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Introduction to RDA 12 May 2014. What we’ll cover today Little bit of theory – FRBR and history Differences between AACR2 and RDA Access point changes.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to RDA 12 May 2014. What we’ll cover today Little bit of theory – FRBR and history Differences between AACR2 and RDA Access point changes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to RDA 12 May 2014

2 What we’ll cover today Little bit of theory – FRBR and history Differences between AACR2 and RDA Access point changes Relationships New MARC fields RDA Toolkit SLQ experience Q&A

3 What is RDA RDA = Resource Description and Access Replaces Anglo American Cataloguing Rules - AACR2 Informed by FRBR and FRAD New standard designed for the digital environment - not AACR3 Usable outside the library community Online product - accessed through RDA Toolkit

4 RDA – a ‘Content’ standard Describes ‘what’ to record, not ‘how’ Independent of encoding schemas Adaptable and sharable in a digital world

5 RDA - a new way of thinking Application of FRBR/FRAD Format neutral More cataloguer’s judgement

6 Purpose of RDA The focus of RDA is the user –Each section is explicitly related to user tasks –Fewer abbreviations and omissions –No limitations on the number of access points

7 History 1978 – AACR – International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR 2004 – proposal for AACR3 –AACR3 : Resource description and access 2005 – RDA began 2010 – RDA published

8 Why do we need to change Web 1.0 Web 2.0 The Semantic Web Linked data

9 RDA and FRBR What RDA does: Includes FRBR terminology where appropriate Uses the FRBR attributes as the basis for specific data elements to be included in bibliographic descriptions Addresses FRBR relationships Uses the FRBR user tasks as the basis for defining a set of mandatory data elements.

10 What RDA is not RDA is not –An encoding scheme –A display or presentation standard –A rigid set of rules –Structured around ISBD areas and elements –Confined to a library environment

11 FRBR vs RDA vs MARC FRBR is a conceptual model RDA is a cataloguing standard based on the FRBR conceptual model MARC is an encoding scheme by which computers exchange, use and interpret bibliographic information –Developed alongside AACR –RDA is not dependent on MARC

12 FRBR FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records A conceptual model (of the bibliographic universe) that underlies RDA An entity-relationship model Identifies specific user tasks that bibliographic records are intended to fulfil: Find – Identify – Select – Obtain

13 FRBR FRBR focuses on three aspects: –entities, attributes, relationships An entity is a ‘being’ or ‘thing with a distinct existence’ An attribute is a quality, something that characterises or describes the entity A relationship is the link between different entities

14 FRBR The key ‘things’ of interest to the user 3 groups –Group 1 entities (Resources) Work, Expression, Manifestation, Item –Group 2 entities (Agents) People, families, corporate bodies –Group 3 entities (Subjects) Concepts, objects, events, plus Group 1 & 2 entities

15 FRBR entities – Group 1 Group 1 - Products of intellectual and artistic endeavour –Work is a “distinct intellectual or artistic creation” –Expression is the “specified intellectual or artistic form that a work takes each time it is ‘realised’” –Manifestation is “the physical embodiment of an expression of a work” –Item – is “a single exemplar of a manifestation”

16 WEMI = Works, Expressions, Manifestations, Items What is FRBR? : a conceptual model for the bibliographic universe / Barbara Tillett

17 FRBR entities – Group 2 Group 2 – Those responsible for Group 1 (the intellectual and artistic content) –Person –Corporate body –Family

18 FRBR entities – Group 3 Group 3 – Subjects of works –Concept –Object –Event –Place Plus –Groups 1 and 2 entities

19 Relationships A work may be realized through one or more than one expression An expression is the realization of one and only one work An expression may be embodied in one or more than one manifestation A manifestation may embody one or more than one expression. A manifestation may be exemplified by one or more than one item An item may exemplify one and only one manifestation.

