Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Part Four ENTER
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I. Word StudyWord Study II. Phrases and ExpressionsPhrases and Expressions III. Word BuildingWord Building IV. Grammar—Transitional ExpressionsGrammar—Transitional Expressions Language Study
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 1. assumption Examples: When historians and anthropologists first began to investigate the issue of pre- patriarchal cultures they made two assumptions. While the criticisms vary, the underlying assumption is that overall economic growth has been speeding up. a. assumable v. assume Word formations n. something that you think is true although you have no definite proof
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 2. contemplate v. a. to have in view as a purpose, intention Examples: Have you ever contemplated committing suicide? Secondly, we shall need to contemplate the various options available for disposing of the company’s properties. consider think about/of toy with the idea of Word formations
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Examples: She stood contemplating her figure in the mirror. He contemplated her with a faint smile. b. to look at (with the eyes, or in the mind) I.Word Study a.contemplative n. contemplation Word formations
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 3. contend v. a. to struggle, to be in rivalry b. to argue, to assert Examples: I know the charms of my rival are too powerful for me to contend with. Three armed groups are contending for power. Some astronomers contend that the universe may be younger than previously thought.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study Classify the following words into 3 groups according to a, b and c. crude schemes crude ore a crude shelter crude remarks crude manners crude ideas crude oil/sugar a a c c a b b a. 4. crude a. not finished properly; badly worked out b. (of materials) in a natural state, not refined or manufactured c. not having grace, taste or refinement
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study v. a. to completely get rid of something that is unnecessary or unwanted b. to defeat a team or person in a competition, so that they no longer take part in it c. to kill someone in order to prevent them from causing trouble 5. eliminate Synonyms get rid of abolish scrap do away with eradicate root out Examples: The credit card eliminates the need for cash or cheques. Our team was eliminated in the first round. The dictator eliminated anyone who might be a threat to him.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study Examples: She managed to get an interview with that elusive man. She enjoys a firm reputation in this country but wider international success has been elusive. For me, the poem has an elusive quality. 6. elusive ad. elusively n. elusiveness v. elude Word formations a. a. (of a person) difficult to find or see b. (of result) difficult to achieve c. (of idea or quality) difficult to describe or understand
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Word formations I.Word Study v. a. to appear or come out from somewhere b. (of facts, ideas) to appear;to become known c. to come out of a difficult experience 7. emerge n. emergence a. emergent Examples: The moon emerged from behind the clouds. New evidence has emerged to contradict earlier claims. Local government has recently emerged as a major issue. She emerged from the divorce a stronger person.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 8. immerse v. a. to put sth. under the surface of a liquid b. to involve oneself deeply (in sth.) Examples: He immersed the knife in boiling water. Immerse the cloth in the dye for 20 minutes. I walked into the study and found Mr. Johnson immersed in his writing, as usual. When Alfred inherited his father’s estate, he immersed himself in pleasure. Synonyms be engrossed in be wrapped up in be absorbed in preoccupied
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 9. presumably adv. used to say that you think something is probably true a. presumable n. presumption v. presume Examples: Presumably there’s a good reason for her absence, as she doesn’t usually stay away from work. Few women, presumably, would want to return to the assumptions on which the old system was based. Word formations
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 10. quest n. a long search for something that is difficult to find Examples: At their roots, both quests originated out of human inquisitiveness. World leaders are now united in their quest for peace. Foreign powers had long penetrated the area in quest of wealth or influence, or to counter the lusts of their adversaries.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 11. resolve v. a. to solve or settle a problem or difficulty b. to make a definite decision to do sth. Examples: Congressmen called for a third meeting to resolve the conflict. I resolved to keep quiet about what I had heard, since it would only cause trouble. She resolved that if he couldn’t find the necessary courage, she would. n. resolve Word formations
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 12. restricted a. a. small or limited in size, area, or amount Examples: It’s difficult trying to work in such a restricted space. The sale of alcohol is restricted to people over the age of 18. There is restricted access to this information (=only certain people can have it). v. restrict n. restriction a. restrictive Word formations b. limited or controlled, especially by laws or rules
