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1 1 Case Study: Teacher Supervision For Learning “Teachers and administrators have always recognized the importance and necessity for evaluation: they.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1 Case Study: Teacher Supervision For Learning “Teachers and administrators have always recognized the importance and necessity for evaluation: they."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1 Case Study: Teacher Supervision For Learning “Teachers and administrators have always recognized the importance and necessity for evaluation: they have had serious misgivings, however, about how it was done and the lack of effect it had on teachers, their classrooms, and their students” (Danielson & McGreal, 2000, p. 15) Dean Wheeler, Stacey Wigley, Sandee Blair 619.06 Leadership in Learning

2 2 Case Scenario Mark is a second year teacher at Central High School and he is on his second year of a probationary contract. His administrator last year, Mr. Black, was in his last year of his career and this year, there is a new administrator, Ms. White, in the building. The administrator last year, Mr. Black, met with Mark the second week of school and handed him a package consisting of the school division’s evaluation policy. Just after the first reporting period in November, Mr. Black sent Mark a “see me” email.

3 3 During the meeting Mr. Black let Mark know that during parent teacher interviews, there had been some complaints about the classroom management in his English courses. There had also been some concern expressed by parents about the lack of support for new concepts. For example, one parent described Mark’s approach to teaching the essay as, “he gives an essay topic and then tells them to write an essay. Where is the instruction?” Mr. Black also takes that opportunity to remind Mark that he will be in to evaluate Mark next semester since he is on a probationary contract. Mark is left feeling intimidated and anxious. He has been trying to implement the classroom management strategies that he observed during his six week practicum, but those classes were small classes of academic grade 12’s. He’d never been in an English 16 class that was mostly boys whose attendance was intermittent and whose language skills were below grade level. What was he supposed to do?

4 4 The mention of the evaluation seemed rather threatening and he didn’t want the principal to have a poor judgement of his abilities so he shut his door and tried to make it through the semester. His response to student behaviour was punitive and he often found himself panicking and overreacting in an attempt to make students sit quietly in class. He didn’t want to talk to other teachers because he was afraid there would be negative judgement about his struggles. In April, Mark receives an email from Mr. Black giving dates for pre-conference, observation and post-conference. The date for the pre-conference comes and Mark meets with Mr. Black for five minutes. During that time, Mr. Black repeats his concerns regarding classroom management and guided instruction. He asks Mark what he thinks are his needed areas of improvement and Mark does not share his reservations about his own practice. In fact, he feels like his position is in jeopardy.

5 5 The observation is scheduled for the next day and Mr. Black directs Mark to address the issues of guided instruction and classroom management as those will be particular areas of attention. The next day, Mark delivers a class that is somewhat manageable. the students were not accustomed to seeing Mr. Black in the classroom and his presence subdues the students’ behaviour. Mark has chosen a lesson that was delivered by his cooperating teacher during his practicum; he has practiced it twice in other classes, so he feels safer acting out this lesson since his contract is at stake. Mr. Black sits at the back of the classroom and takes notes for twenty minutes and leaves.

6 6 During the post-conference, Mr. Black shares his observations and his judgement. At one point in the conversation, Mark tries to share his confusion about classroom management and requests some ideas. Mr. Black responds that Mark graduated with his education degree, completed his practicum and should have the skills he needs to perform suitably in a classroom. Mr. Black gives Mark a sheet that rates his performance on observable teaching behaviours and asks for a signature. He informs Mark that based on the observation he will offer another probationary contract, but still has reservations in some areas.

7 7 At the initial staff meeting of the next school year, the new administrator, Ms. White, shares her intention to incorporate teacher supervision for learning. She has inherited a staff that has not been supervised frequently or on an ongoing basis. The veteran teachers are unaccustomed to seeing an administrator unless it was for administrative purposes, although they have asked for guidance with the division initiative of literacy across the curriculum, Mr. Black stated that he was is too busy with managerial tasks for division office to provide that information and forwards the emails to the division office coordinator. After reviewing the student achievement data, the past school goals and the division initiative of literacy skills across the curriculum, Ms. White can see from the data that there has been no improvement in student achievement for the last three years, and in fact has been declining with the implementation of new curriculum in social and science.

8 8 Problem Statement How can the principal effectively supervise teachers, Mark specifically, to properly address teacher developmental needs and student achievement given a bureaucratic model of evaluation, the previous leadership style, and the managerial demands of the job?

