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Evidence of Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Visual and Performing Arts: Exemplars, Missed Opportunities and Challenges Rawiri Hindle, Victoria University,

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Presentation on theme: "Evidence of Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Visual and Performing Arts: Exemplars, Missed Opportunities and Challenges Rawiri Hindle, Victoria University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evidence of Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Visual and Performing Arts: Exemplars, Missed Opportunities and Challenges Rawiri Hindle, Victoria University, New Zealand Catherine Savage, Victoria University, New Zealand Luanna H. Meyer, Victoria University, New Zealand Anne Hynds, Victoria University, New Zealand Wally Penetito, Victoria University, New Zealand Christine Sleeter, California State University Monterey Bay, USA Paper presented at the Culturally Responsive Research and Pedagogy Symposium, Nov 15, 2010, Waikato University, Hamilton.

2 Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in the Arts This research report examines evidence of culturally responsive pedagogies in the arts (music, dance, drama, visual arts) in secondary school classrooms as a function of teacher professional development designed to enhance achievement for Indigenous Māori students in New Zealand. The findings have implications for bringing together the literature on the integration of the arts and how the arts can build on students’ cultural knowledge and experiences as well as highlighting the need for more empirical research in the arts to investigate strategies for culturally responsive pedagogies.

3 Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in the Arts Teaching and learning from a Māori perspective needs to be researched and embedded in Māori knowledge, as does teacher education and professional development for Māori teachers. Anderson (1996) asserted that “The nature of the arts and their relationship to culture are foundational to their importance in multicultural education” (p. 57). Despite this potential, there is a dearth of empirical research on the implementation of culturally responsive pedagogies into the arts.

4 Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in the Arts The literature examines international viewpoints regarding equity and culturally responsive pedagogies; New Zealand as a context for teacher cultural understandings; and culturally responsive pedagogies within the arts. Since the early 1800s Māori have been subjected to European colonisation. Schooling and education, being sites for the production and reproduction of dominant western knowledge, has led to a societal context of unequal power and social relations (Fitzsimons & Smith, 2000).

5 Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in the Arts The literature examines international viewpoints regarding equity and culturally responsive pedagogies; New Zealand as a context for teacher cultural understandings; and culturally responsive pedagogies within the arts. Since the early 1800s Māori have been subjected to European colonisation. Schooling and education, being sites for the production and reproduction of dominant western knowledge, has led to a societal context of unequal power and social relations (Fitzsimons & Smith, 2000).

6 The Te Kotahitanga Project The Te Kotahitanga program was designed within a Kaupapa Māori framework reflecting Māori cultural values and perspectives (Bishop, Berryman, Cavanagh, & Teddy, 2002; Bishop, Berryman Tikawai, & Richardson, 2003). The program focuses on teacher professional development across the curriculum to enable them to build more effective teaching and learning relationships with Māori secondary students towards enhancing Māori student learning outcomes. Key to improving Maori student learning outcomes is shifting classroom pedagogy so that it capitalizes on the cultural background and intellectual aspirations of Maori students.

7 Data Portion of findings from the larger study 12 Phase 3 schools (5 th year) 10 Phase 4 schools (2 nd year) 10 Phase 5 schools (Pre-implementation) 336 Classroom observations 35 Visual and Performing Arts observations

8 Analysis Man ā kitanga (caring for students as culturally located individuals) Mana motuhake (high expectations for learning) Whakapiringatanga (managing the classroom for learning) Wananga (discursive teaching practices and student- student learning interactions) Ako (range of strategies to facilitate learning) Kotahitanga (promote, monitor and reflect on learning outcomes with students) Observations were analyzed based on presence/absence of dimensions of the ETP and the quality and extent of evidence related to each dimension.

9 Analysis Man ā kitanga (caring for students as culturally located individuals) Wananga (discursive teaching practices and student- student learning interactions) Ako (range of strategies to facilitate learning) This report focuses on the three of the six components of the effective teaching profile that strongly reflect notions of culturally responsive pedagogy

10 Implementation Categories High Implementation- at least 5 of the 6 ETP dimensions with strong evidence for at least 2 dimensions. Must have evidence of culturally responsive pedagogy and explicit reference to learning outcomes and high expectations. Implementation – evidence of the ETP dimensions in the classroom practice. Low - missed opportunities, misinformation, and mismanaged classrooms. No evidence of learning outcomes. Observations coded independently by two researchers (neither of whom were involved in that observation), results compared, if disagreement third independent coding followed by discussion to reach agreement

11 Analysis of Activity Time Analysis of activity time

12 Results Across all schools and curricular areas, 75% of the 318 teachers in project schools were observed to be demonstrating either moderate or high implementation of the ETP Of the 19 teachers observed in the performing arts (music, dance, drama) 84% demonstrated either moderate or high levels of implementation of the ETP

13 Characteristics of High Implementers greeted students by their names and pronounced their names correctly attempted to use Te Reo Maori and encouraged the use of Te Reo in the lesson used humor and allowed for the use of humor from students used positive reinforcement as a way to engage the students

14 Characteristics of High Implementers encouraged discursive interactions - teacher to student and student to student employed a range of relevant strategies to engage the students in each of the arts disciplines modeled the desired outcomes with the students

