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Culturally Responsive Environments

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1 Culturally Responsive Environments
TOPIC Making a Difference: Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) May 14, 2012 PRESENTER Dr. Patrick C. Coggins, PhD., LLD (Hon.) Sponsored by Stetson University Diversity Council 1 1

2 Cultural Competence Philosophy
“Cultural Competence is a Philosophy and a way of life that enables us to appreciate, respect and help people to achieve their highest level of Humanness.” (Patrick Coggins, 2000, CDC accepted definition) 2

3 Why CRT ? Two Human Rights issues that Eleanor Roosevelt was involved in? Tuskegee Airmen Experience in 1944 The 1948 ,Universal Declaration of Human Rights—(30 Rights)

4 Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
“Whereas, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and unalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.” (U.N., 1948)

5 Article 1 “ All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”

6 Article 15 “Everyone has the right to a nationality. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change its nationality.”

7 Article 26 “Everyone has the right to education.’
“Education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.” “It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, peoples, racial or religious groups…”

8 Presentation Purpose This presentation will provide participants with experiential and practical applications that enable educators to bridge existing gaps in cross cultural interaction with ethnically and racially diverse student groups in Stetson University. Questions to be Answered What is Culturally Responsive Teaching? Why is Cultural Competence necessary in the delivery of educational services? What Cross Cultural values should drive educational and learning practices? Which cultural competence issues and strategies are research based? What are the benefits to be derived from the use of a Cultural Assessment regimen by educational professionals? 8

9 Methodology This session will be conducted through the use of active didactic information and diverse interactive processes. There will be a major emphasis on the practical application of the content to the faculty’s realities in higher education settings. 9

10 Cultural Competence Paradigm Shift
(Changing our Cultural Perspectives) PAST MONOCULTURAL Focusing on one dominant culture Primarily White or Black or Native American. PRESENT BICULTURAL Tend to Focus on two dominant cultures e.g. Black and White or White and Hispanic FUTURE MULTICULTURAL Focusing on all cultures in our schools, colleges, communities, and agencies. BUILDING PEACE, HARMONY, APPRECIATION, RESPECT, UNDERSTANDING FOR CULTURAL/ETHNIC DIVERSITY 10

11 Cultural Paradigm Shift
U.N. Declaration of Human Rights 1960s – Civil Rights. Cultural Sensitivity (T Groups) 1970s – Women’s Rights 1972: (Amendment EEOC) 1980 – Human Rights (Carter) 1990 – Global Rights, Multicultural Education, Cultural Diversity 2000 – Cultural Competence & CRT Focus Beyond Sensitivity Beyond Awareness Beyond Understanding Today! It is doing, thinking and feeling culturally connected, habitually, and most of all, feeling culturally empowered that matters. 11

12 Acquiring Cultural Competence +(CRT)
The Journey… Starts with the recognition/awareness of one’s own Biases/Prejudices.(Gary Howard,2006) Decision to become less Ethnocentric but rather more Bicultural – acceptance of at least one outside culture.(De Anda,1984) Grows with knowledge and acceptance of three or more culture (Becoming Multicultural).(Gay,2000) Enhanced with sustained cross cultural contact(s) of OPENNESS (Cultural Competence and Proficiency). (Randy Lindsey, et al,2006) Actualized through the acquisition of cross cultural skills based on substantive cross cultural encounters that leads to cultural proficiency and empowerment (see Banks, 2007). 12

Positive * Cultural Empowerment Cultural Proficiency Cultural Competence Cultural Pre-Competence Cultural Blindness *Cultural Empowerment added by Coggins (2006) Cultural Incapacity Negative Cultural Destructiveness (Cross 2002 13 13

Cognition is Shaped by Cultural Ideas/Information. “When an individual fails to teach or learn their history and culture sooner or later their history and culture will be forgotten and the individual or group will be rendered nameless and faceless.” (Carter G. Woodson, 1926) Key: Relevant culture specific and reinforcing information is crucial in cross cultural communication. We should also put a face on the cultures in our learning environments. Closing the Cultural GAP will require Educators who: Think systematically about their practice and learn from experiences and, “exemplify the virtues they seek to inspire in students: curiosity, tolerance, honesty, fairness, respect for diversity, and appreciation of cultural differences and, examine their practice, seek to expand their repertoire of skills, deepen their knowledge and adapt their teaching to new research and theories.” (NEA, 2004)

