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LEARNING MODES (LMs) ANTÓNIO DUARTE UNIVERSITY OF LISBON FACULTY of PSYCHOLOGY PORTUGAL THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN SUMMER SCHOOL Multigrade Teaching:

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Presentation on theme: "LEARNING MODES (LMs) ANTÓNIO DUARTE UNIVERSITY OF LISBON FACULTY of PSYCHOLOGY PORTUGAL THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN SUMMER SCHOOL Multigrade Teaching:"— Presentation transcript:

1 LEARNING MODES (LMs) ANTÓNIO DUARTE UNIVERSITY OF LISBON FACULTY of PSYCHOLOGY PORTUGAL THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN SUMMER SCHOOL Multigrade Teaching: New Educational Methodologies for the "Standard" and Multigrade Schools 8-16 July 2011 Rhodes - Greece

2 Contents I 1. What are LMs? 2. How many LMs? 3. LMs in different tasks: the case of ICT based learning 4. LMs & Education 5. Natural practices for LMs II 6. Research-based practices for LMs : the case of active ICT based learning 7. Resources.

3 -Variation observed in the learning process (e.g. individualistic - collaborative) -Variation sources: learning situation / learning needs -Diversity of learning modes more or less adapted to students / situations -Consistent use: Learning Style. 1. What are LMs?

4 DEPENDENT ACTIVE PASSIVE NEGATIVEPOSITIVE COOPERATIVE INDIVIDUALIST AUTONOMOUS MULTI SENSORIAL UNI SENSORIAL Learning Dimensions COGNITIVE RELATIONAL SENSORIAL MOTIVATIONAL 2. How many LMs?

5 3. LMs in different tasks the case of ICT based learning COGNITIVE DIMENSION ACTIVE PASSIVE ICT BASED LEARNING LEARNING WITH ICT LEARNING FROM ICT KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION WITH ICT - multi & meaningful representation of personal knowledge - critical thinking

6 LEARNERS IMPROVE BY USING PREFERED LMs OR A VARIETY OF MODES VARIATION OF PRACTICES LEARNERS IMPROVE WITH CERTAIN LMs PROMOTION OF PARTICULAR LMs: COOPERATIVE AUTONOMOUS POSITIVE MOTIVATED ACTIVE MULTISENSORIAL 4. LMs & Education two perspectives:

7 Exercise List the teaching practices you use/can use for promoting the following learning modes: COOPERATIVE AUTONOMOUS POSITIVE MOTIVATED ACTIVE MULTISENSORIAL

8 Natural practices for LMs (Duarte & Paasimäki, 2007) practices for collaborative learning Collective reading & writing Group problems Group projects Collective games.

9 Natural practices for LMs practices for autonomous learning Several open thematic areas in the classroom Setting of problems Distribution of tasks and delegation of responsibilities Encouragement of autonomous learning or of task definition Task definition Prompt of Planning and Joint work evaluation.

10 Natural practices for LMs practices for positive motivation Free-choice activities Open problems Familiar examples Familiar tasks; Easy tasks (for those with difficulties) or Challenging tasks (for more competent pupils) Encouragement of knowledge appliance Enthusiasm & Optimism Dramatic reading Reciprocal teaching Inviting parents & guests Encouragement, Self-evaluation & Positive reinforcement Assistance demanding Home works.

11 Natural practices for LMs Practices For Active Learning Tactile-kinestesic learning Discovery learning Open tasks Reciprocal teaching Writing tasks Questioning & Empirical testing of pupil’s conceptions Use of pupils’ language Questioning, Explaining, Discussing.

12 Natural practices for LMs Practices for Multisensorial Learning Study visits Practical situations for contact with real objects Activities for exploring and discovering Using films or slideshows to support learning Arranging opportunities for smelling different odors related to content Inviting guests for presenting information in a multi- sensorial way Demanding verbal descriptions of touched objects Organizing dramatic expression of contents Demanding pupils’ expression or presentation of information in a multi-sensorial way.

13 Natural practices for LMs practices for active ICT based learning Prompting: computer-based search, organization, transformation & presentation of information small-group work with the computer communication with other pupils via computer.

14 Natural practices for LMs Variation of practices in function of learners’ LMs personalized-teaching attending alternatively to small groups (while others work autonomosly) differentiating contents, methods and materials (e.g. more concrete or more abstract).

15 Exercise a) choose one/two practices for promoting one of these LMs: -cooperative -autonomous -positive motivated -active -multisensorial b) Sketch a plan: 1. When to use the practice? 2. In which groups? 3. How to organize the groups? 4. How to organize the materials? 5. What eventual adaptations of the practice are to be made?

