ENERGY CPES 2009-2010 INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY HISTORY OF ENERGY IN U.S. FOSSIL FUELS
Types of energy Kinetic: energy that mass has because of motion KE = 1/2 mv 2 Potential Energy: stored energy - has the ability to produce motion –position –chemical (Where is this energy?) How does chemical energy get changed to kinetic? “WHERE” is the energy in a chemical? Nuclear
Types of energy Kinetic: energy motion Potential Energy: stored energy - has the ability to produce motion – become kinetic –Three Types of Potential Energy: –position –chemical (Where is this energy?) –atomic
Kinetic Energy Comes in Many Forms Kinetic energy – list types Energy Conversions Know several examples – see class worksheet
Conservation Laws First law of energy : cannot created or destroyed, but can and is constantly being changed from one form to another Second Law of Energy: In any energy conversion, these is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy So, where does the useful energy go?
Energy Conversions What energy conversion(s) does each figure exemplify?
Chemical Energy Types Fuels Food Where is the energy in these compounds? What is the origin form of this energy? How is the energy released? Give examples – chemical energy to kinetic What ultimately happens to the energy released from the molecules?
Conservation Laws Conservation of matter-energy: the total amount of matter plus energy in the universe is constant First law of energy conservation: energy not created but can be changed Six forms of kinetic energy Sources for energy on earth: name 3
Second law of energy In any energy conversion, these is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy High quality vs. low quality energy
ENERGY HISTORY AND USE What technologies impacted the types of energy used? – List several and be able to label energy history graphs handout Commercial Energy Production - sources Fossil fuels Renewable (renewable) Nuclear Power Residential Biomass is still number one - worldwide!! Explain this! In the U.S., how has home heating changed over the last 200 years?
What does this graph tell you about per-capita energy use?
Nonrenewable resources Definition of non-renewable How can the life of a non-renewable be extended? Metallic minerals Nonmetallic minerals – silica, salts Energy resources Fossil fuels Uranium
Renewable Resources Resources that when used – replaced in relatively short period of time So, what are some examples of energy forms that are replaced quickly? Resource that when used – no less of it! So, what are some energy forms that are examples?
Classification of Resources Identified resources - known location, quantity, and quality Reserves - identified resources - can profitably extract at current prices
Fossil Fuels What is a “fossil fuel”? In what ways is our society dependent on fossil fuels? Video: Intro to Fossil Fuels with Bill Nye Password and login is ehsbiology
Coal Types Lignite Bituminous Anthracite Uses of coal Dirtiest burning of all fossil fuels What are the advantages and disadvantages of using coal
Uses of Coal Industry Making steel – make coke, As fuel for many industrial processes Extract organic compounds for plastics and many other products (also can use petroleum and natural gas for these products) Making electricity (#1 fuel for this) Some used for heating
Types of Coal Anthracite Bituminous http://www.mii.org/Minerals/photocoal.html Lignite
Extraction of coal Mining from surface strip mining Subsurface mining (deep mining) Tunnels Environmental advantages/disadvantages of these types of mining “ Remains” of past mining Slag piles of waste Acid mine drainage - #1 water pollution problem in PA Economic advantages/disadvantages
Mining For Coal From: http://www.grantowngrammar.highland.sch.uk/subjects/Peak%20Oil%20web%20site/Formation%20of%20Fossil%20Fuels.html#formationofoil http://www.grantowngrammar.highland.sch.uk/subjects/Peak%20Oil%20web%20site/Formation%20of%20Fossil%20Fuels.html#formationofoil
Coal: Cons – Environmental Air Pollution Air Pollution Major contributor of CO 2 Major contributor of CO 2 Releases 67 air pollutants Releases 67 air pollutants EX- sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury EX- sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury Water Pollution – mining, slag piles Water Pollution – mining, slag piles Erosion – from mining results in water pollution Erosion – from mining results in water pollution Acid Rain Acid Rain Land/Property Damage – strip mining, acid precipitation affects paint on cars, etc; wears away statues and gravestones Land/Property Damage – strip mining, acid precipitation affects paint on cars, etc; wears away statues and gravestones http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/04/23/world/23coal- span-600.jpg
Pros of using coal? Most abundant in U.S. U.S. has more supplies than any other country Cheapest fuel to burn Works very well for industries and making electricity
Natural Gas Uses Industrial – 32% of total U.S. use Heating and MANY products Some used to make electricity Residential heating – 23% of total U.S. use Heat in homes – U.S. 53% of homes Electricity production – 23% of total U.S. use Commercial – 14% of total U.S. use - heating and cooling of commercial buildings Transportation – 0.1% Transporting from wells to homes, etc. Pipelines Compressed in tanks – think of propane tanks. Advantages Ample supply in U.S. CLEANEST burning of all fossil fuels LPG – propane and butane – used in propane tanks Source of industrial organic compounds for making many, many materials
Supplies Russia and Kazakhstan – 42% known reserves Known reserves and potential, undiscovered reserves: world 125 years; U.S. only has 3% of known world reserves U.S. 65-80 years remaining at current consumption rate
Refining Crude Oil Crude oil is a mixture of many different hydro-carbons that can be separated with distillation From heaviest to lightest: asphalt, wax, naptha, diesel oil, heating oil, jet fuel, gasoline, cooking gases (propane, butane)
Oil Shale – Is there a future? Oil Shale - fine grained rock that contains a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds called kerogen. Once brought to the surface, the shale can be crushed and heated, vaporizing the kerogen. The kerogen vapor is then condensed to make shale oil
Oil Shale – What role will it play? Pros: Huge resource- could meet the country’s needs for oil for 41 years at current usage levels. (but found on federal land) Reserves of oil shale may be 200x greater than reserves of crude oil ( global supplies) Cons: Low energy yield (takes the energy of 1/2 a barrel of crude oil to get one barrel of shale oil. Requires large amount of water in dry areas where rock is found.
Will We Run Out of Fossil Fuels? Proven reserves Extract at today’s cost and technology Known but not economically recoverable reserves What about future – finding huge reserves- is this suspected to happen?