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Understanding Intelligence I. Intelligence - the ability to understand and adapt to the environment by using a combination of inherited abilities and learned.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Intelligence I. Intelligence - the ability to understand and adapt to the environment by using a combination of inherited abilities and learned."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Intelligence I. Intelligence - the ability to understand and adapt to the environment by using a combination of inherited abilities and learned experiences

2 Intelligence Tests  A. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Alfred Binet was asked to find students who could not excel in the regular school system) (schoolwork)  1. direction -the ability to set up a goal and work toward it  2. adaptability -when faced with a problem, the person can make the adjustment needed to solve it   3. comprehension -having a basic understanding of exactly what the problem is   4. self-evaluation -the ability to know whether or not the solution is correct  A. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Alfred Binet was asked to find students who could not excel in the regular school system) (schoolwork)  1. direction -the ability to set up a goal and work toward it  2. adaptability -when faced with a problem, the person can make the adjustment needed to solve it   3. comprehension -having a basic understanding of exactly what the problem is   4. self-evaluation -the ability to know whether or not the solution is correct

3 B. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) - measure of intelligence comparing mental age (determined by testing) with chronological age  ___mental age__X 100 = IQ  Chronological Age  If a 5 year old is as intelligent as an average 10 year old, what is his IQ?  ___mental age__X 100 = IQ  Chronological Age  If a 5 year old is as intelligent as an average 10 year old, what is his IQ?

4 C. Wechsler Intelligence Tests (David Wechsler) (real world intelligence)  1. 2 part - verbal / performance  2. WAIS - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - adults  3. WISC - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - ages 6-16  1. 2 part - verbal / performance  2. WAIS - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - adults  3. WISC - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - ages 6-16

5 ` `  D. Individual Intelligence Tests - IQ test administered on a one-to-one basis  More Accurate but expensive/time consuming  E. Group Intelligence Tests - IQ test administered to many people at one time  Cheaper/ less time consuming  III. What is intelligence? - whatever the intelligence tests measure???????????  *What about the person who scores high but in life acts foolishly?  *What about the person who scores low but are great problem solvers and handle everyday life effectively?  D. Individual Intelligence Tests - IQ test administered on a one-to-one basis  More Accurate but expensive/time consuming  E. Group Intelligence Tests - IQ test administered to many people at one time  Cheaper/ less time consuming  III. What is intelligence? - whatever the intelligence tests measure???????????  *What about the person who scores high but in life acts foolishly?  *What about the person who scores low but are great problem solvers and handle everyday life effectively?

6  Which are school related? Which are special talents?  language and logical mathematicalremaining 5  How does society influence the definition of intelligence?  it reflects what society views as worthwhile, meaningful, and valuable  V. Inherited intelligence  A. heredity plays an important part in basic intellectual potential (50%)  B. education, social class, environment, nutrition, stimulation (50%)  How are these conclusions decided?  through the study of twins  Which are school related? Which are special talents?  language and logical mathematicalremaining 5  How does society influence the definition of intelligence?  it reflects what society views as worthwhile, meaningful, and valuable  V. Inherited intelligence  A. heredity plays an important part in basic intellectual potential (50%)  B. education, social class, environment, nutrition, stimulation (50%)  How are these conclusions decided?  through the study of twins

7 VI. Issues in intelligence testing  A. Court cases - federal and state courts have ruled that IQ test results alone cannot be used to make judgment about which classes or schools to place children in if the children haven’t done well on the test. Why?  Different ethnicities and cultures test different on IQ test  Test are made for Midwest White America  1. cultural bias - the unfair measurement of cultural groups’ abilities  Example #1   IQ tests label 6 times more nonwhites as “mentally retarded”  Example #2  IQ tests are typically timed  A. Court cases - federal and state courts have ruled that IQ test results alone cannot be used to make judgment about which classes or schools to place children in if the children haven’t done well on the test. Why?  Different ethnicities and cultures test different on IQ test  Test are made for Midwest White America  1. cultural bias - the unfair measurement of cultural groups’ abilities  Example #1   IQ tests label 6 times more nonwhites as “mentally retarded”  Example #2  IQ tests are typically timed

8 Superior Intelligence  A. studied by Lewis Terman  1. children with average IQ 150  2. extremely successful in school  3. psychologically well adjusted  4. physically quite healthy  5. interacted well with others  6. high self-esteem  As adults:  1. subjects remained healthier and more successful than average  2. lower rates of divorce, alcoholism and suicide  A. studied by Lewis Terman  1. children with average IQ 150  2. extremely successful in school  3. psychologically well adjusted  4. physically quite healthy  5. interacted well with others  6. high self-esteem  As adults:  1. subjects remained healthier and more successful than average  2. lower rates of divorce, alcoholism and suicide

9 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence / Intelligence is not a single ability, but differs in different modalities

10 Verbal/Linguistic / Allows individuals to communicate and make sense of the world through language / Poets exemplify this intelligence in its mature form / Students who enjoy playing with rhymes, who pun, who always have a story to tell, who quickly acquire other languages, including sign language, all exhibit linguistic intelligence / Allows individuals to communicate and make sense of the world through language / Poets exemplify this intelligence in its mature form / Students who enjoy playing with rhymes, who pun, who always have a story to tell, who quickly acquire other languages, including sign language, all exhibit linguistic intelligence

11 Logical/Mathmatical / Enables individuals to use and appreciate abstract relation. / Scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers all rely on this intelligence. So do the students who “live” baseball statistics, or who carefully analyze the components of problems - either personal or school related - before systematically testing solutions. / Enables individuals to use and appreciate abstract relation. / Scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers all rely on this intelligence. So do the students who “live” baseball statistics, or who carefully analyze the components of problems - either personal or school related - before systematically testing solutions.

