Presentation on theme: "Intelligence. What is “Intelligence”? Intelligence – mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge."— Presentation transcript:
What is “Intelligence”? Intelligence – mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Is intelligence one general ability, or several specific abilities? Different cultures deem “intelligent” as whatever attributes enable success in those cultures Is a talented artist who can’t do math “unintelligent”? Is a brilliant scientist who can’t follow a road map “unintelligent”?
Theory of Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner – Linguistic – Logical-Mathematical – Body-Kinesthetic – Spatial – Musical – Interpersonal – Intrapersonal – Naturalist – Existential
Linguistic – words and language A person's ability to construct and comprehend language Journalists, poets, novelists, storyteller
Logical-Mathematical – numbers and logic This intelligence is our ability to mentally process logical problems and equations, the type most often found on multiple choice standardized tests Scientists, accountants, navigator, surveyor
Spatial – pictures Our ability to tap our spatial intelligence is most commonly seen in how we comprehend shapes and images in three dimensions. Whether it is trying to put together a puzzle, mold a sculpture or navigate the seas with only the stars as a guide, we utilize our spatial intelligence to perceive and interpret that which we may or may not physically see Artists, cab drivers, architects, chess player
Musical – music The ability to perform and compose music have been scientifically pinpointed in certain areas of the brain, and instances of autistic and other impaired children who can perform brilliantly but are unable to talk or interact with others exemplify this fact. Pianist, Composers, singer
Intrapersonal – self-awareness and reflection allows us to tap into our being - who we are, what feelings we have, and why we are this way. A strong intrapersonal intelligence can lead to self-esteem, self-enhancement, and a strength of character that can be used to solve internal problems. Conversely, a weak intrapersonal intelligence - as is the case of autistic children - prevents even a recognition of the self as a separate entity from the surrounding environment Self-help and motivational speakers, philosopher
Body-Kinesthetic - physical Each person possesses a certain control of his or her movements, balance, agility and grace. Athletes, dancers, craftsperson
Interpersonal – social skills This ability to interact with others, understand them, and interpret their behavior known as interpersonal intelligence. Politicians, clergy, salesperson, teacher
Naturalistic – experience in the natural world People who are sensitive to changes in weather patterns or are adept at distinguishing nuances between large numbers of similar objects may be expressing naturalist intelligence abilities. Rangers, Guides, Environmentalists, Zoologist
Existential Intelligence - Individuals who exhibit the proclivity to pose (and ponder) questions about life death, and ultimate realities Philosophers and Thinkers - Aristotle, Confucius, Einstein, Plato, Socrates
Triarchic Theory of Multiple Intelligences Robert Sternberg -Analytical -Creative -Practical
Analytical – Assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having single right answers; academic intelligence. Problem-solving strategies and their correct applications to real-life issues. Commonly referred to as “book smarts”.
Creative Intelligence – the ability to effectively deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge.
Practical Intelligence – the ability to adapt to the environment, reflecting was is commonly called “street smarts”.
Cluster Intelligence Louis Thurstone There are seven different primary mental abilities. The scores for each of the seven tests of intelligence is read separately in order to get a better understanding of strengths and weaknesses
Verbal Comprehension Word Fluency Number Facility Spatial Visualization Associative Memory Perceptual Speed Reasoning
Verbal comprehension (or Verbal Ability): Found in such things as verbal reasoning, reasoning by analogy, and reading comprehension. It is "characterized primarily by its reference to ideas and the meanings of words."
Word fluency: Facility with words in special contexts, such as anagrams, rhyming, etc.
Number ability: Arithmetic computation
Spatial ability: The ability to mentally manipulate and visualize geometric relations; facility in spatial and visual imagery.
Associative memory: The ability to make random paired associations that require rote memory; memorizing skills.
Perceptual speed: Facility in finding or in recognizing particular items in a perceptual field.
General reasoning ability (or Induction): Facility in finding rules or principles in test items, such as in a number series.
Emotional Intelligence Salovey and Mayer Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences PLUS: – Emotional Intelligence – superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for others
General Intelligence Charles Spearman Intelligence is defined as a single measure of general cognitive ability, such as an IQ test score, your SAT score, or your DSTP scores. Primarily measures only academic prowess. g
Intelligence Anomalies Savant Syndrome – a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing; some people are functionally retarded in almost every aspect except for one very specific ability.
Creative Intelligence – Aha! Andrew Wiles: – Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable – There are five components of a creatively intelligent person: Expertise Imaginative Thinking Skills A Venturesome Personality Intrinsic Motivation A Creative Environment
Expertise is a well-developed base of knowledge Imaginative Thinking Skills provide the ability to see new things, to recognize patterns, and to make connections
A Venturesome Personality tolerates ambiguity and risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles, and seeks new experiences apart from the group Intrinsic Motivation is the personal pleasure derived from the challenge of the work
A Creative Environment sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas.
