Presentation on theme: "Introduction to RDA 12 May 2014. What we’ll cover today Little bit of theory – FRBR and history Differences between AACR2 and RDA Access point changes."— Presentation transcript:
What we’ll cover today Little bit of theory – FRBR and history Differences between AACR2 and RDA Access point changes Relationships New MARC fields RDA Toolkit SLQ experience Q&A
What is RDA RDA = Resource Description and Access Replaces Anglo American Cataloguing Rules - AACR2 Informed by FRBR and FRAD New standard designed for the digital environment - not AACR3 Usable outside the library community Online product - accessed through RDA Toolkit
RDA – a ‘Content’ standard Describes ‘what’ to record, not ‘how’ Independent of encoding schemas Adaptable and sharable in a digital world
RDA - a new way of thinking Application of FRBR/FRAD Format neutral More cataloguer’s judgement
Purpose of RDA The focus of RDA is the user –Each section is explicitly related to user tasks –Fewer abbreviations and omissions –No limitations on the number of access points
History 1978 – AACR2 1997 – International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR 2004 – proposal for AACR3 –AACR3 : Resource description and access 2005 – RDA began 2010 – RDA published
Why do we need to change Web 1.0 Web 2.0 The Semantic Web Linked data
RDA and FRBR What RDA does: Includes FRBR terminology where appropriate Uses the FRBR attributes as the basis for specific data elements to be included in bibliographic descriptions Addresses FRBR relationships Uses the FRBR user tasks as the basis for defining a set of mandatory data elements.
What RDA is not RDA is not –An encoding scheme –A display or presentation standard –A rigid set of rules –Structured around ISBD areas and elements –Confined to a library environment
FRBR vs RDA vs MARC FRBR is a conceptual model RDA is a cataloguing standard based on the FRBR conceptual model MARC is an encoding scheme by which computers exchange, use and interpret bibliographic information –Developed alongside AACR –RDA is not dependent on MARC
FRBR FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records A conceptual model (of the bibliographic universe) that underlies RDA An entity-relationship model Identifies specific user tasks that bibliographic records are intended to fulfil: Find – Identify – Select – Obtain
FRBR FRBR focuses on three aspects: –entities, attributes, relationships An entity is a ‘being’ or ‘thing with a distinct existence’ An attribute is a quality, something that characterises or describes the entity A relationship is the link between different entities
FRBR The key ‘things’ of interest to the user 3 groups –Group 1 entities (Resources) Work, Expression, Manifestation, Item –Group 2 entities (Agents) People, families, corporate bodies –Group 3 entities (Subjects) Concepts, objects, events, plus Group 1 & 2 entities
FRBR entities – Group 1 Group 1 - Products of intellectual and artistic endeavour –Work is a “distinct intellectual or artistic creation” –Expression is the “specified intellectual or artistic form that a work takes each time it is ‘realised’” –Manifestation is “the physical embodiment of an expression of a work” –Item – is “a single exemplar of a manifestation”
WEMI = Works, Expressions, Manifestations, Items What is FRBR? : a conceptual model for the bibliographic universe / Barbara Tillett
FRBR entities – Group 2 Group 2 – Those responsible for Group 1 (the intellectual and artistic content) –Person –Corporate body –Family
FRBR entities – Group 3 Group 3 – Subjects of works –Concept –Object –Event –Place Plus –Groups 1 and 2 entities
Relationships A work may be realized through one or more than one expression An expression is the realization of one and only one work An expression may be embodied in one or more than one manifestation A manifestation may embody one or more than one expression. A manifestation may be exemplified by one or more than one item An item may exemplify one and only one manifestation.