16 3. Research-based practices for LMs (www.nemed-project.org) LMsPRACTICES ACTIVE LEARNINGINQUIRY LEARNING COOPERATIVE LEARNINGENTREPRENEURSHIP POSITIVE MOTIVATED LEARNINGCONCEPTUAL CHANGE AUTONOMOUS LEARNINGSTRATEGIES GAME MULTISENSORIAL LEARNINGMULTIMODAL ASSOCIATION ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGCONCEPTUAL MAPS

17 ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNING Practice: Conceptual Maps DEFINITION PRESENTING AND ENCOURAGING LEARNERS TO USE A SOFTWARE APPLICATION TO SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF cMAPS WHAT ARE cMAPS? (OR SEMANTIC NETWORKS) SPATIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF CONCEPTS (AND THEIR RELATIONS) THAT VISUALIZE MENTAL KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURES - NODULES REPRESENT CONCEPTS (TEXT / IMAGES) - LINES REPRESENT RELATION BETWEEN CONCEPTS.

18 EXAMPLES ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNING Practice: Conceptual Maps

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20 RATIONAL cMAPS FACILITATE ACTIVE LEARNING BY: -ENCOURAGING “HYPERMEDIA” STRUCTURING OF CONTENT, IN TOPICS AND SUBTOPICS, HIERARCHICALLY OR FUNCTIONALLY RELATED IN A VISUAL FORM (HELPS TO ORGANIZE INFORMATION AND TO DEVELOP A WELL STRUCTURED KNOWLEDGE BASE) -ALLOWING AN ACTIVE AND INTERACTIVE CONTENT EXPLORATION -ALIGNING WITH LEARNERS’ MOTIVATION TOWARD ICT. ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNING Practice: Conceptual Maps

21 GOALS STIMULATE ACTIVE LEARNING BY ENCOURAGING AN ORGANIZED AND MEANINGFUL KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURE. ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNING Practice: Conceptual Maps

22 PROCEDURE -PRESENT A SOFTWARE APPLICATION FOR cMAPS (E.G. “CMAP TOOLS” – - KIDSINSPIRATION).HTTP://CMAP.IHMC.US/ -EXEMPLIFY -CLARIFY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ACTIVE LEARNING WITH THIS KIND OF SOFTWARECHARACTERISTICS OF AN ACTIVE LEARNING WITH THIS KIND OF SOFTWARE -DEMAND REHARSAL -SUPPLY “FEEDBACK”. ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNING Practice: Conceptual Maps

23 CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ACTIVE LEARNING WITH THIS KIND OF SOFTWARE: · COMPLEXITY (HIGH NUMBER OF CONCEPTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS) · PRECISE DIFFERENTIATION OF CONTENTS · STRUCTURING AND RESTRUCTURING OF CONCEPTS (I.E. SEGMENTING INITIAL CONCEPTS, ADDING NEW CONCEPTS, MODIFYING OR DELETING INITIAL CONCEPTS, CHANGING THE ORDER OF CONCEPTS, ETC.) · “DESCRIPTIVE” AND “INTERPRETATIVE” CONCEPTS (I.E. PERSONAL IDEAS, INFERENCES, LIMITATIONS, CRITICS, RELATED INFORMATION, IMPLICATIONS, ETC.) · ORIGINAL CONCEPTS · HIGH (BUT NOT EXAGGERATED) NUMBER OF LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS · VARIED TYPES OF LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS (E.G. “IS A PART OF”; “IS EXAMPLE OF”; “IS FACTOR OF”; “DEPENDS ON”; “IS IN SEQUENCE OF”) · DESCRIPTION OF THE LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS · HYPERLINKING OF CONCEPTS WITH OTHER FILES.

24 EVALUATION (CRITERIA): · DIVERSIFICATION OF INFORMATION · COMPLEXITY OF THE MAP (E.G. NUMBER OF CONCEPTS, LINKS AND LEVELS) · DISCRIMINATION CLARITY OF CONCEPTS · DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURING AND RESTRUCTURING THE CONCEPTS · PRESENCE OF “INTERPRETATIVE” CONCEPTS · PRESENCE OF ORIGINAL CONCEPTS · DIVERSIFICATION OF TYPES OF LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS · PRESENCE OF NAMED LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS PRESENCE OF HYPERLINKS. ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNING Practice: Conceptual Maps

25 Exercise a)Exemplify the use of concept mapping with a curricular content b)Evaluate the CMap exemplified by a colleague

26 RESOURCES JONASSEN D. H. (1995). COMPUTERS IN THE CLASSROOM: MINDTOOLS FOR CRITICAL THINKING. MERRIL PR. JONASSEN D. H., CHAD, C. & YUEH, H. (1998). COMPUTERS AS MINDTOOLS FOR ENGAGING LEARNERS IN CRITICAL THINKING. TECHTRENDS, 43(2), PP (INTERNET) NOVAK, J. D. & CAÑAS A. J. (2006). THE THEORY UNDERLYING CONCEPT MAPS AND HOW TO CONSTRUCT THEM. (HTTP://CMAP.IHMC.US/PUBLICATIONS/RESEARCHPAPERS/THEOR YUNDERLYINGCONCEPTMAPS.PDF)

27 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION António M. Duarte University of Lisbon Faculty of Psychology Portugal THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN SUMMER SCHOOL Multigrade Teaching: New Educational Methodologies for the "Standard" and Multigrade Schools 8-12 July 2010 Rhodes - Greece


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