1. The Forbidden City in China was laid out with three walls. The outer wall protected the Imperial City. Further inside the Forbidden city existed with limited access. The Forbidden City was the home of the emperor and a place of elaborate ritual The Suzhou Gardenshad a variety of flower assortments and were very aesthetically pleasing. 2. Chinese art was influenced by European style. In the Qing dynasty artist’s such as Giuseppe Castiglione created art that mixed Italian style with Chinese. Many European missionaries were in China and came to influence the ideas presented in the style of the works. 3. Communism in China led to a changing of the artistic style. Artists started to become focused on realism and portraying struggle. Images such as Ye Yushan (27-17) show the struggles of the people before communism. Communist art represented the people becoming free and was used to show communist ideals. 4. The literai art of the Yuan dynasty was created as personal expression. As literai grew, the works from the Ming dynasty differed. Literai artists of the Ming dynasty split into two schools the northern school of rigid painting or the southern school of freer painting. This caused new kinds of literai art that was very expressive in its nature. 5. Chinese architecture had an impact on Korean architecture because of the ideas and traditions that it started. Chinese architecture employed great arches with elaborate designs to show power. Korean architecture followed this and used it in some of their own pieces created in the Choson dynasty(27-19).
1. Discuss the impact the Mongol emperors had on the arts of China. Genghis Khan’s Grandson, Kublai Khan, ruled china from 1279-1294, creating the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368). Marco Polo appreciated Khan’s opulent lifestyle, palaces, paper currency, porcelain, and hygiene. China was more technologically advanced than late medieval Europe. Though changed for the better, many Chinese did not appreciate the foreign government and created their own, very “Chinese”, traditional art in rebellion. (Refer to 27-2 – 27-4)
2. Differentiate Chinese literati painters in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties Yuan Dynastic literati painters used simplistic design and left out specific sharp details of nature. They did not use much color. (Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains, Huang Gongwang, Fig. 27-4)
2. (continued) Ming Dynastic literati painters used sharp, precise detail and use colors to create the most realistic effect possible. (Lofty Mount Lu, Shen Zhou, Fig. 27-11)
3. Describe the Ming Imperial City including the Forbidden City and the pleasure gardens Imperial palace designed in Beijing Laid out as three nested walled cities Imperial City was walled, Forbidden City was moated Rituals of the imperial court were held in the Forbidden City Noon Gate – entrance gateway with five portals Suzhou Gardens – pleasure gardens Did not lay out flora like other cultures, but instead used scenic arrangements of natural and artificial elements to display irregularities of nature Verandas and pavilions rise on pillars above water Dredged stones from nearby Lake Tai created the element of natural and fantastic rockwork
4. Discuss the concept of primordial line in Qing literai painting. The literai painting that established in the Ming dynasty continued to be popular in the Qing dynasty. Pieces with expressive force were created by Shitao. In his writing, Shitao, stated the use of a single brush stroke, primordial line, should be the basis of all representation. Shitao animated his paintings and depicted forces flowing through his work. This was done with the use of primordial line. Refer to 27-14
5. Elaborate on foreign influence in Chinese arts and culture. Chinese past and present is composed up of extraordinary art and culture. Although many artworks were invented and perfected by the nation itself. Some were influence by foreign countries. To convey, during the Qing Dynasty, from increased contact with Europe bought many Jesuit missionaries to the Qing court. This lead to Jesuit artists, such as Giuseppe Castiglione to developed a hybrid of Italian-Chinese painting styles. To further analyze, one of Castiglione’s painting, Auspicious Objects, was made in honor of the Yongzheng emperor’s birthday. This painting emphasis on a single source of light that creates consistent shadows. The painting also obtains motifs such as an eagle that connotes imperial status and courage. The evergreen pines and rocks of the paints bring that idea of longevity.