Inherent Relationships WORK is realized by is produced by is owned by EXPRESSION PERSON CORPORATE BODY ITEM MANIFESTATION is created by
Content Relationships Equivalent Derivative Descriptive Whole/part Part to part Shared characteristics
Equivalent Relationships Most commonly exist between the manifestations of an expression of a work Alternate ― Simultaneously released edition ― Alternate format Reproduction ― Reprint ― Mirror site ― Facsimile
Derivative Relationships Work-to-Work or Expression-to-Expression Different Expressions of the same Work ― Revision ― Literal translation ― Musical arrangement ― Dubbed or subtitled version of a film ― Illustrated edition A new Work based on another Work ― Adaptation for children ― Parody ― Free translation ― Screenplay
Descriptive Relationships A new Work that describes one or more existing Works, Expressions, Manifestations or Items Review Criticism Commentary Annotated edition The Epistle of James : a commentary on the Greek text / by Peter H. Davids Nimbus of glory : a study of Coleridge's three great poems / by Warren Stevenson
Differences between AACR2 and RDA Terminology Transcription New MARC fields
Differences between AACR2 and RDA What’s the same Instructions in AACR2 formed the basis of text for RDA –Many instructions have not changed (or not changed much) Includes options and alternatives (more options in RDA) Includes Library of Congress interpretations –Now called LC-PCC PS – Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloguing Policy Statements Can still code records in MARC –Records will still look much the same – more information
Differences between AACR2 and RDA What’s different User focus Format neutral Different framework (FRBR/FRAD) Core elements (not levels of description) Instructions not rules (flexible, cataloguer’s judgement) Terminology Relationships Transcribing data (Principle of representation)
Differences between AACR2 and RDA MARC changes ISBD changes GMD – general material designator replaced by new elements (and new MARC fields) –Content –Media –Carrier
Example - GMD replaced by Content, Media and Carrier MARC changes ISBD changes 245 00 $a Cape York :$b still the great adventure. 264 1 $a [Victoria] :$b [publisher not identified], $c  300 $a 1 DVD (150 min.) :$b sound, colour ;$c 12 cm. 336 $a two-dimensional moving image$2rdacontent 337 $a video $2 rdamedia 338 $a videodisc $2 rdacarrier
User focused FRBR user tasks –Find –Identify –Select –Obtain Example from RDA 2.0 - Purpose and Scope This chapter provides general guidelines and instructions on recording the attributes of manifestations and items that are most often used to identify a resource. … …The user generally relies on these same elements: a) to determine whether the resource described is the one sought b) to distinguish between resources with similar identifying information.
FRBR/FRAD framework RDA SectionWhat’s in it 1 – Recording attributes of manifestations and items Manifestations Title of manifestation, publisher, date of publication, edition, series Items Annotations, access, ownership 2 - Recording Attributes of Work & Expression Works Authorised access points (uniform titles) Title of the work (note this is different to recording the title of a manifestation) and additions to preferred titles Expressions Form of notation, content type, illustrations 3 - Recording Attributes of Person, Family, & Corporate Body Attributes recorded in authority records Constructing access points for persons, families and corporate bodies NOTE: This is not about choosing access points 4 - Recording Attributes of Concept, Object, Event & Place Data elements that are recorded in subject authority records – Not yet written 5 - Recording Primary Relationships Between Work, Expression, Manifestation, & Item Relationships between work, expression, manifestation and item by using identifiers, authorised access points and composite descriptions 6 - Recording Relationships to Persons, Families, & Corporate Bodies Choice of access points for persons, families and corporate bodies Relationships established through ‘relationship designators’ 7 - Recording Relationships to Concepts, Objects, Events, & Places Not yet written Choice of subjects 8 - Recording Relationships between Works, Expressions, Manifestations, & Items Relationships between work and work ; expression and expression etc. Identifiers, access points and descriptions 9 - Recording Relationships between Persons, Families, & Corporate Bodies Relationships between a person and a person, person and family etc. pseudonyms, former and later names, variant names 10 - Recording Relationships between Concepts, Objects, Events, & Places Not yet written Relationships between subjects
Core elements vs Levels of Description AACR2 - levels of description Eg First level –title proper –first statement of responsibility –edition statement –material specific details –first publisher, etc. –date of publication, etc. –extent of item –notes –standard number RDA - core elements –title proper –first statement of responsibility –designation of edition –designation of a named revision of an edition –numbering of serials –scale of cartographic content –first place of publication –first publisher’s name –date of publication –title proper of series/subseries –numbering within series/subseries –identifier for the manifestation –carrier type –extent Source: Adapted from AACR2 vs. RDA by Tom Delsey given at From rules to entities: cataloguing with RDA (Preconference of the Canadian Library Association Conference, May 29, 2009)
Terminology AACR2RDA areaelement headingaccess point main entryauthorised access point added entryaccess point see referencesvariant access points uniform titlepreferred title for a work chief source and prescribed sourcespreferred source works of personal authorshipworks created by one person, family or corporate body
Terminology AACR2RDA Description ISBD elementsattributes of FRBR entities classes of materialtypes of content and carrier mode of issuance Access choice of access pointsFRBR relationships form of headingsattributes of FRAD entities referencesFRAD relationships subject relationships
Relationships Greater emphasis Access points Relationships key in FRBR/FRAD Types of relationships –Primary relationships –Relationships to … –Relationships between
Principles of RDA Transcribe what you see Accept what you get –Fewer abbreviations, more words –Misspellings are transcribed as written, then explained in a note or an alternate title (246 field) (There is an exception for misspellings in a serial title) Also, there is the concept of “Core” and “Core if”
Transcribing data Descriptions match the way the entity describes itself Discourages –Use of abbreviations –Omission of relevant information –Adding information –Changing information More cataloguer’s judgement
Transcribe what you see AACR2 245 10 $a Blackwell’s dictionary of Judaism : $b its mythology, folklore, philosophy, literature, and history / $c Margaret and James Stutley. RDA 245 10 $a Blackwell’s dictionary of Judaism : $b its mythology, folklore, philosophy, literature, and history / ‡c Doctor Margaret and Reverend James Stutley, University of Honolulu.