9 9 9 Operational Definitions of a Principal Instructional leadership – encompasses “those actions that a principal takes, or delegates to others, to promote growth in student learning” (Debevoise, 1984, pp. 14-20) and comprises the following tasks: defining the purpose of schooling; setting school- wide goals; providing the resources needed for learning to occur; supervising and evaluating teachers; coordinating staff development programs; and creating collegial relationships with and among teachers. (Wildy & Dimmock, 1993)

10 10 Teacher Evaluation Alberta School Act, section 20 Principals 20 A principal of a school must (a)provide instructional leadership in the school; (b)ensure that the instruction provided by the teachers employed in the school is consistent with the courses of study and education programs prescribed, approved or authorized pursuant to this Act; (e)direct the management of the school; (f)maintain order and discipline in the school and on the school grounds and during activities sponsored or approved by the board; (i)evaluate the teachers employed in the school;

11 11 Alberta Education-Teacher Growth, Supervision & Evaluation Supervision 9 A fundamental component of the policy must be ongoing supervision of teachers by the principal, replace the obligation of the teacher to develop including: (a) providing support and guidance to teachers; (b) observing and receiving information from any source about the quality of teaching a teacher provides to students (c) Identifying the behaviors or practices believing that the actions or practices of a teacher that for an reason may require an evaluation.

12 12 Teacher Growth, Supervision & Evaluation Alberta Policy Summary Integrated Framework  Teacher Education & Certification,  Quality Teaching (TQS) Teacher Growth Plans  Based on teacher’s analysis of needs within TQS  Shared with principal and/or colleague Teacher Supervision  Guidance and support/quality monitoring Teacher Evaluation  Novices, requested, or from supervision for those in difficulty

13 13 Teacher Evaluation (BC Ministry of Education. Governance and Legislation Unit. School Act) A legislated responsibility of principals “The principal or, if so authorized by the principal, the vice principal of a school shall, (a) perform the supervisory, management and other duties required or assigned by the board... (c) evaluate teachers under his or her supervision and report to the board as to his or her evaluation” 13

14 14 Leadership Styles 14 Leadership Style (Tells) Political (Sells) Evaluative (Tests) Participative (Consults) Laissez Faire (Joins) Leader Centered Group Centered Autocratic

15 15 Questions for Consideration: What leadership style does Mr. Black exemplify? What leadership style does Ms. White exemplify? What leadership style appears to be needed for Mark and the other staff?

16 16 Supervision for Learning A movement forward Supervision for Learning is the process through which meaningful and reflective dialogue arises. Its first priority is to serve the purpose of promoting learning - child, teacher, paraprofessional, principal, vice- principal, parent. (British Columbia Education Leadership Council)

17 17 Teacher Evaluation or Supervision for Learning What is needed for Mark in his present situation? Supervising for Learning Formative Focused on outcomes - student learning Reflective practice - an inquiring conversation Critical “friends” Evidence of student results includes observations and data Unregulated Evaluation of Teaching Summative Focused on inputs - teaching behaviour Based on accepted standards Hierarchical relationship Evidence of Teaching includes classroom observation Regulated in contracts

18 18 Questions for Consideration: Describe instructional leadership actions that Ms. White can take that would exemplify “supervising for learning.” Imagine that Mark does not respond positively and is defensive. Given his experience with the previous administration, how can Ms. White improve Mark’s responsiveness?

19 19 Supervision Principles Supervision must involve: 1. Teaching/facilitating learning 2. Reflection on one’s work 3. Communication skills 4. Two-way growth- mutual learning 5. Group collaboration 6. A change in norms that are central to the culture of teaching. ( Arredondo, Lechner Brody, Power Zimmerman & Moffett, 1995) 19

20 20 Supervision for Learning - Discovery Process Assess Identify Question/C oncern Identify common goals and strategies Develop Knowledge Identify criteria for success Early Results/ Data (British Columbia Education Leadership Council)

21 21 Instructional Leader or Manager? In today's world, Hanny (1987) perceives that "effective principals are expected to be effective instructional leaders... the principal must be knowledgeable about curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation" (p. 209). Bryce (1983) and Fullan (1991) agree with this holistic view of the principal's role. However, Fullan expands this holistic definition of leadership and management to be: an active, collaborative form of leadership where the principal works "with teachers to shape the school as a workplace in relation to shared goals, teachers collaboration, teacher learning opportunities, teacher certainty, teacher commitment, and student learning" (p. 161).

22 22 Question: So what does this mean for Ms. White as an educational leader? Think about how instructional leadership is demonstrated?  Facilitate the development of school wide goals  Mentoring & connecting teacher  thorough visibility and support  Walkabouts and class visits  Development of leadership in your school  Monitor alignment of curriculum, instruction, and assessment  Improve instructional practices through the purposeful observation and evaluation of teachers  Ensure the regular integration of appropriate assessments into daily classroom instruction  Use multiple sources of data to improve classroom instruction  Provide staff with focused, sustained, research-based professional development  Engage all community stakeholders in a shared responsibility for student and school success

23 23 Teachers expect strong leadership in pedagogical issues. Clarity about task and mission includes the principal. The goal of the principal should be clearly articulated. This clarity is often taken as a given within the school. School visions can be interpreted differently. (Arlestig, 2007) bureaucracy Culture

24 24 Questions for Consideration: Referring back to case scenario, how would you describe the culture in Central High School around teacher practice and learning? What could Ms. White do to improve the culture she is inheriting? How would this culture affect Mark’s response to supervision for learning practice?