6. Summarize the porcelain traditions in from the Yuan to the present. Porcelain is a Chinese art form; which has achieved a magnitude of such worldwide admiration, “inspired such imitation”, or penetrated so deeply into everyday life. The term “porcelain” refers to an object whose body is composed up of clay comprising kaolin. The kaolin is also mixed with ground petuntse (a type of feldspar). The porcelain is then covered with a glaze and is fired at an extremely high temperature (well over 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit). This process is done so that the body material fuses and the resultant object is impervious to liquids and is resonant when struck. A tradition of the porcelain made by Chinese ceramists is when they would often decorate the porcelains with colored designs or pictures. The minerals which changed color dramatically in the kiln are made out of finely ground minerals suspended in water with a binding agent. This led to the over glaze colors or “enamels” being fused to the glazed surface in an additional firing. This step offers glaze decorators with much brighter palette with colors that would set the “vase” off. Different time periods have different “images” that are imprinted on the porcelain. To exemplify, in 1351 vases that were donated to a Buddhist temple as a prayer for “pace, protection, and prosperity” was consisted of decorations of bands of floral motifs. The vase also contained symbols including phoenixes and dragons. These magnificent creatures symbolize the traditions and culture of China. To further illustrate, the dragon inscribed in the vase represents yang as it is the symbol of active masculine energy of Chinese principle. On the other hand, the Phoenix is the principle of passive feminine energy; which is a representation of yin.
Name: Temple Vase Date: 1351 Period/Style: Yuan Dynasty, Traditional Chinese elements. Creator: Unknown Material/Technique: Porcelain with under-glaze decoration. Function: Part of Buddhist Prayer Set. Context: Admired highly as “Chinese Jade”, very valuable to the people. One of the oldest example of Cobalt Under- Glaze. Ideas: Used for prayers of peace, protection, and prosperity Fig. 27-5
7. Discuss the impact of Communism on Chinese art Communism in 1949 inspired social realism that broke from the past Intended purpose of Communism art was to serve the people in the struggle to liberate and elevate the masses Introduction of contemporary, modern art styles
Image 27-17 Name: Rent collection Courtyard Date: 1965 Period/Style: Dayi China/Modern Artist: Ye Yushan and others Material/Technique: Clay Function: Thought the supplication of that depicted the exploitation of peasants by their merciless landlords before the Communists’ over ran China. Context: 100 yards long with life-size figures Descriptive terms: Life size, stiff, rigid, precise, pessimistic Ideas: The monument stood as a message that the type of exploitation though cruelty of humanity must not occur again. Another message was that only collective action could effect the transformations the People’s Republic sought
8. Describe the impact of Chinese architecture on Korean architecture. Korean architecture followed the example of Chinese architecture in its strong structure and elaborate detail. Gateways of Korean architecture were influenced by the structures of the Forbidden City in China. The gateways were symbols of power in China and had the same purpose in Korean architecture. Refer to 27-19
Name: Namdaemun Date: 1398 Period/Style: Chonson dynasty. Influenced by East Asian traditional architecture. Architect: Unknown Material/Technique: Stone foundation combined with bracketed wooden superstructure. Function: South gate to Seoul Context: Similar to other elaborate arches this one is a symbol of the rulers power Descriptive Terms: Elaborate detail, simple structure Ideas: Gateways were supposed to surround cities and be a symbol of power. This is also seen in the Forbidden City. Fig. 27- 19
A (Siphnian Treasury 5-18) vs B (Wangshi Yuan 27-7) A B
Similarities: Both use some sort of columns as support structures Both appear grand and exquisite, with an ostentatious display of wealth Both have angled rooftops, suggesting the influence of Asia in Greek architecture (possibly during the Orientalizing Period) Both are designed and serve to show the high power, status, and wealth of their countries Differences: A Sculptures and reliefs are present on the pediment and frieze on all four sides This building served as a treasury: a storehouse for a city’s votive offerings The building utilizes the Ionic style Elaborate use of gold and silver was used to create this building B Served as a pleasure garden: beauty lay more in the nature around the building and not so much in the building itself Garden was not arranged in a rigid order: designed to reflect and reproduce the irregularities of uncultivated nature Rockwork was a prominent feature of the Suzhou garden – created a sanctuary for the wealthy to commune with nature The garden opposes the formality of the Greek treasury, which was designed to reflect wealth and power.