Recording and transcribing Abbreviations Inaccuracies Supplied title information Marks of punctuation Rule of three
Abbreviations AACR2 Abbreviations used when transcribing some elements RDA Abbreviations are only permitted if they appear on the source
Abbreviations - Publication AACR2 264 _1 $a [S.l. :$b s.n.], $c 1973 RDA 264 _1 $a [Place of publication not identified] : $b [publisher not identified], $c 1973.
Abbreviations - Extent AACR2 300 __ $a xvii, 537 p.,  p. of plates :$b ill. (some col.) ; $c 30 cm. RDA 300 __ $a xvii, 537 pages, 32 pages of unnumbered plates :$b illustrations (some colour) ; $c 30 cm.
Abbreviations - Edition Appears on the resource as: Third edition AACR2 250 __ $a 3rd ed. RDA 250 __ $a Third edition
Abbreviations – Statement of responsibility AACR2 245 10 $a Second growth : $b community economic development in rural British Columbia / $c Sean Markey … [et al.] RDA 245 10 $a Second growth :$b community economic development in rural British Columbia /$c Sean Markey, John T. Pierce, Kelly Vodden and Mark Roseland
Inaccuracies AACR2 Inaccuracies corrected with the transcribed element using [sic] or [i.e....] RDA Inaccuracies recorded as they appear on the source Variant access point or notes included if Considered important for access
Inaccuracies AACR2 245 10 $a Psychanalysis [sic] :$b its theories and practical application 245 10 $a Psychanalysis [i.e. Psychoanalysis] :$b its theories and practical application RDA 245 10 $a Psychanalysis :$b its theories and practical application 246 1_ $i Title should read: $a Psychoanalysis :$b its theories and practical application
Supplied title information AACR2 245 00 $a Cuyahoga Community College String Orchestra : $b [program]. RDA 245 00 $a Cuyahoga Community College String Orchestra. 500 __ $a Program.