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 13. self-evident Examples: The facts in this case are self-evident and cannot be denied. Even the principle of democracy, which seems self-evident in the West is challenged elsewhere. It is self-evident that childhood experiences influence our adult behaviour. a. clearly true and needing no more proof unmistakable obvious speak for itself you can’t miss it Synonyms
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study 14. subtlety n. a. the quality that sth. has when it has been done in a clever or skilful way, with careful attention to small details b. a thought, an idea, or a detail that is important but difficult to notice or understand Examples: She argued her case with considerable subtlety. Some of the subtleties of the language are lost in translation. To appreciate all of this beauty relies upon your noticing its subtleties. Word formations a. subtle ad. subtly
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study Examples: I would question the validity of that statement. Lawyers are questioning the validity of the city’s new telecom contract. You don’t know enough about the subject to question the validity of my statements. 15. validity Word formations a. valid an. invalid v. validate n. state or condition of being valid The end of Word Study.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW List: 1. at (the) bestat (the) best 2. be relevant tobe relevant to 3. be destined tobe destined to 4. cannot help but docannot help but do 5. concern oneself withconcern oneself with 6. from a… perspectivefrom a… perspective 7. in the event ofin the event of 8. read ofread of 9. piece togetherpiece together 10. stem fromstem from 11. take… into accounttake… into account 12. to sb.’s disadvantageto sb.’s disadvantage 13. by way ofby way of II.Phrases and Expressions
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW taking the most hopeful view Examples: Your mother, as the physician has informed you, is in a most critical condition; at (the) best she cannot be with us longer than a few weeks. The city was at (the) best an ordinary sort of place. His answers were at best evasive, at worst very misleading. 1. at (the) best cf. at its/his… best II.Phrases and Expressions 持最乐观的看法； 充其量 To be continued on the next page
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW I.Word Study at its/his/their… best in the best condition The garden is at its best in April. He was at his best yesterday evening and kept us all amused. Every year, when the peach blossoms are at their best, a festival is held at the Beijing Botanical Garden. 处于最佳状态； 处于巅峰状态； 在全盛期中
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW be relating to, be connected with Examples: What experience do you have that is relevant to this position? Kids have to understand how school is relevant to their lives. These issues are directly relevant to the needs of slow learners. 2. be relevant to II.Phrases and Expressions
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Examples: We were destined never to meet again. She was not destined to be a great painter but she had the confidence and luck to be a successful one. At first their predictions seemed destined to come true. 3. be destined to II.Phrases and Expressions Similar expressions be assured of can’t go wrong it’s in the bag it’s a safe bet it’s a sure thing seeming certain to happen at some time in the future
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW II.Phrases and Expressions 4. cannot help but do Examples: Lee could not help but agree with her. I couldn’t help but notice the bruise she had under her eye. Similar expression can’t help doing cannot but do used to say that someone is unable to change their behaviour or feelings, or to prevent themselves from doing something
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW to become involved in sth. because you are interested in it or because it worries you 5. concern oneself with II.Phrases and Expressions Examples: He loved his wife, and concerned himself with her needs and desires. For several weeks I did not concern myself with any thought of the future. Our country’s leaders must concern themselves with environmental protection.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW looking at sth. from a certain angle Examples: The novel is written from a child’s perspective. We have to look at everything from an international perspective. If you look at things from a feminist perspective they are, in fact, not equal. from a feminist/Christian/global perspective 6. from a… perspective II.Phrases and Expressions
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Examples: It offers vital financial cover in the event of you being permanently disabled in an accident. The countries involved have pledged to offer mutual assistance in the event of a spill. 7. in the event of Ways of saying “if” II.Phrases and Expressions should had in case in case of in the event of used to tell people what they should do if something happens
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Example: I was shocked when I read of his death. 8. read of II.Phrases and Expressions “read” phrases 读到，阅悉 to find out information from books, newspapers etc To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW II.Phrases and Expressions cf. read as read off read out read sb. a lesson/lecture read through/over read up read sb.’s mind/thoughts read between the lines cf. 把 ······ 错误地当作 宣读，很快地读出；读完 宣布开除； 朗诵；宣读 训斥某人 从头到尾细读一遍 攻读；熟读 看出某人的心思 体会字里行间的言外之意
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Examples: Police are trying to piece together his movements before the murder. Her early life has been pieced together from several different sources. 9. piece together II.Phrases and Expressions to use all the information you have about a situation in order to discover the truth about it
