oceanus Procellarum eruptions, and the central peak was buried beneath the basalt.
Riccioli (Con’t) There is a supposed secondary crater Riccioli within the Riccioli crater. This crater is also ancient because it has been filled in by the mare. The crater lacks a central peak, because it was destroyed by another impactor, which has been covered by the mare basalt This is further proven by the existence of older faults that are partially buried by the basaltic flows
Catalan Secondary Craters The craters from left to right are: Catalan A, Catalan B, and Catalan
Hypotheses On Catalan’s secondary craters The secondary craters Catalan A and B are both too close and too large in diameter to have truly come from Catalan to the west and should there for be considered to have come from a separate event.
Baade Coordinates: 44.8˚S, 88.1˚ W Observations: Baade is a large crater that has no central peak. This crater and its shelving are interesting because of their nearly perfect spherical nature. Hypothesis: The lack of a central peak could possibly explained by: The peak having been buried or destroyed by the debris. The central peak never forming.
Kopff Coordinates: 17.4˚ S, 89.6˚ W Observations: This crater seemingly formed with similarly aged mare both inside and out. This is problematic because, in order for the crater to be filled with mare material, the initial Orientale impact would have already had to have happened to initiate volcanism. This crater is within the confines of the Orientale impact and would have surely been obliterated during the event. Hypothesis: A possible suggestion as to why this occurred could be that in the early stages, while Orientale was still volcanically active, a period of solidification occurred, at which time the impactor that created Kopff struck the surface of the Moon. After the impact, the Kopff basin was filled with mare basalt Orientale basin became volcanically active again.
Hartwig When comparing the texture and crater density of the craters interior and the surrounding area it is interesting to observe that there is very little difference. Hartwig is older than Hartwig A. This is evident because Hartwig is much more heavily cratered than Hartwig A. This would tend to repudiate the claim by others that Hartwig A is a secondary crater. Additional it is highly unlikely that a secondary crater would ever from inside of a its primary. Hartwig
Nicholson Crater From the Left: Pettit crater and Nicholson Crater Observations: Wide spread sloping caused by the cooling and subsequent collapsing of the overly steep crater wall. Additionally this crater’s rim is intersected by another crater on its northern edge which is unusual. And lastly there is a large and extremely usual ridge or tailing peak that seems to possibly originating at the craters center. Nicholson Crater
Nicholson Crater Con’t. crater pre-existed the Orientale impact and was later uplifted on its northwestern edge. I f this is true this could also explain the origin of the odd ridge pattern that tails from the craters center. This is because it introduces the possibility that it is not infact a ridge running from the crater but rather a mountain spawned by the force of the Orientale impact. Hypothesis: Upon further inspection of the crater it became evident that it’s north western edge is curtailed or impinged by the mountains spawned by the Orientale impact. This suggests that the Nicholson