15 Exercise 1: Development of Culturally Responsive Educators
National Education Association Standards (2004) said that effective educators and schools demonstrate: “Awareness of the influence of context and culture on behavior” “Exemplify the virtues of appreciation and respect for the individual’s cultural, religious, and racial differences and appreciation of the group’cultural differences” (NEA, 2004). Exercise: Discussion on the difference between tolerance vs. appreciation? We need to move to a level of appreciation! What is that difference? Please write your response below. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

16 Exercise 2: Culture Culture represents the histories, attitudes, behaviors, languages, values, beliefs and uniqueness, which distinguish each racial or sub-cultural group in a society. Each of us has a historical heritage and a contemporary heritage that comprise our present culture. Exercise: Please define in your own words the term of culture and identify 2 values that are expressed in your definition. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

17 Understanding Diverse Cultures
TWO TYPES OF CULTURE Material Culture = Surface Culture Immaterial Culture = Deep Culture Material = Surface Culture This specifically represents the external and observable processes, which we see as part of the composite of one’s culture. Some examples of this material culture are: Artifacts Color Language Food Dress Songs Behaviors Others: (explore)

18 Understanding Diverse Cultures
Immaterial = Deep Culture -The areas we do not see This specifically represents the internal or intrinsic processes, which we cannot see. The oral culture requires cultural translators. Some examples of this immaterial culture are: Myths Folklore Stories Feelings Values Oral Culture Spiritualism Messages Behind the Values Others: (explore)

19 What is Cultural Competence?
Cultural Competence refers to the ability of an individual to interact effectively with people of various cultures. In order to do this, a teacher must have an awareness of their own culture, an attitude towards cultural differences, knowledge of different cultural practices/views, as well as cross cultural skills. In effect, a Culturally Competent person must have the ability to see “beyond the tip of the iceberg” and understand other cultures in a much greater depth. (Geneva Gay & Carl Grant,2000)

20 Culture Central to learning.
Beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people. Shapes the thinking process in groups and individuals as well as an vital part in communication and receiving information.


22 Understanding the Florida Educational Goals and Laws in MCE F. S 1003
The Declaration of Independence Republican Form of Government U.S. Constitution Flag Education, Display and Flag Salute Civil Government History of Holocaust ( ) History of African Americans Study of Hispanic Contributions to the United States Study of Women’s Contributions Character Development Education for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) FS Accomplished Practices Diversity: Uses teaching and learning strategies that reflect each student’s culture, learning styles, special needs and socio-economic background. FL Statute , (2002)

23 What is Cultural Competence?
Research-based Definitions in Cultural Competence

24 Definition of Cultural Competence
Most definitions of cultural competence use terms to describe an increased cultural awareness, knowledge, and change in attitude. Other authors take the definition of cultural competence further, describing it as a process, rather than an endpoint. For example: Weneger (1999) discusses the need for a lifelong commitment to a journey of increasing cultural understanding. Meleis (1999) stresses the need to actively seek cultural experiences that expand one’s own cultural worldview. Additionally, Campinha-Bacote (2000) includes the educator’s ability to effectively work within the cultural context of a student as the practical outcome of cultural competence. Effectively working within the student’s cultural context requires a developmental process for the professional.

25 Definition of Cultural Competence
“The ability to relate and communicate effectively when individuals involved in the interaction do not share the same culture, ethnicity, language, or other salient variables” Based on Hains, Lynch, and Winton’s (1997). Basic cultural competence occurs when organizations and practitioners respect differences, engage in ongoing cultural self-assessment, expand their cultural knowledge and skills, and adapt services to fit the community’s culture, situation, and perceived needs (Harvey and Rauch, 1997).

26 Research on Cultural Competence
Coggins (2000) The habit of exhibiting the appropriate behaviors with respect to the diverse cultural ethnic and racial student population. Habit is used to indicate the automatic responsive actions of the educator based on personal knowledge and the individual’s cues and preferences. Thus, cultural competence is a process where the practitioner automatically exhibits cultural diversity awareness, culturally Competent Behaviors, and Cultural Sensitivity, all of which are integrated into the Cultural Assessment of the student.(American Journal of Health Studies:21(4)2006 .p9.; CDC (2006). Key words are: Habit Exhibiting Automatic Cultural Diversity Awareness Culturally Competent Behaviors Cultural Sensitivity Cultural Assessment

27 Research in Support Thus, Ruby Payne, Irvine (1990), Erickson (1987), Au and Kawakami (1991), Asante (1998) and Banks,2007,2010 all argued that their research and experiences conclude that “only when teachers understand the cultural and historical background of students can they comprehend and react positively to minority students while enhancing their academic achievement.”

