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What is a Play Introduction to William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Play Introduction to William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Play Introduction to William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet

2 DIALOGUE The conversation between characters The conversation between characters Provides the substance of a play Provides the substance of a play Can further the plot Can further the plot Provide clues about character or theme (indirect characterization) Provide clues about character or theme (indirect characterization) Heighten the overall dramatic effect Heighten the overall dramatic effect

3 STAGE DIRECTIONS The written instructions that explain how to perform a play The written instructions that explain how to perform a play Stage directions contain crucial information that will help you visualize the action Stage directions contain crucial information that will help you visualize the action Includes how the characters should look, speak, move, and behave Includes how the characters should look, speak, move, and behave Stage directions can also specify details of the setting and scenery Stage directions can also specify details of the setting and scenery Usually written in italics & within parentheses Usually written in italics & within parentheses

4 Structure Play Act I Scene 1Scene 2Scene 3 Act 2

5 Prologue Establishes the setting Establishes the setting Introduces main characters Introduces main characters Explains background Explains background Introduces character’s main conflict Introduces character’s main conflict Spoken by the chorus Spoken by the chorus

6 Chorus During the Elizabethan era in England, the chorus was portrayed by one actor During the Elizabethan era in England, the chorus was portrayed by one actor Spoke the prologue and epilogue to the play Spoke the prologue and epilogue to the play Spoke directly to the audience Spoke directly to the audience

7 Exposition Establishes the setting and the characters Establishes the setting and the characters Introduces the conflict Introduces the conflict

8 Rising Action Consists of a series of complications Consists of a series of complications These occur as the main characters take action to resolve their problems These occur as the main characters take action to resolve their problems

9 Crisis Turning point Turning point Moment when a choice is made by the main character Moment when a choice is made by the main character Determines the direction of the action Determines the direction of the action Dramatic and tense moment when the forces of conflict come together Dramatic and tense moment when the forces of conflict come together

10 Falling Action Presents events that result from the action taken at the turning point Presents events that result from the action taken at the turning point Usually lock the characters deeper and deeper into disaster Usually lock the characters deeper and deeper into disaster

11 Climax Occurs near the end of the play Occurs near the end of the play Usually ends in tragedy with the death of the main characters Usually ends in tragedy with the death of the main characters Play ends with the resolution immediately follows & ties up the loose ends of the play Play ends with the resolution immediately follows & ties up the loose ends of the play

12 Tragedy A play in which the main character suffers a downfall A play in which the main character suffers a downfall In most tragedies, the main characters are in some ways responsible for their downfall In most tragedies, the main characters are in some ways responsible for their downfall Tragic hero Tragic hero Tragic Flaw Tragic Flaw

13 Aristotle’s Six Elements of Tragedy 1. Plot 2. Diction/Language/Dialogue 3. Music/Rhythm 4. Theme 5. Spectacle 6. Character

14 Elements of Tragedy: Plot Plot: what happens in a play Plot: what happens in a play

15 Elements of Tragedy Diction/Language/Dialogue Diction/Language/Dialogue The playwrights’ word choices and the actor’s enunciation while delivering the lines The playwrights’ word choices and the actor’s enunciation while delivering the lines

16 Elements of Tragedy Music/Rhythm Music/Rhythm Not music as we think of it, but rather the sound, rhythm, and melody of the speeches Not music as we think of it, but rather the sound, rhythm, and melody of the speeches

17 Elements of Tragedy Theme: Theme: What a play means, as opposed to what happens What a play means, as opposed to what happens

18 Elements of Tragedy Spectacle Spectacle the scenery, costumes, and special effects in a play the scenery, costumes, and special effects in a play

19 Elements of Tragedy Character Character The person an actor represents in a play The person an actor represents in a play

20 Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet is based on a long narrative poem by Arthur Brooke Romeo and Juliet is based on a long narrative poem by Arthur Brooke Published in 1562 Published in 1562 Based on popular Italian stories Based on popular Italian stories