20 Inherent Relationships WORK is realized by is produced by is owned by EXPRESSION PERSON CORPORATE BODY ITEM MANIFESTATION is created by

21 Content Relationships Equivalent Derivative Descriptive Whole/part Part to part Shared characteristics

22 Equivalent Relationships Most commonly exist between the manifestations of an expression of a work Alternate ― Simultaneously released edition ― Alternate format Reproduction ― Reprint ― Mirror site ― Facsimile

23 Derivative Relationships Work-to-Work or Expression-to-Expression Different Expressions of the same Work ― Revision ― Literal translation ― Musical arrangement ― Dubbed or subtitled version of a film ― Illustrated edition A new Work based on another Work ― Adaptation for children ― Parody ― Free translation ― Screenplay

24 Descriptive Relationships A new Work that describes one or more existing Works, Expressions, Manifestations or Items Review Criticism Commentary Annotated edition The Epistle of James : a commentary on the Greek text / by Peter H. Davids Nimbus of glory : a study of Coleridge's three great poems / by Warren Stevenson

25 Differences between AACR2 and RDA Terminology Transcription New MARC fields

26 Differences between AACR2 and RDA What’s the same Instructions in AACR2 formed the basis of text for RDA –Many instructions have not changed (or not changed much) Includes options and alternatives (more options in RDA) Includes Library of Congress interpretations –Now called LC-PCC PS – Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloguing Policy Statements Can still code records in MARC –Records will still look much the same – more information

27 Differences between AACR2 and RDA What’s different User focus Format neutral Different framework (FRBR/FRAD) Core elements (not levels of description) Instructions not rules (flexible, cataloguer’s judgement) Terminology Relationships Transcribing data (Principle of representation)

28 Differences between AACR2 and RDA MARC changes ISBD changes GMD – general material designator replaced by new elements (and new MARC fields) –Content –Media –Carrier

29 Example - GMD replaced by Content, Media and Carrier MARC changes ISBD changes $a Cape York :$b still the great adventure $a [Victoria] :$b [publisher not identified], $c [2013] 300 $a 1 DVD (150 min.) :$b sound, colour ;$c 12 cm. 336 $a two-dimensional moving image$2rdacontent 337 $a video $2 rdamedia 338 $a videodisc $2 rdacarrier

30 User focused FRBR user tasks –Find –Identify –Select –Obtain Example from RDA Purpose and Scope This chapter provides general guidelines and instructions on recording the attributes of manifestations and items that are most often used to identify a resource. … …The user generally relies on these same elements: a) to determine whether the resource described is the one sought b) to distinguish between resources with similar identifying information.

31 FRBR/FRAD framework RDA SectionWhat’s in it 1 – Recording attributes of manifestations and items Manifestations  Title of manifestation, publisher, date of publication, edition, series Items  Annotations, access, ownership 2 - Recording Attributes of Work & Expression Works  Authorised access points (uniform titles)  Title of the work (note this is different to recording the title of a manifestation) and additions to preferred titles Expressions  Form of notation, content type, illustrations 3 - Recording Attributes of Person, Family, & Corporate Body  Attributes recorded in authority records  Constructing access points for persons, families and corporate bodies NOTE: This is not about choosing access points 4 - Recording Attributes of Concept, Object, Event & Place  Data elements that are recorded in subject authority records – Not yet written 5 - Recording Primary Relationships Between Work, Expression, Manifestation, & Item  Relationships between work, expression, manifestation and item by using identifiers, authorised access points and composite descriptions 6 - Recording Relationships to Persons, Families, & Corporate Bodies  Choice of access points for persons, families and corporate bodies  Relationships established through ‘relationship designators’ 7 - Recording Relationships to Concepts, Objects, Events, & Places  Not yet written  Choice of subjects 8 - Recording Relationships between Works, Expressions, Manifestations, & Items  Relationships between work and work ; expression and expression etc.  Identifiers, access points and descriptions 9 - Recording Relationships between Persons, Families, & Corporate Bodies  Relationships between a person and a person, person and family etc.  pseudonyms, former and later names, variant names 10 - Recording Relationships between Concepts, Objects, Events, & Places  Not yet written  Relationships between subjects

32 Core elements vs Levels of Description AACR2 - levels of description Eg First level –title proper –first statement of responsibility –edition statement –material specific details –first publisher, etc. –date of publication, etc. –extent of item –notes –standard number RDA - core elements –title proper –first statement of responsibility –designation of edition –designation of a named revision of an edition –numbering of serials –scale of cartographic content –first place of publication –first publisher’s name –date of publication –title proper of series/subseries –numbering within series/subseries –identifier for the manifestation –carrier type –extent Source: Adapted from AACR2 vs. RDA by Tom Delsey given at From rules to entities: cataloguing with RDA (Preconference of the Canadian Library Association Conference, May 29, 2009)