28 Beyond Sensitivity and Awareness
Cultural Competence Share resources and credit. Have patience and stay for the long haul. Behave in ways that acknowledge interdependence and diversity. Take some risks, experience cultures in non-patronizing ways. Beyond Sensitivity and Awareness

29 Culturally Responsive Teaching

30 The Culturally Responsive School
“Teachers and school leaders must develop a shared vision of the culturally and linguistically responsive school and teacher.” “Approaching a student's education in these culturally and linguistically responsive ways—rather than emphasizing deficits—has the potential to truly engage all students in learning, both in college and beyond.” Villegas, Ana M. and Lucas, Tamara (Mar. 2007). Responding to Changing Demographics: The Culturally Responsive Teacher. Educational Leadership, Vol. 64, Number 6. (pgs )

31 Culture and Its Impact on Academic Achievement
Culture is the glue that enables an individual to make sense of the world. It is the frame of reference for our intentions, behaviors and impact and influence on others. 31 31

32 Culturally Responsive Teaching Means
Integrating cultural content that enhances achievement for all “Students are more likely to master essential reading writing and computational skills when the teacher uses content that deals with significant diverse, human history and cultural events, especially the history and contemporary contributions of their ethnic group.” (Banks, 2007,p. 28) (Howard, 2006 p.2)

33 Exercise 5: Five Foundations to CRT
Five strategies for sustaining a culturally competent school Phase 1: Building Trust Proposition: 90% of US College and Public School teachers are white, middle class, English speaking, Received degree in predominantly white college (Gay, Dingus and Jackson, 2003) No experiential and educational background prepare teacher for their student’s diversity (Ladson-Billings, 2002; Vaurus, 2002) Note: Facilitator will provide 5 practical strategies from (Howard, 2006) Your strategy: As an educator to build trust is: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 33 33

34 Exercise 6: Engaging Personal Culture
Phase II: Engaging Personal Culture Proposition: Educator’s need to build their cultural competence i.e. “Their ability to form and model effective cross cultural relationships across racial/ethnic differences” (Howard, 2006, Coggins, 2005).Help students to develop: Feeling of belonging Trust in people around them, Belief that teachers value their intellectual competence impacts in student motivation and performance (Aronson and Slede, 2005) Note: Facilitator will provide what’s needed. Your Strategy: As an educator to “engage personal culture that positively impacts on student motivation and performance, I will do the following ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 34 34

35 Ex 6: Social Dominance/White Privilege
Phase III: Confronting Social Dominance/Social Justice (White Privilege) Proposition: Systems of white privilege and preference create enclaves of exclusivity in colleges/schools. Some demographics are served well. Other languish in limitations, mediocrity and failure (Howard, 2006, Banks, 2003, Gay, 2004, Hirsh, 2005, Peggy McIntosh, 1988). Could your college/school show clear and convincing evidence of equitable participation of ethnic minorities in all aspects of University life, etc. Your strategy: As an educator, I would implement the following strategy: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 35 35

36 Exercise 6: Transforming Instruction
Phase IV: Transforming Instructional Practices Proposition: It is essential that schools shift the instructional strategies to meet the increasing numbers and diverse learning needs of students by instituting CRT (Culturally Responsive Teaching). CRT in no way avoids having high expectations for all students (Gay, 2000, Ladson-Billings, 1996, McKinley, 2005, Shade, Kelly and Oberg, 1997, Howard, 2006, Coggins, 2005) Note: the facilitator will share strategies including recent emphasis. 36 36

37 Exercise 6: Transforming Instruction
Transforming Instructional Practices Your strategy: As an Educator, I would “transform my instructional practices,” in the following ways: ____________________________________________________________________________________ 37

38 Exercise 6: The Entire College/School
Phase V: Engaging the entire School Community Proposition: Changing demographics have profound implications for all levels and functions of College life. To create a welcoming and equitable environment for diverse students and their families, school leaders must engage the entire college/school community (Howard, 2006, Banks, 2003, Coggins, 2002). Note: the facilitator will provide information on the Outstanding National Success of school districts and schools that implemented these five(5) Culturally Competent Strategies that enhanced student achievement for all students while closing the achievement gap. Your strategy: As an educator, how would you engage the Entire College/School Community? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 38 38