21 Romeo and Juliet Romeo was a very young man Romeo was a very young man Juliet was a 14-year-old girl Juliet was a 14-year-old girl They fall in love at first sight They fall in love at first sight Caught up in an idealized, almost unreal, passionate love Caught up in an idealized, almost unreal, passionate love In-love with love In-love with love

22 Star-crossed lovers Shakespeare presents Romeo and Juliet as “star-crossed lovers” Shakespeare presents Romeo and Juliet as “star-crossed lovers” Doomed to disaster by fate Doomed to disaster by fate In Shakespeare’s time, they believed in astrology In Shakespeare’s time, they believed in astrology (Zodiac signs) (Zodiac signs)

23 Fate More than mere victims of fate More than mere victims of fate Romeo and Juliet make decisions that lead to their disaster Romeo and Juliet make decisions that lead to their disaster

24 By: William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet

25 William Shakespeare Baptized April 26, 1564 (thought to be born on the 23 rd ) Baptized April 26, 1564 (thought to be born on the 23 rd ) Born in Stratford- upon-Avon (England) Born in Stratford- upon-Avon (England) Did not attend college Did not attend college At age 18 married Anne Hathaway (on November 27, 1582) At age 18 married Anne Hathaway (on November 27, 1582) : Seven Lost/Dark Years : Seven Lost/Dark Years

26 William Shakespeare, The Lost/Dark Years During his “lost” or “dark years,” Shakespeare has been said to be: During his “lost” or “dark years,” Shakespeare has been said to be: An attorney's clerk An attorney's clerk Teaching Teaching Joined a theater company and was acting and writing plays (firmest argument) Joined a theater company and was acting and writing plays (firmest argument)

27 Shakespeare's Early Career At some point during the “dark years,” Shakespeare began his career with a London theatrical company—perhaps in 1589 At some point during the “dark years,” Shakespeare began his career with a London theatrical company—perhaps in 1589 He was already an actor and playwright of some note in 1592 He was already an actor and playwright of some note in 1592 Shakespeare apparently wrote and acted for Pembroke’s Men, as well as numerous others, in particular Strange’s Men, which later became the Chamberlain’s Men, with whom he remained for the rest of his career Shakespeare apparently wrote and acted for Pembroke’s Men, as well as numerous others, in particular Strange’s Men, which later became the Chamberlain’s Men, with whom he remained for the rest of his career

28 Theatre Timeline The first permanent theatre, The Theatre, was built The first permanent theatre, The Theatre, was built The second theatre, The Curtain, was built The second theatre, The Curtain, was built Theatre closes due to plague Theatre closes due to plague The Globe Theatre was built. Shakespeare was one of 7 owners The Globe Theatre was built. Shakespeare was one of 7 owners The Globe Theatre accidentally burns down The Globe Theatre accidentally burns down.

29 This sketch was drawn in 1596 by a Dutch student named Johannes de Witt. He attended a play in London at the Swan Theatre. It is the only surviving contemporary rendering of the interior of an Elizabethan-era public theatre.

30 The Theaters Close, Theaters close because of plague, and in the theaters people were constantly breathing on each other Theaters close because of plague, and in the theaters people were constantly breathing on each other Shakespeare continues writing and becomes a part of a theater company in 1595, (becomes known as “The King’s Men” when King James takes the thrown in 1603) Shakespeare continues writing and becomes a part of a theater company in 1595, (becomes known as “The King’s Men” when King James takes the thrown in 1603)

31 The Globe Theater Originally built in 1599 Originally built in 1599 Most famous of all playhouses in London Most famous of all playhouses in London Public Playhouse Public Playhouse

32 The Globe Theatre Shakespeare's company erected the Globe Theatre in London's Bankside district. Shakespeare's company erected the Globe Theatre in London's Bankside district. One of four major theatres in the area. Others: One of four major theatres in the area. Others: Swan Swan Rose Rose Hope Hope Open-air, octagonal amphitheater Open-air, octagonal amphitheater

33 London and The Globe Theatre At the time of the construction of The Globe Theatre, the population of London was approximately 150,000 people. At the time of the construction of The Globe Theatre, the population of London was approximately 150,000 people. The approximate capacity of The Globe was 2,500- 3,000 people. The approximate capacity of The Globe was 2,500- 3,000 people.