25 25 Sergiovanni and Starratt's (2002) supervisory leadership model Phase 1: Building a relationship of trust between teacher and supervisor; Phase 2: Planning lesson and/or unit together; Phase 3: Planning classroom observation strategy together; Phase 4: Conducting In-class observation by supervisor;

26 26 Sergiovanni and Starratt's (2002) supervisory leadership model Phase 5: Analyzing the teaching and the learning process; Phase 6: Planning for the conference; Phase 7: Conducting the conference; and Phase 8: Planning for new targets, approaches, and techniques to be attempted in the next round.

27 27 Differentiated Supervision Model ( Glatthorn, 1997) Intensive Development  Taking stock  Pre-observation conference  Diagnostic observation  Diagnostic debriefing  Coaching  Focus observation  Focus observation debriefing

28 28 Differentiated Supervision Cooperative Professional Development  Action Research  Peer collaboration  Professional dialogue  Curriculum development Self-Directed - independent  “A teacher sets one or more growth goals for the year, develops a plan to achieve the goals, carries out the plan, and assesses and reports on progress. The supervisor plays a supportive role and does not take an active or controlling part” (p. 71).

29 29 Phases of Supervision Performance-Based Supervision and Evaluation Model (Aseltine, Faryniarz, Rigazio-DiGilio, 2006, p. 44) Teacher Preparation Phase  The teacher provides student data related to essential objectives Initial Collaboration Phase  Teacher and supervisor discuss the data, develop objective for improving student learning and draft a PD plan Initial Monitoring Phase  Teacher progresses on the plan and there is communication between supervisor and teacher Mid-Cycle Review Phase  Discuss progress to date and may revise plan. Focus on artifacts Secondary Monitoring Phase  Continues with PD, interventions, data analysis with continued monitoring, feedback, and support Summative Review Phase  Summative conference that includes reflection and written reports

30 30 Walkthrough As a part of the supervision process The protocol and intent of walkthroughs needs to be communicated to staff prior to walkthrough Be visible – no interrupting or abandoning Generates dialogue and reflection Provide feedback Communicates interest and support

31 31 Assumptions Teacher supervision is not about judging it is about facilitating dialogue about what is and is not effective. Include teachers in the process of planning for supervision and evaluating the process. Welcome any ideas for improvement. Understand that results from standardized tests are not the only indicators of professional success. Effective communication skills are a requirement for an instructional leader

32 32 References Alberta Education. (2007). Prinicipal quality practice standard: Successful school leadership in Alberta. Alberta: Alberta Learning (2003), Policy 2.1.5. Teacher Growth, Supervision and Evaluation, retrieved November 16, 2008 from Ärlestig, H. (2007) Principals' Communication Inside Schools: A Contribution to School Improvement?: The Educational Forum 71(3). 262-73. Arredondo, D., Lechner Brody, J., Power Zimmerman, D., & Moffett, C. (1995) Pushing the Envelope in Supervision. Educational Leadership. 53(3). 74-78. Aseltine, J. M., Faryniarz, J., & Rigazio-DiGilio, A. (2006). Supervision for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Berube, B. & Dexter D: (2006) Supervision, Evaluation and NCLB: Maintaining a Most Highly Qualified Staff: Catalyst for Change 34 (2) 11-17. Blasé, J. & Blasé, J. (2004). The Handbook of instructional leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

33 33 References Brandon, J. (2002, April). Supervision In Restructured Alberta: Policy Learning, Shifting Images and Professional Growth. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. [electronic version] retrieved November 12, 2008 from ERIC database. Covey, S. (1989). The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. NY: Simon and Schuster. Danielson, C., McGreal, T. (2000). Teacher evaluation to enhance professional practice. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Daresh, John C. (2007). Supervision as Proactive Leadership: Long Grove IL. Waveland Press, Inc. DeBevoise, W. (1984, February). Synthesis of research on the principal as instructional leader. Educational Leadership, 41(5), 14-20. Dimmock, C & Wildy, H. (1993). Instructional Leadership in Primary and Secondary Schools in Western Australia. Educational Leadership, 31(2)

34 34 References Glatthorn, A. (1997), Differentiated Supervision. Alexandria :Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Lovell, John Tl, & Wiles, Kimball (1983). Supervision for better schools (5 th ed.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Normore, Anthony, Quick, Paul M. (Summer 2004) Moral Leadership in the 21 st Century: Everyone is Watching-Especially the Students. The Educational Forum, 68 (4) 336-347. Petty T. M. (Winter 2007). Empowering Teachers: They Have Told Us What They Want and Need to be Successful: The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 73 (2) 25-8. Sergiovanni, Thomas J. The principalship: a reflective practice perspective. (third ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon

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