Presentation on theme: "Management and Leadership in Dental Public Health"— Presentation transcript:
1Management and Leadership in Dental Public Health Slide #1This lecture will briefly discuss management and leadership functions in dental public health.
2Outline Difference between management and leadership Management tools Leadership and changeOrganizational changeSlide #2The lecture will define the difference between management and leadership; describe management tools; discuss leadership and change in organizations; and how to change organizations.
3Management vs Leadership There are good managers who are not innovative leaders; they are just good status quo leadersLeaders must be good managers; but to be a great leader requires a whole set of skills and experiencesSlide #3There is a difference between management of an organization and leadership. Good leaders must be good managers. Management addresses how best to use the resources available to achieve the mission of the organization. Leadership focuses on new innovations and allocation of resources to achieve their mission.
4ManagementSlide #4First, let us focus on management of organizations.
5Slide #5Good managers understand that their work is interdependent and they are not free to implement new ideas or program before forming networks. Their source of power depends on earning the trust of their subordinates. They are team leaders, and they make changes to promote better performance in the team they lead.Hence, management is about teamwork and leadership. Management also involves skills in resource allocation, analysis, and setting key performance measures for all individuals and programs.
6Management Improve performance against agency mission Win over stakeholdersCreate a roadmapIdentify performance objectivesSet prioritiesRoll out the change programTake a comprehensive approachSlide #6Managers should focus on improving performance against agency mission, win over stakeholders, and create a roadmap for improving the performance of the team members and organization by defining objectives and setting priorities. Successful managers view all operations of the organization.
7Team members Hiring The most difficult process Heavy price for failure Slide #7Managers are responsible for hiring team members, which is a difficult process. They pay a heavy price for failure when the wrong individual is hired.
8Enemies of Trust Inconsistent messages Inconsistent standards False feedbackFailure to trust others‘Elephant in the parlor’RumorsSlide #8Managers depend on trust to operate their organization. The enemies of trust are inconsistent messages, inconsistent standards, providing false feedback; failure to trust others; reluctance to discuss major issues; and dependence on rumors.
9Slide #9Managers should be aware that their actions and words will be interpreted by their team members. There is no private conversation, no casual conversation, and in some organizations, people will immediately jump to the most paranoid, negative interpretation of all comments and movements.
10On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. Kerr S On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. Kerr S. Academy of Management Executives 1995;9:7-14.Whether dealing with monkeys, rats, or human beings, it is hardly controversial to state that most organisms seek information concerning what activities are rewarded, and then seek to do those things, often to the virtual exclusion of activities not rewarded.Slide #10Another management pitfall is the reward system. Rewards should promote the objective and priorities set by the managers and organization. If, for example, the organization demands teamwork but reward individuals, then teams will not function. The classic example in academic institutions is that rewards are based on research funding and not quality of teaching.
11LeadershipSlide #11Now we will discuss leadership. Leadership is even more difficult than management.
12Vision There is a process for developing vision. An understanding of the environment and defining of the problems facing an organization are prerequisites for developing a realistic and direct vision.Slide 12Leaders should communicate a clear vision for the organization. To develop a vision, a leader must be able to analyze the root causes of the problems facing an organization, understand the environment inside and outside the organization, and formulate a guiding vision that should also be shared with members of the organization.
13Leadership from the trench Leadership, like swimming, cannot be learned by reading about it.Henry MintzbergSlide #13Leadership cannot be taught it must be learned through reflection, analysis, and taking risks.
14Failure is a Prerequisite Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up. Thomas EdisonSlide #14Leaders should expect and welcome failure because they learn more from their mistakes than their successes.
15Accuracy does not matter, all the time To achieve the impossible,one must think of the absurd; to look where everyone else has looked, but to see what no else has seen. UnknownSlide #15Leaders should be able to develop ideas outside of the norm of the organization, challenge the status quo, and seek new horizons.
16Resiliency in Organizations The middle of every successful project looks like a disaster. Rosabeth Moss CantorSlide #16Leaders also should be comfortable with dealing with chaos; it is associated with each new project or program.
17Management and Leadership Introducing challenges that the culture cannot addressAll players participate in planningInformation sharingMaking adversaries stakeholders, building relationships, and making positive political strategiesSlide #17Leaders also face the challenge of introducing changes that challenge the current culture. To ensure that change is moving forward, all players must participate in planning, and information must be shared. Leaders must work with the stakeholders, build relationships, and make positive political decisions. Transforming adversaries into stakeholders is a key leadership skill.