33 Terminology AACR2RDA areaelement headingaccess point main entryauthorised access point added entryaccess point see referencesvariant access points uniform titlepreferred title for a work chief source and prescribed sourcespreferred source works of personal authorshipworks created by one person, family or corporate body

34 Terminology AACR2RDA Description ISBD elementsattributes of FRBR entities classes of materialtypes of content and carrier mode of issuance Access choice of access pointsFRBR relationships form of headingsattributes of FRAD entities referencesFRAD relationships subject relationships

35 Relationships Greater emphasis Access points Relationships key in FRBR/FRAD Types of relationships –Primary relationships –Relationships to … –Relationships between

36 Principles of RDA Transcribe what you see Accept what you get –Fewer abbreviations, more words –Misspellings are transcribed as written, then explained in a note or an alternate title (246 field) (There is an exception for misspellings in a serial title) Also, there is the concept of “Core” and “Core if”

37 Transcribing data Descriptions match the way the entity describes itself Discourages –Use of abbreviations –Omission of relevant information –Adding information –Changing information More cataloguer’s judgement

38 Transcribe what you see AACR $a Blackwell’s dictionary of Judaism : $b its mythology, folklore, philosophy, literature, and history / $c Margaret and James Stutley. RDA $a Blackwell’s dictionary of Judaism : $b its mythology, folklore, philosophy, literature, and history / ‡c Doctor Margaret and Reverend James Stutley, University of Honolulu.

39 Recording and transcribing Abbreviations Inaccuracies Supplied title information Marks of punctuation Rule of three

40 Abbreviations AACR2 Abbreviations used when transcribing some elements RDA Abbreviations are only permitted if they appear on the source

41 Abbreviations - Publication AACR2 264 _1 $a [S.l. :$b s.n.], $c 1973 RDA 264 _1 $a [Place of publication not identified] : $b [publisher not identified], $c 1973.

42 Abbreviations - Extent AACR2 300 __ $a xvii, 537 p., [32] p. of plates :$b ill. (some col.) ; $c 30 cm. RDA 300 __ $a xvii, 537 pages, 32 pages of unnumbered plates :$b illustrations (some colour) ; $c 30 cm.

43 Abbreviations - Edition Appears on the resource as: Third edition AACR2 250 __ $a 3rd ed. RDA 250 __ $a Third edition

44 Abbreviations – Statement of responsibility AACR $a Second growth : $b community economic development in rural British Columbia / $c Sean Markey … [et al.] RDA $a Second growth :$b community economic development in rural British Columbia /$c Sean Markey, John T. Pierce, Kelly Vodden and Mark Roseland

45 Inaccuracies AACR2 Inaccuracies corrected with the transcribed element using [sic] or [i.e....] RDA Inaccuracies recorded as they appear on the source Variant access point or notes included if Considered important for access

46 Inaccuracies AACR $a Psychanalysis [sic] :$b its theories and practical application $a Psychanalysis [i.e. Psychoanalysis] :$b its theories and practical application RDA $a Psychanalysis :$b its theories and practical application 246 1_ $i Title should read: $a Psychoanalysis :$b its theories and practical application

47 Supplied title information AACR $a Cuyahoga Community College String Orchestra : $b [program]. RDA $a Cuyahoga Community College String Orchestra. 500 __ $a Program.