34 Seating There were three floors of galleries where people watched the play. There were three floors of galleries where people watched the play. The cheapest way to see the play was as a "groundling," standing in the central yard or “pit.” The cheapest way to see the play was as a "groundling," standing in the central yard or “pit.” As you paid additional money, you could ascend to higher galleries. As you paid additional money, you could ascend to higher galleries.

35 Architecture Behind the stage was a three story facade. Behind the stage was a three story facade. Pillars were located midway between the facade and the front of the platform to support a half roof. Pillars were located midway between the facade and the front of the platform to support a half roof. The stage included a balcony and a trap door. The stage included a balcony and a trap door.

36 Scenery The stage was bare; no scenery. The stage was bare; no scenery. Costuming and props were fairly elaborate, though. Costuming and props were fairly elaborate, though. No hidden microphones. No hidden microphones. Actors would have to overstress their actions and yell their lines to try and make it easier for all to hear. Actors would have to overstress their actions and yell their lines to try and make it easier for all to hear. No spot lighting, so plays usually took place in the early afternoon, typically starting around 1 p.m. or so and ending at about 5 p.m. No spot lighting, so plays usually took place in the early afternoon, typically starting around 1 p.m. or so and ending at about 5 p.m.

37 The Globe Today Reopened on August 21, 1996 with a short, unofficial season performance of The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Reopened on August 21, 1996 with a short, unofficial season performance of The Two Gentlemen of Verona. December 1996, Shakespeare's Globe was voted the best attraction in Europe and was awarded the European Tourism Initiative Golden Star Award by the European Federation of Associations of Tourism Journalists. December 1996, Shakespeare's Globe was voted the best attraction in Europe and was awarded the European Tourism Initiative Golden Star Award by the European Federation of Associations of Tourism Journalists. The new Globe theatre’s reopening season was in 1997 The new Globe theatre’s reopening season was in 1997 It is only 200 yards from the original site It is only 200 yards from the original site

38 Fisheye view of The Globe Theatre

39 Shakespeare's Plays Shakespeare wrote 37 plays Shakespeare wrote 37 plays Most famous = Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, King Lear, Macbeth and Othello Most famous = Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, King Lear, Macbeth and Othello Most academics would argue Hamlet is Shakespeare’s greatest and most famous work Most academics would argue Hamlet is Shakespeare’s greatest and most famous work In popular culture, it would probably be considered Romeo and Juliet In popular culture, it would probably be considered Romeo and Juliet

40 Shakespearean Language Shakespeare invented over 1700 common words Shakespeare invented over 1700 common words …by changing nouns into verbs, changing verbs into adjectives, connecting words never before used together, adding prefixes and suffixes, and devising words wholly original. Examples: Examples: Assassination Assassination Bump Bump Skim Milk Skim Milk Worthless Worthless Blanket Blanket Ode Ode Shakespeare is said to have had a vocabulary of some 29,066 words. Shakespeare is said to have had a vocabulary of some 29,066 words. An average person today might use just 2000 words in everyday conversation. An average person today might use just 2000 words in everyday conversation.