18From Good to Great James Collins Slide #18 Moving from Good to Great requires several skills
19Slide #19Building great organizations requires identifying the so called “level 5” leaders who combine humility with professional will to create new vision and programs for the organization.
20From Good to Great Level 5 Leadership Level 5 Leaders have: No ego No self-interestHumilityProfessional will and unwavering resolveFanatically driven, infected with an incurable need to produce sustained resultsDiligence (plow horse rather than a show horse)When things go wrong they look in the mirror and blame themselvesSuccess is credited to othersSlide #20Level 5 Leaders have:No egoNo self-interestHumilityProfessional will and unwavering resolveLevel 5 leaders are:Fanatically driven, infected with an incurable need to produce sustained resultsDiligent (they are a plow horse rather than a show horse)When things go wrong, Level 5 leaders look in the mirror and blame themselves and their success is credited to others.
21Mode of Operation Sustaining Disruptive Personal computers Cell phone Microwave ovenAirline travelSlide #21Organizations operate either into sustaining mode or are engaged in disruptive change. For example, new companies started and then took over significant market share from established companies because they sponsored disruptive technology such as the personal computer, cell phone, microwave oven, and airline travel. Companies that were in mainframe computers, land line phones, slow ovens, and travel by rails lost market share or had to change drastically to stay in business.Leadership should focus on the next disruptive challenge in their field.
23Leadership PitfallsNot communicating directly and clearly the plan for changeNot defining realistic results and adhering to themTelling people what to doTime managementOrganizational cultureSlide #23Leaders fail when they do not communicate directly and clearly their plans for change; fail to define realistic results and adhere to them; and fail to understand that leadership is not about telling people what to do.Leaders must be excellent in time management.They also must understand the organizational culture they are working under.
24Organizational Change Slide #24Managing organizational change is a key focus for leaders.
25Change (Fishman. Fast Company April-May 1997;64-73.) You cannot change an organization without changing yourself.In any change effort, the first person to change is you.Slide #25Leaders must accept that in any change effort, the first person to change is the leader.
26Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA. HBR March-April 1979)It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to handle, than to initiate a new order of things.Machiavelli, The PrinceSlide #26Change is difficult.Machiavelli stated in The Prince that, “It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to handle, than to initiate a new order of things.”
27Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA. HBR March-April 1979)An acceleration of the rate of change will result in an increasing need for reorganization.Reorganization is usually feared because it means disturbing the status quo, a threat to people’s vested interests in their jobs, and an upset to established ways of doing things.For these reasons, needed reorganization is often deferred, with a resulting loss in effectiveness and an increase in costs.Slide #27An acceleration of the rate of change in an organization will result in an increasing need for reorganization. Reorganization is usually feared, because it means disturbing the status quo, a threat to people’s vested interests in their jobs, and an upset to established ways of doing things. For these reasons, needed reorganization is often deferred, with a resulting loss in effectiveness and an increase in costs.
28Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA. HBR March-April 1979)Diagnosing resistanceAll people experience emotional turmoilFour reasonsDesire not to lose something of valueMisunderstanding of the change and its implicationsBelief that the change does not make sense for the organizationLow tolerance for changeSlide #28Resistance to change is a major problem in organizations. All people experience emotional turmoil when change is considered. They feel that they will lose something of value; misunderstand the change and its implications; believe that the change does not make sense for the organization and have low tolerance for change.
29Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA Choosing Strategy for Change (Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA. HBR March-April 1979)Dealing with resistanceEducation and communicationParticipation and involvementFacilitation and supportNegotiation and agreementManipulation and co-optationExplicit or implicit coercionSlide #29To deal with the resistance to change, leaders can use education and communication; participation and involvement; facilitation and support; negotiation and agreement; manipulation and co-optation; and explicit or implicit coercion.
30Change requires ChaosA former 3M CEO ordered a young employee named Richard Drew to abandon a project that the CEO insisted would never work. Drew disregarded the order and went on to invent masking tape, one of 3M’s breakthrough products. Drew’s perseverance also laid the foundation form 3M’s defining product: Scotch tape.Slide #30Change is a process that may lead to surprises. Leaders must persevere.An example of perseverance is detailed in the story of masking tape. A former 3M CEO ordered a young employee named Richard Drew to abandon a project that the CEO insisted would never work. Drew disregarded the order and went on to invent masking tape, one of 3M’s breakthrough products. Drew’s perseverance also laid the foundation form 3M’s defining product: Scotch tape.
