Presentation on theme: "The North and the South: Differences Cause a Strain in the National Relationship."— Presentation transcript:
The North and the South: Differences Cause a Strain in the National Relationship
Sectionalism and Pre-Civil War SWBATS How did differences between North and South influence sectionalism? How did the Compromise of 1850 and Kansas-Nebraska Act exemplify the opinions of abolitionists and slave owners? What effect did the Lincoln-Douglas Debates have on the careers of both men and the course of the nation at that time? How did John Brown’s actions in Kansas and at Harper’s Ferry exemplify anti-slavery feelings at the time? What was the Southern reaction to Lincoln election? Form an opinion: was slavery an issue of states’ rights or morality?
Industry and Raw Materials 1860
Free and Slave Population 1860
Expanding Railroads What does this tell us?
Industry Expands By 1861, the North has significantly more rails than the South. What impact does this have? (answer in your notes) Which portion of the USA appears more industrial? (answer in your notes)
South Expands Cotton Production The cotton gin makes cotton more profitable Cotton plantations expand and produce more What else must expand? (answer in your notes)
South Expands Cotton Production The importation of slaves was banned in The “desire” for slave labor grew. How was it to be supplied? Internal slave trade expanded. Southern states held slave auctions daily What happens to the price of slaves if the supply is lowered?
The Effect of the Mexican-American War The war added 500,000 square miles to the country President Polk wanted to extend the Missouri Compromise 36°30’ line to the west coast Others proposed “popular sovereignty” – states could choose their “fate” The House passed the Wilmot Proviso banning slavery in the Mexican cession. The Senate did not. Why?
Clay’s Compromise of 1850 California would enter the Union as a free state The rest of the Mexican Cession would be settled under “popular sovereignty” Slave auctions would end in Wash. D.C. (but not slavery) A more effective federal “Fugitive Slave” law would be enacted
Fugitive Slave Act Federal and state agents were authorized to capture and return fugitive slaves. The fugitives were taken to US Commissioners. No Jury and only whites were allowed to testify Anyone interfering could be put in jail and fined. Abolition movements in the North grew
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas wanted a railroad from Chicago westward, southern politicians wanted it from New Orleans to California. To get southern support, Douglas put into his bill, that the northern territories would be “open” to slavery if the settlers voted for it. Northerners were outraged but the bill passed into law
Bloody Kansas Both Southern and Northern activists flocked to Kansas to populate it with their own supporters. Two separate governments were elected. City of Lawrence was burned by pro-slavery forces. John Brown killed five pro- slavery men in response. Bloody clashes continued until a federal governor with military authority was sent.
Another Bloody Incident Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered speech criticizing pro-slavery forces in Kansas and personally criticized a southern senator Butler. Butler’s nephew, a congressman, beat Sumner with a cane.
Election of 1856 Issues: Expanding or limiting slavery and internal improvements. Main candidates: – Buchannan a Southern Democrat – Fremont an exclusively northern Republican
The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott sued for his freedom based on his having been taken into “free” territory. 11 years later the Supreme Court ruled: – Blacks were not citizens and therefore could not sue – When Scott returned to Missouri, his status was determined by Missouri’s laws – The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional because it deprived citizens of their property Slaves are considered property
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Abraham Lincoln ran as a Republican against the Democrat Stephen Douglas for a Senate seat from Illinois Lincoln stressed the main issue was the spread of slavery in the west and that the nation could not “survive half slave and half free”. Proof that Lincoln recognized the issue of sectionalism. Douglas said that proved Lincoln wanted every state to be a free state and states should be able to choose Lincoln lost to Douglas
Harper’s Ferry Incident October 16, 1859, John Brown and some men took over the arsenal in Harpers Ferry Some of his men went to slave plantations in hope of inciting a rebellion. The next day, Col Robert E. Lee had marines capture Brown. After a trial, Brown was hanged for treason, murder, and conspiracy
Election of 1860: Lincoln Wins Make 3 observations about this map.
Southern Reaction to Lincoln’s Election Not waiting for his inauguration, South Carolina seceded believing Lincoln would end slavery in the south when he became president. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas joined SC and formed the CSA electing Jefferson Davis as President. Lincoln believed only amendments or revolution could dissolve the Union A stand-off : who owned Fort Sumter in South Carolina? Lincoln vowed to hold federal land but would not provoke a fight.
Fort Sumter: April 12 th, 1861 The Fort was controlled by Federal troops and blocked the port of Charlestown South Carolina They were ordered to hold the fort South Carolina militia demanded they leave and began firing on it Aggression by the South gave Lincoln an excuse to declare the South in Rebellion! He ordered states to provide militia men (local soldiers) to put down the rebellion War begins! States forced to decide which side to support: The Northern Union or the Southern Rebellion
Comparing the Worlds of North and South Which picture is North? Why? Which picture is South? Why?