48 Rule of Three AACR2 Instruction to “omit all but the first of each group” followed by... [et al.] when three or more persons or corporate bodies are listed. RDA All persons or corporate bodies may now be listed as they appear on the source. Optional omission

49 Rule of Three AACR2 – 4+ authors $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett … [et al.] _ $aHughes-Hallett, Deborah. RDA – 4+ authors – list all 100 1_ $a Hughes-Hallett, Deborah, $e author $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett, Andrew M. Gleason, William G. MacCallum, and David O. Lomen. 700 for Gleason, Andrew M. and others is optional

50 Rule of Three AACR2 – 4+ authors $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett … [et al.] _ $aHughes-Hallett, Deborah. RDA – 4+ authors – optional omission 100 1_ $a Hughes-Hallett, Deborah, $e author $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett [and three others] 700 for others is optional

51 Content, Media, Carrier Type Categorisation of Resources Change from GMD (field 246 $h) to –Content type –Media type –Carrier type New MARC fields –336 (content type) –337 (media type) not Core –338 (carrier type)

52 Categorisation of resources GMD – AACR2 1.1C activity card flash card picture art original game realia art reproduction kit slide braille manuscript sound recording cartographic material microformtechnical drawing chart microscope slide text diorama model toy electronic resource motion picture transparency filmstrip music videorecording

53 Content type Content: What is it? What sense is needed? Examples: –text –performed music –notated music –spoken word –two-dimensional moving image –three-dimensional form

54 Media type Media: What equipment is needed to use? Examples –audio –computer –microform –projected –unmediated –video

55 Carrier type Carrier: What is it housed in? Examples: –audiocassette, audio disc –computer disc, online resource –microfiche –film reel –card, flipchart, volume –videocassette, videodisc

56 Content, Media & Carrier types – Book AACR2 No GMD in __ $a xxi, 180 pages RDA 300 __ $a xxi, 180 pages 336 __ $a text $2 rdacontent 337 __ $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 __ $a volume $2 rdacarrier

57 Content, Media & Carrier type – PDF AACR2 GMD = $h [electronic resource] 300 __ $a1 online resource (58 p.) RDA 300 __ $a 1 online resource (58 pages) 336 __ $a text $2 rdacontent 337 __ $a computer $2 rdamedia 338 __ $a online resource $2 rdacarrier

58 Content, Media & Carrier type – Music CD AACR2 GMD = $h [sound recording] 300 __ $a1 sound recording RDA 300 __ $a 1 audio disc {or: 1 CD} 336 __ $a performed music $2 rdacontent 337 __ $a audio $2 rdamedia 338 __ $a audio disc $2 rdacarrier

59 Content, Media & Carrier type – DVD AACR2 GMD = $h [videorecording] 300 __ $a1 videodisc (85 min.) RDA 300 __ $a 1 DVD {or :1 video disc] 336 __ $a two-dimensional moving image $2 rdacontent 337 __ $a video $2 rdamedia 338 __ $a videodisc $2 rdacarrier

60 New MARC fields 264 = production, publication, distribution, copyright date 336/337/338 = content media carrier 340 = physical medium 344= sound characteristics 345 = projection characteristics 346 = video characteristics 347 = digital file characteristics

61 New MARC fields for old and new data 264 field - Production, publication, distribution, manufacture, date of copyright 264 _1 $a Wellington, New Zealand :$b Gecko Press, $c _4 $c ©2012 Replaces the 260

62 New MARC fields for new data Physical characteristics of specific formats Sound characteristics –344 __ $a digital $b optical $g stereo $2 rda Projection characteristics of moving image –345 __ $a Cinerama $b 24 fps $2 rda Video characteristics –346 __ $a VHS $b PAL $2 rda Digital file characteristics –347 __ $a video file $b Blu-Ray $2 rda

63 Access point changes

64 What’s an access point in RDA? –Authorised access point UF - Main entry (AACR2) –Access point UF - Added entry (AACR2) –Subject access point UF - Subject heading (AACR2)

65 Scope of “person” RDA –“An individual or an identity established by an individual (either alone or in collaboration with one or more other individuals)” RDA 9.0 –fictitious entities Miss Piggy, Snoopy, Dr. Who, etc.

66 Expanded scope for ‘person’ - examples 100 0_ $a Miss Piggy, $e author $a Miss Piggy’s guide to life / $c by Miss Piggy as told to Henry Beard _ $a Beard, Henry _ $a Queen, Ellery, $e author $a The glass village / $c by Ellery Queen [identity created by Frederic Dannay and his cousin Manfred B. Lee] 100 1_ $a Ling Yeow, Poh, $e author $a Poh’s kitchen / $c Poh Ling Yeow.