31Change is a ProcessDefining change as a process has a major advantage in implementing any change plan.Single change acts tend to fail and, hence, lead to skepticism.A process of change by contract portrays a journey with certainties and uncertainties, benefits and risks, and successes and setbacks.Slide #31Defining change as a process has a major advantage in implementing any change plan. Single change acts tend to fail and, hence, lead to skepticism. A process of change by contract portrays a journey with certainties and uncertainties, benefits and risks, and successes and setbacks.
32Change and Personal Gain You cannot change others unless they benefit from the change.Slide #32Another dictum is that leaders must define how people will benefit from the change.
33Organizational Culture Slide #33Change is rooted in the type of organizational culture that directs the daily activities of employees. It defines their expectations and their daily norms.
35It is about cultureLeaders don’t create value; they create the culture, competencies, and organizational practices that produce value.Leaders are biased towards types of leadership and typically employ practices that reflect their bias, not necessarily the needs of the situation.HOW your organization operates determines WHAT it creates.Initiatives often need to be managed differently depending on the requirements of each stage.Every leader needs to develop multi-tasking skills because they must add value in a variety of situations contiguously.Every leader needs to surround themselves with colleagues who have diverse perspectives.Slide #35Leaders don’t create value; they create the culture, competencies, and organizational practices that produce value.Leaders are biased towards types of leadership and typically employ practices that reflect their bias, not necessarily the needs of the situation.HOW your organization operates determines WHAT it creates. Initiatives often need to be managed differently depending on the requirements of each stage.Every leader needs to develop multi-tasking skills because they must add value in a variety of situations contiguously.Every leader needs to surround themselves with colleagues who have diverse perspectives.
36Implementing Change (HBR April 1991;1-12) Ten CommandmentsAnalyze the organization and its need for changeCreate a shared vision and common directionSeparate from the pastCreate a sense of urgencySupport a strong leader roleLine up political sponsorshipCraft an implementation planDevelop enabling structuresCommunicate, involve people, and be honestReinforce and institutionalize changeSlide #36The ten commandments for leadership are:Analyze the organization and its need for changeCreate a shared vision and common directionSeparate from the pastCreate a sense of urgencySupport a strong leader roleLine up political sponsorshipCraft an implementation planDevelop enabling structuresCommunicate, involve people, and be honestReinforce and institutionalize change
37Organizational Change G Identify any significant changes or developments in the organization’s external environment by examining customer expectations, competitor strengths, best- in-class peers, and industry trends.O Conduct a preliminary analysis of the organization’s internal environment in terms of its capabilities, competencies, and weaknesses.D Determine whether change is necessary and, if so, estimate the level and degree of change required.J Share data on the organization’s environments with key internal stakeholders to acquire their perspectives, promote understanding, assess their support, and build a sense of urgency for change.Q Assemble a diverse committee whose members are powerful, credible, and willing to work together to define and lead organizational change.A Conduct a thorough assessment of the organization’s resources and design, including its strategies, structures, systems, and culture.L Develop a shared vision for change that is clear, challenging, feasible, and universally appealing.N Develop a general strategy for attaining the vision for change that identifies the major initiatives, themes, or priorities.C Communicate the vision and strategy for change, build consensus, and model desired behaviors.Slide #37This and the next slide list the best order for leading organizational change. The first seven steps prepare the organization to develop a shared vision, followed by developing strategies for attaining the vision for change and communicating it.
38Organizational Change F Direct corporate resources to support the attainment of the vision by aligning structures, systems, and policies; establishing mechanisms for integration and feedback; providing training; and dealing with resistance.P Within units, establish specific objectives that will promote quick wins and move the organization toward its vision.H Identify and implement nontraditional processes, new ways of managing, or technical innovations to attain unit-level objectives.K Monitor the implementation process and encourage feedback from managers and employees on what is and is not working.E Refine the implementation process, keep people informed of the progress made by units, and visibly recognize and reward those who exemplify desired behaviors and contribute to the attainment of objectives.M Sustain and expand the use of processes, practices, and technologies that contribute most to unit-level improvements through training, communicating, and appropriate adjustments to structures, systems, and policies.B Evaluate the organizational change process to ascertain whether it produced the desired results and to document the lessons learned.I Establish mechanisms to maintain the gains realized from the organizational change process and to promote future learning and adaptation.Slide #38The next steps involve directing resources; defining specific objectives for each unit; developing and defining new management approaches; monitoring the implementation process and encouraging feedback; refining the implementation process; sustaining and expanding the use of processes, practices and technologies that contribute to improvements; evaluating the change process; and establishing mechanisms to maintain the gains.