Intelligence and the Brain Correlational studies have suggested that brain size and intelligence are positively correlated Brain analyses have suggested that more intelligent people have more neural connections
Intelligence and the Brain Studies suggest that more intelligent people have faster perceptional skills and brain reaction speeds
Assessing Intelligence How is intelligence determined? Testing
Two Types of Intelligence Tests Aptitude Test – a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test – a test designed to assess what a person has already learned
One Example of an Achievement Test is an IQ Test Intelligence Test – a written method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores – Student A got a 1300 SAT score, while Student B got a 900 SAT score. Student A is “more intelligent”.
Two Types of IQ Tests Stanford-Binet – the most widely used written intelligence test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)– the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
Factor Analysis – a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score – Along with your score on a test, there is a breakdown of your performances on individual sections of the test – 600 Verbal, 700 Math on a total SAT score of 1300
How do you determine IQ? Step 1 Mental Age – a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. – A child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
How do you determine IQ? Step 2 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to the chronological age (ca), multiplied by 100. (MA / CA) X 100 – An 8-year old student that takes an IQ Test scores as well the average 10-year old. – 10/8 = 1.25 X 100 = 125 IQ
IQ Scale Over Genius or near genius Very superior intelligence Superior intelligence Normal or average intelligence Dullness Borderline deficiency Under 70 - Definite feeble-mindedness
Normal Curve – the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
The “normal curve” for IQ ranges from , plus or minus 15. About 95% of all scores fall into the range of About.01% score below 55 or higher than 145.
Mental Retardation – a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficultly in adapting to the demands of life; from mild, to profound
Constructing An Intelligence Test
1. Establish A “Standard” Standardization – defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group” – The “control” test group (a representative sample of the entire population you are comparing scores to) scored an average of 1000 on the SAT. You scored a 1200 on the SAT. You are “above” the standard.
2. Is The Test “Reliable”? Reliability – the extent to which a test yields consistent results, and how well it can be replicated
2. Checking Reliability – Split-Half Reliability – Half of the students answer all of the odd questions, the other half answer all of the even questions on a test. The scores should be similar if the test is consistently testing the same knowledge. – Equivalent Form – Students who receive Form A of a test should score similarly to those students who received Form B regarding the same information.
3. Is The Test “Valid”? Validity – the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
3. Checking Validity Content Validity – the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest – If a test is supposed to test your knowledge of mathematical principles, the questions should be on math, not history or writing skills
3. Checking Validity Predictive Validity – the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior – Is a test is designed to measure mechanical aptitude, people who receive high scores should ultimately prove more successful in mechanical jobs than people that scored low
Reliability and Validity It is possible to have a test that is reliable, but not valid. Such a test consistently measures something, but not what it is intended to measure. – IE. A vocabulary test given in math class is reliable as far as testing vocabulary, but is not a valid measure of a student’s mathematical intelligence.
Reliability and Validity It is impossible to have a test that is valid, but not reliable. If individual scores fluctuate wildly, then they cannot consistently correlate with other scores, whatever those scores may be. – Tests cannot be accurately measuring a given set of material if scores on those tests vary wildly. On multiple tests of a single mathematical principal you score an 89, 34, 56, and a 99, the tests cannot have been consistently testing the same material, nor can they be good indicators that you know or don’t know the material.
What kinds of things may affect IQ? Gender? Race? Wealth? Genetics/Heritability? Health Issues?
Genetic Influences The intelligence scores of identical twins, raised together, are as similar as the scores of a single person taking the test twice Twins raised separately have scores that are roughly 70% similar
Genetic Influences A gene on chromosome #6 has been identified as potentially being the “IQ” gene. It has been found in 1/3 of children with very high intelligence scores. By inserting an extra gene related to memory into fertilized mouse eggs, researchers have produced smarter mice
Genetic Influences We cannot say what percentage of an individual’s intelligence is inherited (heritability), but we can say that differences amongst people can be attributed to their genetic makeup.
Environmental Influences J. McVicker Hunt’s studies concluded that severe disadvantages, such as malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation reduce intellectual abilities Head-Start type programs may help children prepare better for school, but not necessarily increase intelligence
School Effects Those with high intelligence do better in school, go to school longer, and earn higher incomes
Ethnic Similarities and Differences Racial groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests, but differences within racial groups are greater. High scoring people and groups are more likely to attain high levels of education and income.
Gender Similarities and Differences Girls are: – More verbally fluent – Better spellers – More sensitive to touch, taste, and odor – More capable of remembering words and the locations of objects – Higher scoring in math computation tests – Better at detecting emotions – Higher scoring on tests of recognition
Gender Similarities and Differences Boys: – Outnumber girls in special education classes – Talk later – Read later – Score higher on math problem solving tests – Score higher on tests of spatial ability – Score higher on tests related to the sciences – Are less emotionally sensitive