Rule of Three AACR2 Instruction to “omit all but the first of each group” followed by... [et al.] when three or more persons or corporate bodies are listed. RDA All persons or corporate bodies may now be listed as they appear on the source. Optional omission
Rule of Three AACR2 – 4+ authors 245 00 $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett … [et al.]. 700 1_ $aHughes-Hallett, Deborah. RDA – 4+ authors – list all 100 1_ $a Hughes-Hallett, Deborah, $e author. 245 10 $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett, Andrew M. Gleason, William G. MacCallum, and David O. Lomen. 700 for Gleason, Andrew M. and others is optional
Rule of Three AACR2 – 4+ authors 245 00 $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett … [et al.]. 700 1_ $aHughes-Hallett, Deborah. RDA – 4+ authors – optional omission 100 1_ $a Hughes-Hallett, Deborah, $e author. 245 10 $a Calculus : ‡b single variable / $c Deborah Hughes- Hallett [and three others] 700 for others is optional
Content, Media, Carrier Type Categorisation of Resources Change from GMD (field 246 $h) to –Content type –Media type –Carrier type New MARC fields –336 (content type) –337 (media type) not Core –338 (carrier type)
Categorisation of resources GMD – AACR2 1.1C activity card flash card picture art original game realia art reproduction kit slide braille manuscript sound recording cartographic material microformtechnical drawing chart microscope slide text diorama model toy electronic resource motion picture transparency filmstrip music videorecording
Content type Content: What is it? What sense is needed? Examples: –text –performed music –notated music –spoken word –two-dimensional moving image –three-dimensional form
Media type Media: What equipment is needed to use? Examples –audio –computer –microform –projected –unmediated –video
Carrier type Carrier: What is it housed in? Examples: –audiocassette, audio disc –computer disc, online resource –microfiche –film reel –card, flipchart, volume –videocassette, videodisc
Content, Media & Carrier types – Book AACR2 No GMD in 245 300 __ $a xxi, 180 pages RDA 300 __ $a xxi, 180 pages 336 __ $a text $2 rdacontent 337 __ $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 __ $a volume $2 rdacarrier
New MARC fields for new data 344-347 Physical characteristics of specific formats Sound characteristics –344 __ $a digital $b optical $g stereo $2 rda Projection characteristics of moving image –345 __ $a Cinerama $b 24 fps $2 rda Video characteristics –346 __ $a VHS $b PAL $2 rda Digital file characteristics –347 __ $a video file $b Blu-Ray $2 rda
What’s an access point in RDA? –Authorised access point UF - Main entry (AACR2) –Access point UF - Added entry (AACR2) –Subject access point UF - Subject heading (AACR2)
Scope of “person” RDA 8.1.2 –“An individual or an identity established by an individual (either alone or in collaboration with one or more other individuals)” RDA 9.0 –fictitious entities Miss Piggy, Snoopy, Dr. Who, etc.
Expanded scope for ‘person’ - examples 100 0_ $a Miss Piggy, $e author. 245 10 $a Miss Piggy’s guide to life / $c by Miss Piggy as told to Henry Beard. 700 1_ $a Beard, Henry. 100 1_ $a Queen, Ellery, $e author. 245 10 $a The glass village / $c by Ellery Queen [identity created by Frederic Dannay and his cousin Manfred B. Lee] 100 1_ $a Ling Yeow, Poh, $e author. 245 10 $a Poh’s kitchen / $c Poh Ling Yeow.
Preferred name for persons Establish all entities associated with a person Include in name element (ie MARC 1XX $a) –Terms of relationships Eg. Sr, Jr. –Terms of address Eg. Dr, Mr, Mrs (only used in certain circumstances)
Preferred name for persons 100 1_ $a Baron Cohen, Sacha, $d 1971- 400 1_ $a Cohen, Sacha Baron, $d 1971- 100 1_ $a G., Ali, 400 0_ $a Ali G. 100 1_ $a Sagdiyev, Borat 400 1_ $a Borat 100 1_$a Beeton, Mrs. 100 1_$a Davis, Samuel, Jr. Multiple identities of same person Terms of relationship and address now in $a
Changes to dates for persons Abbreviations “cent.,” “ca.,” “b.,” “d.,” and “fl.” not in appendix B –“cent.” becomes “century” Joannes, Diaconus, 12th century –“approximately” replaces “ca.” Smith, John, approximately 1837-1896
Changes to dates for persons –“b.” and “d.” dates becomes “born” and “died” LC Policy - use hyphens instead of spelling out the abbreviations –100 1_ $a Macready, William, $d -1829. or, –100 1_ $a Macready, William, $d died 1829. –“fl.” becomes “flourished” LC Policy - use “active” for “fl.” –100 1_ $a Johnson, Carl F., $d flourished 1893-1940. or, –100 1_ $a Johnson, Carl F., $d active 1893-1940.
Scope of “family” Definition (RDA 8.1.2 General guidelines) –two or more persons related by birth, marriage, adoption, civil union, or similar legal status, or who otherwise present themselves as a family
Role of “family” Now considered creators, contributors, etc. –Important for archives, museums, and special collections –Also possible for general library materials: genealogy newsletters, family reunion publications, etc.