67 Preferred name for persons Establish all entities associated with a person Include in name element (ie MARC 1XX $a) –Terms of relationships Eg. Sr, Jr. –Terms of address Eg. Dr, Mr, Mrs (only used in certain circumstances)

68 Preferred name for persons 100 1_ $a Baron Cohen, Sacha, $d _ $a Cohen, Sacha Baron, $d _ $a G., Ali, 400 0_ $a Ali G _ $a Sagdiyev, Borat 400 1_ $a Borat 100 1_$a Beeton, Mrs _$a Davis, Samuel, Jr. Multiple identities of same person Terms of relationship and address now in $a

69 Changes to dates for persons Abbreviations “cent.,” “ca.,” “b.,” “d.,” and “fl.” not in appendix B –“cent.” becomes “century” Joannes, Diaconus, 12th century –“approximately” replaces “ca.” Smith, John, approximately

70 Changes to dates for persons –“b.” and “d.” dates becomes “born” and “died” LC Policy - use hyphens instead of spelling out the abbreviations –100 1_ $a Macready, William, $d or, –100 1_ $a Macready, William, $d died –“fl.” becomes “flourished” LC Policy - use “active” for “fl.” –100 1_ $a Johnson, Carl F., $d flourished or, –100 1_ $a Johnson, Carl F., $d active

71 Scope of “family” Definition (RDA General guidelines) –two or more persons related by birth, marriage, adoption, civil union, or similar legal status, or who otherwise present themselves as a family

72 Role of “family” Now considered creators, contributors, etc. –Important for archives, museums, and special collections –Also possible for general library materials: genealogy newsletters, family reunion publications, etc.

73 Families as creators - examples 100 3_ $a Kennedy (Family :$c Washington, D.C., $d ) 100 3_ $a Murdoch (Family :$g Murdoch, Rupert, 1931-) 100 3_ $a Tudor (Royal house, $d )

74 Scope of “corporate body” Definition (RDA 8.1.2, Glossary) = “an organization or group of persons and/or organizations that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act, as a unit” Scope (RDA 11.0) = includes ad hoc events (such as athletic contests, exhibitions, expeditions, fairs, & festivals) and vessels (e.g., ships & spacecraft)

75 Preferred name of corporate body Mostly the same as AACR2 More detail Lots of examples Changes to conferences 75

76 Preferred name of corporate body A few things to note: Not abbreviating “Department” –(Appendix B.2) Language used – removal of English bias –(RDA ) Include frequency in conference name, and Omit year of convocation (include in $d) –(RDA ) Variant spellings: choose the form found in the first resource received –(RDA ) 76

77 Examples of Corporate Bodies 110 2_ $a World Cup (Cricket) 110 2_ $a World Cup (Soccer) 111 2_ $a VALA National Conference on Library Automation $n(16 th : $d 2012 : $c Melbourne, Vic.) 111 2_ $aBiennial Symposium on Active Control of Vibration and Noise 110 1_ $a Queensland. $b Department of Natural Resources, Mines, and Energy

78 Place names in access points Place names are used in authorised access points They are included: –As additions to corporate body headings and conferences –As names of government bodies –For recording places associated with a person, family or corporate body –As additions to titles of works

79 Preferred name of place Choose as the preferred name: –The form of the name in the language preferred by the agency creating the data, if there is one in general use –the form of the name in the official language of the jurisdiction in which the place is located

80 Authority records - new MARC fields Dates Content type Other person & corporate attributes Associated place Address Field of activity Associated group Occupation Gender Family information Language Fuller form of name Form of work Other characteristics Medium of performance Numerical designation Key Audience characteristics Creator/contributor characteristics

81 Authority records How much to record? - Where to record? As part of the access point, or As “separate elements” (ie, elsewhere in the authority record), or Both of the above

