Presentation on theme: "Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement From Classroom Instruction that Works by R. Marzano, D. Pickering, J. Pollock Created by The."— Presentation transcript:
Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement From Classroom Instruction that Works by R. Marzano, D. Pickering, J. Pollock Created by The School District of Lee County, CSDC in conjunction with Cindy Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools Summarizing & Note Taking for the Performing Arts
Participant Outcomes Participants will: Understand the purpose and importance of summarizing and note taking Identify ways to implement summarizing and note taking in the classroom Review examples of summarizing and note taking activities
Summarizing Discussion question: How do you currently teach students in your classroom to summarize information to enhance student learning?
Generalizations based on research: 1.Students must delete, substitute, and keep some information when summarizing. 2.Deep analysis is needed in order to do #1. 3.Must be aware of explicit structure of information. Research and Theory about Summarizing
Generalization #1: Students must delete, substitute, and keep some information when summarizing. Condensing information Looking for patterns Distilling (extracting) and synthesizing information Modeling by teachers
Research and Theory about Summarizing Generalization #2: To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. Seems simple but requires analyzing content Students need practice to be good at analyzing information Generalization #3: Must be aware of explicit structure of information. Most writers present information with an explicit structure or pattern. The more students understand these structures, the better they are able to summarize information.
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing a.Teach the “Rule-Based” Strategy –Follows a set of rules that produce a summary
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing
Rule-based Strategy Example: Dancers learn by repetition. When they first attempt a movement there is generally excessive muscle use and much tension in the body. This is easily demonstrated by the professional dancer, who makes a difficult movement appear easy because the body has learned how to produce the movement appear easy because the body has learned how to produce the movement efficiently, with as little tension as possible. By repetition of a movement the dancer learns to use the minimal amount of muscular contraction to reproduce the step required. By eliminating excessive tension in the body the pattern of a movement becomes ingrained in the body. It is easy to describe this as ‘muscle memory’. There are complicated functions going on inside the body involving brain conditioning and nerve pathways that make an initially complicated series of actions become a smooth relaxed action. The dancer no longer has to tell each set of muscles in the body how to do a pas de chat; the ‘muscle memory’ already has that information. Handout 1
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing b.Use Summary Frames –Choose frame to match information type –6 different types of frames Narrative Topic-restriction-illustration Definition Argumentation Problem/solution conversation
Narrative Frame Characters: the characteristics of the main characters in the story. Setting: the time, place, and context in which the story took place. Initiating event: the impetus that starts the action rolling in the story. Internal response: how the main characters react emotionally to the initiating event. Goal: what the main characters decide to do as a reaction to the initiating event (sometimes this is the goal the set) Consequence: how the main characters try to accomplish the goal. Resolution: how the goal turns out. 1.Who are the main characters? And what distinguishes them form other characters? 2.When and where did the story take place? What were the circumstances? 3.What prompted the action in the story? 4.How did the characters express their feelings? 5.What did the main characters decide to do? Did they set a goal? What was it? 6.How did the main characters try to accomplish their goals? 7. What were the consequences? Handout 2, 2a Narrative or Story PatternNarrative Frame
Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame 1. Topic: A general statement about the topic to be discussed 2. Restriction: statements that limit the information in some way. 3. Illustration: statements that exemplify the topic or restriction. 1.Restriction: what information does the author give that narrows or restricts the general statement or topic? 2.Illustration: What examples does the author give to illustrate the topic or restriction? 3.Topic: what is the general statement or topic? Handout 3, 3a T-R-I Illustration Pattern T-R-I Frame
The Definition Frame 1.Term: The subject to be defined 2.Set: the general category to which the term belongs 3.Gross Characteristics: those characteristics that separate the term from other elements in the set. 4.Minute differences: the different classes of objects that fall directly beneath the term 1.Restriction: what information does the author give that narrows or restricts the general statement or topic? 2.Illustration: What examples does the author give to illustrate the topic or restriction? 3.Topic: what is the general statement or topic? Handout 4 The Definition PatternThe Definition Frame
The Argumentation Frame Evidence: information that leads to a claim Claim: the assertion that something is true (identify the claim that is the focal point of the argument) Support: examples of or explanations for the claim Qualifier: a restriction on the claim or evidence counter to the claim Evidence: What information does the author present that leads to a claim? Claim: What does the author assert is true? What basic statement or claim is the focus of the information? Support: What examples or explanations support the claim? Qualifier: What restrictions on the claim, or evidence counter the claim, are presented? Handout 5, 5a The Argumentation Pattern The Argumentation Frame
Problem or Solution Frame Problem: a statement of something that has happened or might happen that is problematic Solution: a description of one possible solution Solution: a description of another possible solution Solution: identification of the solution with the greatest chance of success What is the problem? What is a possible solution? What is another possible solution? Which solution has the best chance of succeeding? Handout 6, 6a The Problem or Solution Pattern The Problem or Solution Frame
Conversation Frame Problem: a statement of something that has happened or might happen that is problematic Solution: a description of one possible solution Solution: a description of another possible solution Solution: identification of the solution with the greatest chance of success What is the problem? What is a possible solution? What is another possible solution? Which solution has the best chance of succeeding? Handout 7,7a,7b,7c The Conversation Pattern The Conversation Frame
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Summarizing c.Teach Students Reciprocal Teaching –4 step process 1.Summarizing 2.Questioning 3.Clarifying 4.Predicting Handout 8
Reciprocal Teaching Group Summarizing Example A Deeper Look at Giselle 1.Show students the first half of the ballet, Giselle (Other ballets or performances may be substituted). Ask students to read the first half of the story of the ballet Giselle. Appoint a summarizing student, a questioning student, a clarifying student, and a predicting student. 2.The summarizing student tells the important points of what has been read and seen. The teacher may provide some clues or prompts. 3.The questioning student asks the class at least three questions about the story. The other students try to answer based on what they have learned. 4.The clarifying student points out parts of the ballet that may be confusing and asks the students to explain them more thoroughly. Students can go back to the text to clarify specific parts. 5.The predicting student asks students to make predictions about what they think will happen next in the story and records them on the board or on a poster. 6.Finish watching the ballet and reading the text. Revisit the predictions to see how many of them were correct.
Note Taking Discussion statement: How do you currently use note taking in your performing arts classroom?
Generalizations based on research: 1.Verbatim note taking is least effective. 2.Should be a work in progress. 3.Should be used as study guides for tests. 4.The more notes taken, the better. Research and Theory about Note Taking
Generalization #1: Verbatim note taking is least effective. Not engaged in synthesis Only recording, not analyzing Generalization #2: Should be a work in progress. Continually add to notes Revise notes Time to review notes
Research and Theory about Note Taking Generalization #3: Should be used as study guides for tests. If well done, powerful study guide Generalization #4: The more notes taken, the better. Strong correlation between amount of notes and achievement on exams
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note Taking a.Give Teacher-Prepared Notes –Model Teacher Prepared Notes GraphicQuestions i.The Basics A. ii. Characteristics A.
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note Taking b.Teach Multiple Formats Web Handout 9 Outline Handout 10 Teacher Prepared Handout 11
Example Web Conflict A problem that occurs Kidnapping, getting lost Elements of Drama Characters Tell the story Jack, Peter Pan Setting Where the story takes place Neverland, castle, forest Action What happens on stage Car chase, swordfight
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note Taking c.Use Combination Notes Uses 3 parts: 1.Informal outlining 2.Graphic representation 3.Summary Handout 12
Combination Notes Regular notesSymbol, picture or graphic Summary