39 Cultural Responsive Teaching! What is it?
Children whose language and culture align closely to that of the school are advantaged in the learning process. Those that feel devalued or unrecognized become alienated and disengaged from the learning process.(Gay 2000) Culturally Responsive Teaching does not focus on stereotypes of the culture, such as food and art. It is based on ways of communicating and learning that are familiar to the student, along with themes that are empowering to them. (Banks, 2007) Culturally Responsive Teaching requires that teachers interpret their students' behaviors within the cultural context of the student. They know the cultures in their classrooms, and reflect on the impact of this cultural knowledge. Children whose language and culture correspond more closely to that of the school have an advantage in the learning process. Children whose experiences are devalued or unrecognized become alienated and disengaged from the learning process. How people are expected to go about learning may differ across cultures. To maximize learning opportunities, teachers gain knowledge of the cultures represented in their classrooms and translate this knowledge into instructional practice. Thus, instruction that is culturally sensitive recognizes that students are not blank slates. Instead, students are seen as having knowledge and experiences that, if tapped, will accelerate their learning. Cultural sensitivity is not equated with a focus on easily stereotyped artifacts of the culture, such as food and art. Instead, it is based on ways of communicating and learning that are familiar to the student, along with themes that are of interest to them. Cultural sensitivity requires that teachers interpret their students' behaviors within the cultural context of the student. They understand the cultures represented in their classrooms, and reflect on the instructional implications brought about by this cultural knowledge. Then, they develop learning tasks that are meaningful to the student.

40 What is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of the students.

41 Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT)
Seeks to maximize learning opportunities, teachers gain knowledge of the cultures represented in their classrooms and translate this knowledge into instructional practices. To maximize learning opportunities, teachers gain knowledge of the cultures represented in their classrooms and translate this knowledge into instructional practice.

42 Six (6) Culturally Responsive Teaching are…
Validating Comprehensive Multidimensional Emancipatory Empowering Transformative Information from the “In-Time” website at

43 Six Essential Characteristics
Culturally Responsive Teaching is: 1. Validating 2. Comprehensive 3. Multidimensional 4. Empowering 5. Transformative 6. Emancipatory

44 Culturally Responsive Teaching
A pedagogy that provides equal access to education for all students of diverse cultures which recognizes, responds to and celebrates these cultures. Students’ cultures are recognized as important and referenced in all facets of learning experiences.

45 What is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
Culture is central to student learning. Empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically Recognizes, respects, and uses students' identities and backgrounds as meaningful sources by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills and attitudes. Culturally responsive education is based on the idea that culture is central to student learning. According to Gloria Ladson-Billings, "It is an approach that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills and attitudes." The use of cultural referents in teaching bridges and explains the mainstream culture, while valuing and recognizing the students' own cultures. This link between culture and classroom instruction is derived from evidence that cultural practices shape thinking processes, which serve as tools for learning within and outside of school (Hollins, l996). Thus, culturally responsive education recognizes, respects, and uses students' identities and backgrounds as meaningful sources (Nieto, 2000) for creating optimal learning environments. This topic documents case studies of culturally responsive practice. It makes explicit the work of teachers who use and respect their students' languages, cultures, and life experiences through the following principles:

46 Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Validating
Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of these students.  . When we teach with the intention of Florida Law, Statute , we validate all of our students by teaching them about a wide variety of cultures. Validation comes by embracing what students have to share about their cultures. Information from the “In-Time” website at

47 Culturally Responsive Teaching is Validating
It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students' dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. It teaches students to know and praise their own and each others' cultural heritages. It incorporates multicultural information, resources, and materials in all the subjects and skills routinely taught in schools. (Banks,2008,2009)

48 Culturally responsive teaching is… Comprehensive
Ladson-Billings (1992) explains that culturally responsive teachers develop intellectual, social, emotional, and political learning by "using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes" (p. 382).  Hollins (2006) - education designed for racially diverse students incorporates "culturally mediated cognition, culturally appropriate social situations for learning, and culturally valued knowledge in curriculum content" (p. 13).  Culturally responsive teachers realize not only the importance of academic achievement, but also the maintaining of cultural identity and heritage (Gay, 2000). I

49 Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Multidimensional
Multidimensional culturally responsive teaching involves many things: curriculum content, learning context, classroom climate, student-teacher relationships, instructional techniques, and performance assessments.  Teachers from various disciplines (language arts, science, social studies, music) may collaborate in teaching a single cultural concept, such as protest. Students can also participate actively in their own cultural presentations (Gay, 2000).