41 anon—right now art—are dost or doth—does or do……“Dost thou know the time?” ere—before……“We must leave ere daybreak.” fain—gladly……“I fain would bake Mrs. Baxter cookies if I could get an A.” fie—an exclamation of dismay or disgust……“You cheated? Fie upon it!” OR “Fie! Are you mad?” hark—listen……. “Hark! The herald angels sing!” hence—away…..“Get thee hence, beggar!” OR “We must hence before the army arrives.” hie—hurry……“Hie thee hence, or lose your life!” hither—here…..“Come hither, young lad.” thither—there……“Look to the east—thither doth the sun arise.” hath—has……… “He hath killed many a man.” OR “He hath a horse.” ho—hey (roughly equivalent). “Lucius, ho!” [Brutus calling his servant] mark—pay attention to…….. “Mark my words.” marry—indeed……“He says I should respond quickly; marry, I want to.” pray/prithee—a polite way of asking something……“I prithee answer the question.” saucy—cheeky; sassy……“Hence, thou saucy boy!” sirrah—a term of address used for inferiors……“Sirrah, bring the letter over here.” thee—you……“When will I see thee next?” thou—you……“Thou art a villain.” thy—your……“Thy name is more hateful than thy face.” whence—from where…….. “Whence came that news?” OR “Return to whence you came.” wherefore—why……“Wherefore dost thou leave?” OR “Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?” [As in, “why can’t you be someone else, whom my family doesn’t hate?”] Shakespearean Language

42 The characteristics of Shakespearean Literature…

43 Shakespearean Tragedies 1. Hero will be a high authority person, power source 2. Play will progress to death of a hero 3. Heroes will exemplify a tragic flaw(s) 1. Character trait that expresses itself in acting or refusing to act, leading to ultimate downfall of hero 2. Usually has hubris, extreme pride 4. Hero will have more and longer soliloquies 1. We can learn a lot more about the hero that they know themselves 5. Follows Aristotle Idea 1. Audience will experience tragic sympathy, pity and fear

44 Shakespearean Unity Multiple plots with common themes Multiple plots with common themes Actions and characters that mirror each other (have a parallel contrast) Actions and characters that mirror each other (have a parallel contrast) Major motifs of imagery that run throughout the entire play Major motifs of imagery that run throughout the entire play Certain characters that will appear in all of the plots Certain characters that will appear in all of the plots

45 Romeo and Juliet Full title: The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet Full title: The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet Takes place in Verona, Italy in the 1300s Takes place in Verona, Italy in the 1300s Was first published in 1597 Was first published in 1597 Written in Blank Verse Written in Blank Verse

46 Shakespeare Retires, or does he? Shakespeare writes his last play, The Tempest, in 1611 and retires from the theater Shakespeare writes his last play, The Tempest, in 1611 and retires from the theater Yet, it is said that Shakespeare helped the new author for the “King’s Men” write new plays for the company Yet, it is said that Shakespeare helped the new author for the “King’s Men” write new plays for the company

47 THE DEATH OF SHAKESPEARE Died in 1616 on his birthday, at Stratford- upon-Avon Died in 1616 on his birthday, at Stratford- upon-Avon He was 52 He was 52 Two different sources…. First one says his cause of death was unknown. The second one says he died after drinking with his theater friends. Two different sources…. First one says his cause of death was unknown. The second one says he died after drinking with his theater friends. Buried at the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-Upon- Avon Buried at the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-Upon- Avon INTERESTING FACT: Shakespeare’s will was very generous, but unlike most wills of his day, he didn’t leave much to the ones he was closest to. He gave money to colleagues and the poor. He left his youngest daughter, Judith, a silver bowl. He gave a sword to a friend who was a lawyer. He gave Joan, his sister, all his clothes, and to his granddaughter he gave his silverware. The strangest part of his will was to his wife. To her he left his "second-best bed" and to Susanna, his oldest daughter, and John, her husband, he left the best bed and new place. Shakespeare’s will was very generous, but unlike most wills of his day, he didn’t leave much to the ones he was closest to. He gave money to colleagues and the poor. He left his youngest daughter, Judith, a silver bowl. He gave a sword to a friend who was a lawyer. He gave Joan, his sister, all his clothes, and to his granddaughter he gave his silverware. The strangest part of his will was to his wife. To her he left his "second-best bed" and to Susanna, his oldest daughter, and John, her husband, he left the best bed and new place.


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