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW to develop as a result of something else 10. stem from II.Phrases and Expressions Similar expressions arise from result from be/as a result of be the product of come (out) of consequent Examples: His headaches stemmed from vision problems. It also tries to say that women’s problems stem from either their sexuality or the family. Much of the friction stemmed from a debate about which technology to use.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Examples: These figures do not take into account the changes in the rate of inflation. A valuation of a smaller company must take account of its potential as a takeover target. 11. take… into account/take account of sth. II.Phrases and Expressions “account” phrases take… into consideration To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW II.Phrases and Expressions cf. open an account settle one’s account give an account of account for on one’s account on this/that account on no account take no account of cf. 开户头 结清欠帐，（喻）报复 描述，叙述 解释；说明；占百分比 为一己的目的和利益 为了这个 / 那个缘故 决不；切莫 对某事物不予考虑
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW Example: Her height will be very much to her disadvantage if she wants to be a dancer. 12. to sb.’s disadvantage II.Phrases and Expressions “disadvantage” phrases giving someone a disadvantage To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW II.Phrases and Expressions be at a disadvantage be taken at a disadvantage to the disadvantage of put/keep… at a disadvantage to sb.’s disadvantage 处于不利地位 被人乘隙攻击，攻其不备 对 不利 使某人处于不利地位 对某人不利，使某人吃亏 ……
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW a. through, by route of, via b. as a means of; as a type of; serving as 13. by way of II.Phrases and Expressions Examples: You can get this information by way of the Internet. He sent her some flowers by way of an apology. They decided to give a party by way of welcome to the distinguished guests. The end of Phrases an Expressions.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW a. a. (n.+able) showing the qualities of b. (v.+able) that can be, fit to be Examples: fashionable (= showing the qualities of fashion) eatable (= that can be eaten, fit to be eaten) Suffix— -able/-ible More examples III.Word Building To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW regret respect response sense conduct enjoy read imagine think resist corrupt Suffix— -able/-ible III.Word building Give correspondin g adjective form of each word. regrettable respectable responsible sensible conductible enjoyable readable imaginable thinkable resistible corruptible The end of Word Building.
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions Function: Transitional words and phrases show the relationship of one sentence or clause to another and tie together ideas before the reader has a chance to forget them, thus to achieve coherence in writing. To be continued on the next page. Therefore they often become confused upon discovering that historians often disagree sharply even when they are dealing with the same event. (Para. 1) E transitional word: to show result
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions 1. Words That Signal Addition To be continued on the next page. Here is a list of commonly used transitional expressions. andmoreoveragain nextalsoone… another besideslastfinally furthermorein addition
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions 2. Words That Signal Time To be continued on the next page. at first, second, etc former… latter soon afterwardbeforeat length afterimmediatelyfinally meanwhilethenin the meantime lateruntilnext
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions 3. Words That Signal Comparison/Contrast To be continued on the next page. howeverinsteadbut on the one hand yeton the other hand stillin contrastnonetheless althoughneverthelesson the contrary
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar-Transitional Expressions 4. Words That Signal Example To be continued on the next page. for exampleto illustrate for instancethe following example
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions 5. Words That Signal Conclusions or Summaries To be continued on the next page. E in summaryconsequently in conclusionin other words to concludethus thereforeas a result
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions 6. Words That Signal Concession To be continued on the next page. although it is true that although you could say that grantedof course naturally
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions To be continued on the next page. Now pick out the transitional words or phrases in the following sentences and point out how they each make sentence transition clear. (to add, to contrast, to exemplify, to intensify, to show result, to repeat, to summarize or to conclude, etc.) 1.And presumably, historians who are wrong will have their “facts” wrong. This is seldom the case, however. (Para. 2) (And: to add; however: to contrast) 2. Rather, they select only those records they deem most significant. (Para. 6) (Rather: to introduce a fact that is different from what has been mentioned)
Lesson 3—Why Historians Disagree BTLEW 3. At the same time, they would most likely not use evidence that President Woodrow Wilson was dissatisfied with a new hat he bought during the first months of 1917. (Para. 7) (At the same time: to indicate time) 4. In other words, we have to go beyond the proximate cause and probe further and further. (Para. 11) (In other words: to explain) 5. In the end, you might argue that the ultimate cause of your being late was the fact that you were born, but obviously this goes too far back to be meaningful. (Para. 11) (In the end: to conclude; but: to contrast) IV.Grammar—Transitional Expressions The end of Grammar—Transitional Expressions.
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