Scope of “corporate body” Definition (RDA 8.1.2, Glossary) = “an organization or group of persons and/or organizations that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act, as a unit” Scope (RDA 11.0) = includes ad hoc events (such as athletic contests, exhibitions, expeditions, fairs, & festivals) and vessels (e.g., ships & spacecraft)
Preferred name of corporate body Mostly the same as AACR2 More detail Lots of examples Changes to conferences 75
Preferred name of corporate body A few things to note: Not abbreviating “Department” –(Appendix B.2) Language used – removal of English bias –(RDA 188.8.131.52.2) Include frequency in conference name, and Omit year of convocation (include in $d) –(RDA 184.108.40.206) Variant spellings: choose the form found in the first resource received –(RDA 220.127.116.11.1) 76
Examples of Corporate Bodies 110 2_ $a World Cup (Cricket) 110 2_ $a World Cup (Soccer) 111 2_ $a VALA National Conference on Library Automation $n(16 th : $d 2012 : $c Melbourne, Vic.) 111 2_ $aBiennial Symposium on Active Control of Vibration and Noise 110 1_ $a Queensland. $b Department of Natural Resources, Mines, and Energy
Place names in access points Place names are used in authorised access points They are included: –As additions to corporate body headings and conferences –As names of government bodies –For recording places associated with a person, family or corporate body –As additions to titles of works
Preferred name of place Choose as the preferred name: –The form of the name in the language preferred by the agency creating the data, if there is one in general use –the form of the name in the official language of the jurisdiction in which the place is located
Authority records - new MARC fields 046 - Dates 336 - Content type 368 - Other person & corporate attributes 370 - Associated place 371 - Address 372 - Field of activity 373 - Associated group 374 - Occupation 375 - Gender 376 - Family information 377 - Language 378 - Fuller form of name 380 - Form of work 381 - Other characteristics 382 - Medium of performance 383 - Numerical designation 384 - Key 385 - Audience characteristics 386 - Creator/contributor characteristics
Authority records How much to record? - Where to record? As part of the access point, or As “separate elements” (ie, elsewhere in the authority record), or Both of the above
LDR –Descriptive cataloguing form (LDR/18) is coded ‘i’ = ISBD punctuation included - NOT ‘a’ = AACR2 040 –Contains $e rda
How to identify RDA records No more GMD –eg, $h [videorecording] in 245 field no longer used Includes 336, 337, 338 fields 264 field used in place of old 260 for publication details –Note the use of the copyright date in a separate 264 field and the use of the copyright symbol in place of c.
How to identify RDA records Data transcribed as found on item ( Note: see App A Capitalization) Latin abbreviations not used –eg, s.l., s.n., et al, ca. no longer used Unknown place and/or publisher –[Place of publication not identified] –[publisher not identified] Familiar abbreviations spelt out –eg, p. becomes pages; ill. becomes illustrations; ports. becomes portraits
How to identify RDA records Statement of responsibility fully transcribed –No more ‘Rule of 3’ Inaccuracies recorded as they appear on the resource (except serials) Emphasis on recording relationships, either in bibliographic or authority records. Use of relationship designators
Recommended resources What is FRBR? / Barbara Tillett http://www.loc.gov/cds/downloads/FRBR.PDF FRBR: a guide for the perplexed / Robert L. Maxwell. Chicago: American Library Association, c2008.
Recommended resources Library of Congress resources, especially within the Catalogers Learning Workshop http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/RDA%20training%20mater ials/index.html Teaching RDA: Train-the-trainer course RDA: Resource description and access presented by the National Library of Australia in 2012 http://www.nla.gov.au/acoc/training-materials-for-resource- description-and-access
Recommended resources Oliver, Chris. Introducing RDA: a guide to the basics. Chicago: American Library Association, 2010. Anhalt, Joy & Stewart, Richard A. RDA simplified. Cataloging and classification quarterly, (2012) v. 50, no. 1, p. 33-42.
Recommended resources Adam Schiff’s website: RDA presentations: look for newest “Changes from AACR2 to RDA,” both “Description” and “Access” http://faculty.washington.edu/aschiff/
Acknowledgements: Parts of this presentation have been copied or adapted from: From AACR2 to RDA : the purpose and structure of RDA. Presented by National Library of Australia as part of a series of RDA background information sessions. Changes from AACR2 to RDA: A comparison of examples. Presented by Adam L. Schiff Teaching RDA: Train-the-trainer course RDA: Resource description and access. Presented by the National Library of Australia in 2012 and made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License. Getting ready for RDA : preparing for the transition. Presented by Rick J. Block, Columbia University Are you ready? RDA basics for copy cataloguers. Presented by Sevim McCutcheon, OLC Chapter Conferences, NE and NW March 27 and April 12, 2013
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