15 Example of ETP - High Drama Class Level: Year 10 Teacher goes over the learning intentions with the students at the beginning of the lesson. The lesson topic is based on voice extension and an exploration of Shakespeare’s words. The teacher greets with ‘kia ora’ and interacts with the students as they arrive. At the start of the lesson the students all sit in a circle and the teacher call the roll. She says, “We’ve got a pretty exciting day today. Let’s just do a recap.” The teacher then asks one of the students to read the learning intention and asks the students to think about how they will know by the end of the lesson that they’ve achieved it. There are 9 Maori students and 21 non Maori students in the class and the teacher is of Pakeha ethnicity. Manaakitanga: The teacher greets all of the students by name and pronounces their names correctly. She seems to have a great relationship with the students. She talks with them, smiles a lot and walks with them. Three of the students work on a Maori interpretation of Shakespeare where they use Te Reo Maori and Maori song and dance. The teacher encourages them and praises their originality. Wānanga The interactions are mostly teacher to student interactions. The teacher reviews concepts with the whole class. She asks questions and encourages the students to elaborate with their answers. She praises student feedback. Ako: The teacher works with the students as a whole class in small groups and in pairs. The students in this lesson mostly work in pairs or small groups acting out prose. There is a lot of movement and laughter throughout the lesson.

16 Characteristics of Low Implementers made no reference to the learning intentions missed the opportunity to greet students in Te Reo Maori or to reference the Maori language, content, epistemologies, or pedagogical knowledge in any part of the lesson no evidence of caring for the students as culturally located individuals

17 Characteristics of Low Implementers little or no interaction between the teacher and students or student and student lack of variety in terms of the strategies used to facilitate learning interactions teachers did not model to the students

18 Example of ETP - Low Music - Class Level: Year 9 Learning intention on the whiteboard but no reference made to it throughout the lesson. There are 24 Maori students in the class and 4 non Maori and the teacher is of Maori ethnicity. The teacher is positive and respective of the students calling them by their names as they enter the room. He starts the lesson by going straight into a discussion. The teacher is Maori but there is no reference to Maori, Pasifika or Kiwi content or ideas in the lesson. Manaakitanga: Not evident in the lesson. The students disagree with the teachers’ choice of Cold Play as top group. He disagrees with them and carries on. This is a missed opportunity to relate to the students regarding their preferences. Wānanga Although the students work in pairs on the keyboard there is no encouragement by the teacher to have the students discuss ideas together Ako: The structure of the lesson is not really clear. The students follow a worksheet that has the instructions. The students move between instructional work at their own desks and practical work in pairs.

19 Implications of Findings Although high implementers used open ended questioning techniques and asked students to elaborate on their answers, there was a distinct luck of teacher encouragement to engage the students in student-to- student discursive interactions. Missed opportunities in both the high and low implementers occurred through lack of knowledge or understandings by teachers about how to engage or further engage the students in discursive interactions, particularly discursive interactions based on cultural knowledge.

20 Implications of Findings In respect to the lack of teacher knowledge regarding cultural epistemologies, attempts at teacher engagement can be viewed as adding a cultural dimension to a formal entrenched structure, for example, ‘process drama’ (Heathcote, 1984). This presents the dilemma of having to reconcile the re- discovery or re-invention of traditional knowledge with existing and emerging new knowledge. To illustrate this phenomenon I use a metaphor where the mountains represent traditional knowledge, the sea represents new knowledge, and the shoreline represents the (fluctuating or ever-changing) space where new knowledge, over time, is indigenised (Gegeo & Watson-Gegeo, 2002).

21 Implications of Findings The metaphor invokes a sense of on-going tension between the mountains, the sea and the shoreline: pressure points, tectonic plate movements, eruptions, treacherous under-water – visible or less visible (Hynds, 2007) terrains, rising sea levels… In the arts, the international literature shows increased interest in the issue of integration of the arts and the issue of culture has not always been included in these discussions (see, for example, Russell & Zembylas, 2007).

22 Implications of Findings Anderson (1996) argued that dividing the arts into four disciplines—art, music, dance and theater—was “quintessentially Western in conception and structure” (p. 58) Special occasions as pohiri typify the long tradition of incorporating Maori arts into everyday life and exemplify integration across the arts disciplines. As Ballengee Morris, Mirin and Rizzi (2000) state “Art and culture are necessary for social restructuring. It is impossible to have social reconstruction without the arts” (p. 109).

23 Implications of Findings Modeling in the arts is associated with the notion of ‘experiential learning’ and is seen as a powerful pedagogy and a way to powerfully engage the students in the learning process. The concept of being relates to an essential but immeasurable quotient of a performance or action. In the performing arts I believe it’s the quality of being of the performer that has the potential for enabling his or her actions to evoke an emotional or spiritual response in the audience; you know when it’s there but it is difficult, perhaps even impossible, to describe what it looks like or the impact it has (Hindle, 2010).

24 Implications of Findings Integrating being as an integral part of arts education not only has implications in terms of the pedagogical practice in Māori Immersion schooling; it also challenges current approaches to assessment and outcomes driven learning. As Ballengee Morris, Mirin and Rizzi (2000) state “Art and culture are necessary for social restructuring. It is impossible to have social reconstruction without the arts” (p. 109). “When a person understands both in the mind and the spirit then it is said that the person truly ‘knows’ (mohio)” (Royal, 2003, p.79 ).

25 Acknowledgements Tēnā koutou - We would like to acknowledge and thank all the participants who engaged in this study and the New Zealand Ministry of Education, who funded the evaluation. For further information about this presentation please contact:

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