50 Learning Within the Context of Culture Yet Multidimensional
What Cultural expectations for learning may be different. Lessons should be adapted so that they are familiar to the student’s culture. Why Students may feel pressure to remove themselves from their culture. This behavior can interfere with development and make learning hindered. How Teachers should bridge cultural differences by using effective communication and examples across cultures.

51 Culturally Responsive Teaching is Empowering
Culturally Responsive Teaching empowers students to be better human beings and more culturally proficient  Students must believe they can succeed in the diverse classroom and have motivation to persevere.

52 Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Empowering
Empowerment can be described as  academic competence and self-efficacy  Teachers must demonstrate appropriate expectations and exhibit support for the student’s culture.  This can be done through providing resources and personal assistance, modeling positive self-efficacy beliefs, and celebrating individual and collective Cultures’ (Gay, 2000). Information from the “In-Time” website at

53 Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Transformative
Banks (1991,2007) asserts that if education is to empower marginalized groups, it must be transformative.  This involves helping "students to become culturally responsive and be able to make reflective decisions and implement their decisions in effective personal, social, political, and economic action" (p. 131).   Culturally responsive teaching does not only incorporate traditional educational practices with respect to diverse students (Gay, 2000).  It means respecting the cultures and experiences of various groups and then use these as resources for teaching and learning. (Banks,2009) Information from the “In-Time” website at

54 Culturally Emancipatory Instruction
What Cultural Emancipatory instruction should incorporate and integrate diverse ways knowing, understanding, and representing information. Why Students become active participants in teaching their own culture while learning the cultures of others. How Research student’s prior cultural experiences. Create an environment that encourages cultural infusion.

55 Culturally Responsive Teaching: in Summary
Instruction is culturally responsive when it incorporates and integrates diverse cultural ways of knowing, understanding and representing information. (Mayan ,2012) An environment that encourages multicultural viewpoints and allows for inclusion of knowledge that is relevant. Learning happens in culturally dynamic situations.

56 CRT Reflection Excluding the consideration of students’ cultures is liken to teaching reading with no prior knowledge. As teachers we are always looking for the meaningful activities that connect the known with the unknown. Incorporating individual aspects of cultures naturally produce the connections, but, taking it a step further nurtures the respect and appreciation for all cultures.

57 Building an Authentic Value System To Support your Cultural Competence
Thinking Feeling Acting Policies, Procedures and Programs To culturally competent is to be authentic Understanding the Five Values Driving a Culturally Competent Institution Understanding the “Personal Responsibility Principle”. Thank You! Feedback!

Justice – Fairness Equality – Treating everyone similarly Caring – Deep sensitivity to person and group Closeness – Familiarity rather than isolation Dialogue – Give and receive-sharing the healing field The challenge is to integrate these behaviors into our practices and delivery of teaching and educational services.

59 Cultural Responsive Teaching: A Final Perspective
“THE ATMOSPHERE YOU CREATE DETERMINES THE POSITIVE CROSS-CULTURAL RESULTS YOU PRODUCE.” “Imagination is more important than knowledge.” (Albert Einstein) “The future never first happened, it was created. SSC must create a culturally sensitive, linguistic, and culturally competent classroom/school environment.” (Coggins) So it is all about “students, faculty and administrators celebrating cultures in an inclusive atmosphere.”

60 Managing Culturally Responsive Teaching: A Final Perspective
Let us create a partnership between you and your student/. (Coggins) “To promote cooperation and teamwork, Remember: People tend to resist that which is forced on them. People tend to support that which they help to create.” (Vince Pfaff) Therefore, let us create a College environment where people can see that there is a willingness to imagine new culturally competent ways.

61 UN Human Rights Epilogue
“The time is now for all men and women to work shoulder to shoulder for peace, freedom, racial, religious and reduction of racial hatred.” “The prize is a world of peace and sanity where the pursuit of happiness is possible.”

62 Personal Responsibility Principle
“The price of greatness is taking responsibility for what you say and do.” (Winston Churchill,1930) “I cannot be responsible for someone I cannot change and that is you. I must be responsible for myself and the things I say or do in the conduct of myself. Only you have the power to change the things you do and yourself. If you will accept personal responsibility for your own behavior, and I accept personal responsibility for my behavior, then, together we will influence others around us to accept the same responsibility for the things they say or do and their behavior.” (Coggins, 2004) 62

63 Thank you! Thank you! 63

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