82 Name authority record - example cz a n n| azannaabn |n aaa c 010 __ |a no __ |a (OCoLC)oca __ |a UPB |b eng |c UPB |e rda |d DLC 100 1_ |a Chamberlain, Lynn 370 __ |e Toquerville, Utah 373 __ |a Utah Division of Wildlife Resources 374 __ |a photographer 374 __ |a author 375 __ |a male 377 __ |a eng 670 __ |a Kolob Canyons, 1986, ©1986: |b back cover (Lynn Chamberlain; produced by Lynn Chamberlain, Toquerville, Utah) 670 __ |a Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, website viewed 1 August 2011 |b (Lynn Chamberlain; professional outdoor photographer over 30 years; lives in southern Utah; Conservation outreach manager for the DWR Southern Region; frequents Kolob area near Zion National Park; author of Close encounter with a condor)

83 Corporate name authority record nz a n n| acannaabn |a ana c 010 __ |a no __ |a (OCoLC)oca __ |a OrU |b eng |c OrU 046 __ |s _ |a Bridge Builders International 370 __ |c U.S. |c Latvia |e Philomath, Or. 371 __ |a 205 S. 23rd Street |b Philomath |c Or. |d U.S. |e |m 371 __ |a P.O. Box 4073 |b Salem |c Or. |d U.S. |e __ |a Christian ministry 377 __ |a eng 410 2_ |a BBI 670 __ |a Pa ̄ rsteidzos ̌ ais te ̄ va pla ̄ ns, 2006: |b page 14 (Bridge Builders International) 670 __ |a OCLC, July 11, 2011 |b (hdg: Bridge Builders International) 670 __ |a Bridge Builders International WWW site, July 11, 2011 |b (Bridge Builders International; BBI; Oregon- based Christian ministry that focuses on the nation of Latvia; established in 1994; 205 S. 23rd Street, Philomath, Or ; P.O. Box 4073, Salem, Or ; Source:

84 How to identify RDA records

85 LDR –Descriptive cataloguing form (LDR/18) is coded ‘i’ = ISBD punctuation included - NOT ‘a’ = AACR2 040 –Contains $e rda

86 How to identify RDA records No more GMD –eg, $h [videorecording] in 245 field no longer used Includes 336, 337, 338 fields 264 field used in place of old 260 for publication details –Note the use of the copyright date in a separate 264 field and the use of the copyright symbol in place of c.

87 How to identify RDA records Data transcribed as found on item ( Note: see App A Capitalization) Latin abbreviations not used –eg, s.l., s.n., et al, ca. no longer used Unknown place and/or publisher –[Place of publication not identified] –[publisher not identified] Familiar abbreviations spelt out –eg, p. becomes pages; ill. becomes illustrations; ports. becomes portraits

88 How to identify RDA records Statement of responsibility fully transcribed –No more ‘Rule of 3’ Inaccuracies recorded as they appear on the resource (except serials) Emphasis on recording relationships, either in bibliographic or authority records. Use of relationship designators

89 RDA record

90 RDA coding - examples

91 Questions?

92 Recommended resources What is FRBR? / Barbara Tillett FRBR: a guide for the perplexed / Robert L. Maxwell. Chicago: American Library Association, c2008.

93 Recommended resources Library of Congress resources, especially within the Catalogers Learning Workshop ials/index.html Teaching RDA: Train-the-trainer course RDA: Resource description and access presented by the National Library of Australia in description-and-access

94 Recommended resources Oliver, Chris. Introducing RDA: a guide to the basics. Chicago: American Library Association, Anhalt, Joy & Stewart, Richard A. RDA simplified. Cataloging and classification quarterly, (2012) v. 50, no. 1, p

95 Recommended resources Adam Schiff’s website: RDA presentations: look for newest “Changes from AACR2 to RDA,” both “Description” and “Access”

96 Acknowledgements: Parts of this presentation have been copied or adapted from: From AACR2 to RDA : the purpose and structure of RDA. Presented by National Library of Australia as part of a series of RDA background information sessions. Changes from AACR2 to RDA: A comparison of examples. Presented by Adam L. Schiff Teaching RDA: Train-the-trainer course RDA: Resource description and access. Presented by the National Library of Australia in 2012 and made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License. Getting ready for RDA : preparing for the transition. Presented by Rick J. Block, Columbia University Are you ready? RDA basics for copy cataloguers. Presented by Sevim McCutcheon, OLC Chapter Conferences, NE and NW March 27 and April 12, 2013

97 Full bleed vertical image and caption like this. 20 pt arial Image bleed off left hand side, with caption at right


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