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A Woman Unknown Voices from a Spanish Life Lucía Graves.

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1 A Woman Unknown Voices from a Spanish Life Lucía Graves

2 General characteristics  Individual vs. collective memoir.  Must be representative of its historical moment, and reflect the culture of the author’s time.  The writer has self-awareness, is looking for her/himself, searching for her/his identity.  The personal details revealed are selective rather than exhaustive.  There is unity in form. Which can be reached through:  focus on a specific period in the author’s life  a specific theme in her/his life  the analysis of her/his personality through an important facet in his/her life.

3 Women’s autobiographies add:  Domestic themes: family, friends, domestic activities  Identification as daughter, wife or mother to someone else  Society’s responses to women’s ambitions  The struggle to fit in with family and community, while avoiding the restrictions that these can impose.  the need to balance the requirements of loved ones and their own needs.  In contrast with the self-sufficient image male autobiographers project, women tend to picture themselves as fragmented, multi- dimensional –this self-image is often accompanied by a feeling of alienation and insufficiency –in the end they project a sense of satisfaction for having overcome the obstacles  An episodic and non-chronological structure, that sometimes seems disjointed

4 What themes are raised in the introductory chapter? change: present vs. memory (6-7) change: present vs. memory (6-7) Graves’ relationship to Spain (9, 10) Graves’ relationship to Spain (9, 10) relationship to her mother (15) relationship to her mother (15) how to evaluate the past (10) how to evaluate the past (10) identity and family (9, 13) identity and family (9, 13) the importance of other women (16) the importance of other women (16) the nature of Catalonia (2) the nature of Catalonia (2)

5 “Above all, I need to rescue the person I was during those twenty years of residence in Catalonia from the dangers of my own oblivion and rejection, because the present can only be fully understood and appreciated by looking at the finished pattern of the past, the pattern of cause and effect in events that have become history” (p. 15)

6 In groups of three: discuss the character you have been assigned: what is her story? how have historic events affected her situation? discuss the character you have been assigned: what is her story? how have historic events affected her situation? develop a definition of Franco’s ideology (include the “official story” vs. the real story). Find quotes to exemplify your ideas. develop a definition of Franco’s ideology (include the “official story” vs. the real story). Find quotes to exemplify your ideas.

7 “Voices from a Spanish Life” Blanca Blanca Señorita Mercedes Señorita Mercedes Señorita Mercedes Señorita Mercedes Olga Olga Francisca Francisca Jimena Jimena Sister Valentina Sister Valentina Conchita Conchita

8 Sección Femenina

9 Franco

10 Lucia Graves and identity languages: compartmentalization (26, 115) languages: compartmentalization (26, 115) Persephone(146) Persephone(146) exile (123) exile (123) marriage (172) marriage (172) translation (193) translation (193) Spain/Cataluña vs. England (113) Spain/Cataluña vs. England (113) history history –Sephardim (210) Sephardim –Margarida de Prades (231) Gaudí´s Sagrada Familia (182) Gaudí´s Sagrada Familia (182)

11 Sagrada Familia 1953

12 Unifying themes Language/culture and identity Language/culture and identity –For Graves –For the Catalans –For the Sephardic Jews Translation Translation Experience of the Franco years (especially the feminine experience) Experience of the Franco years (especially the feminine experience) Exile/alterity Exile/alterity The present and its relationship to the past The present and its relationship to the past Search for meaning Search for meaning

13 The title? Wife to Mr. Milton Wife to Mr. Milton 3 generations of Spanish women (258) 3 generations of Spanish women (258) stories of other women stories of other women Graves and the recovery of her past Graves and the recovery of her past

14 Structural characteristics Linear/chronological development Linear/chronological development Alternation between Graves’ story and those of others (Blanca, Srta. Mercedes, Sister Valentina, Olga, Jimena, Conchita) Alternation between Graves’ story and those of others (Blanca, Srta. Mercedes, Sister Valentina, Olga, Jimena, Conchita) Circular (concentric circles): Circular (concentric circles): –Begins and ends with the hospital scene –Colors as representative of political situation (pp. 7 and 257) –Festes de la Mercè (pp. 8 & 234) Festes de la Mercè Festes de la Mercè Chapters on Sephardim and Margarida de Prades Chapters on Sephardim and Margarida de Prades –As she progresses closer and closer to the present, author reaches deeper inside herself and delves farther into her links with history Gaudí´s Sagrada Familia as leitmotif Gaudí´s Sagrada Familia as leitmotif

15 Conclusion? “I no longer see those years as futile or empty” (p. 271)

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