12 Visual/Spatial / Makes it possible for people to perceive visual or spatial information, to transform this information, and to recreate visual images from memory / Well-developed spatial capacities are needed for work of architects, sculptors, and engineers / The student who turn first to graphs, charts, and pictures in their textbooks, who like to “web” their ideas before writing a paper, and who fill the blank space around their notes with intricate patterns are also using the spatial intelligence. Can be exercise by visually impaired. / Makes it possible for people to perceive visual or spatial information, to transform this information, and to recreate visual images from memory / Well-developed spatial capacities are needed for work of architects, sculptors, and engineers / The student who turn first to graphs, charts, and pictures in their textbooks, who like to “web” their ideas before writing a paper, and who fill the blank space around their notes with intricate patterns are also using the spatial intelligence. Can be exercise by visually impaired.

13 Music/rhythmic / Allows people to create, communicate, and understand meanings made out of sound / While composers and instrumentalists clearly exhibit this intelligence, so do the students who seem particularly attracted by the birds singing outside the classroom window or who constantly tap out intricate rhythms on the desk with their pencil / Allows people to create, communicate, and understand meanings made out of sound / While composers and instrumentalists clearly exhibit this intelligence, so do the students who seem particularly attracted by the birds singing outside the classroom window or who constantly tap out intricate rhythms on the desk with their pencil

14 Body/kinesthetic / Allows individuals to use all or part of the body to create products or solve problems / Athletes, surgeons, dancers, choreographers, and crafts people all use kinesthetic intelligence / The capacity is also evident in students who relish gym class and school dances, who prefer to carry out class projects by making models rather than writing reports, and who toss crumpled paper with frequency and accuracy into wastebaskets cross the room / Allows individuals to use all or part of the body to create products or solve problems / Athletes, surgeons, dancers, choreographers, and crafts people all use kinesthetic intelligence / The capacity is also evident in students who relish gym class and school dances, who prefer to carry out class projects by making models rather than writing reports, and who toss crumpled paper with frequency and accuracy into wastebaskets cross the room

15 Interpersonal / Enables individuals to recognize and make distinctions about others’ feelings and intentions / Teacher, parents, politicians, psychologists, and salespeople rely on interpersonal intelligence / Students exhibit this intelligence when they thrive on small-group work, when they notice and react to the moods of their friends and classmates, and when they tactfully convince the teacher of their need for extra time to complete the homework assignment / Enables individuals to recognize and make distinctions about others’ feelings and intentions / Teacher, parents, politicians, psychologists, and salespeople rely on interpersonal intelligence / Students exhibit this intelligence when they thrive on small-group work, when they notice and react to the moods of their friends and classmates, and when they tactfully convince the teacher of their need for extra time to complete the homework assignment

16 Intrapersonal / Helps individuals to distinguish among their own feelings, to build accurate mental models of themselves to make decisions about their lives / Although it is difficult to access who has this capacity and to what degree, evidence can be sought in students’ uses of their other intelligences - how well they seem to be capitalizing on their strengths, how cognizant they are of their weaknesses, and how thoughtful they are about the decisions and choices they make. / Helps individuals to distinguish among their own feelings, to build accurate mental models of themselves to make decisions about their lives / Although it is difficult to access who has this capacity and to what degree, evidence can be sought in students’ uses of their other intelligences - how well they seem to be capitalizing on their strengths, how cognizant they are of their weaknesses, and how thoughtful they are about the decisions and choices they make.

17 Mental Retardation / Borderline - IQ / Just below average / Slow learners / Typically don’t complete high school / Not legally mentally retarded / Borderline - IQ / Just below average / Slow learners / Typically don’t complete high school / Not legally mentally retarded

18 Mental Retardation / Mild - IQ / Typical legal classification for m.r. / Can function on own, get married, have family / Need special help in school / Lower end may need supervision / Struggle with abstract reasoning / Mild - IQ / Typical legal classification for m.r. / Can function on own, get married, have family / Need special help in school / Lower end may need supervision / Struggle with abstract reasoning

19 Mental Retardation / Moderate - IQ / Typically caused by serious illness / Physical problems / Need supervision / Can take care of themselves / 4-7 year old skills / Moderate - IQ / Typically caused by serious illness / Physical problems / Need supervision / Can take care of themselves / 4-7 year old skills

20 Mental Retardation / Severe - IQ / 75% have physical defect or disease / Need constant supervision / Cannot benefit from school / Severe - IQ / 75% have physical defect or disease / Need constant supervision / Cannot benefit from school

21 Mental Retardation / Profound - IQ 19 and below / 1% of mentally retarded pop. / 2yr old or below skills / Limited communication / Cannot care or dress themselves / Profound - IQ 19 and below / 1% of mentally retarded pop. / 2yr old or below skills / Limited communication / Cannot care or dress themselves

22 Factors that cause mental retardation  A. physical -20 percent result from known physical defects  Most are severe or profound  Most menatlly retarded people have no obvious physical brain problems  What would the brain of a very bright person, an average person and a mentally retarded person look like?  The Same  B. environment - nutrition, poor health, infection, drug abuse by pregnant mother, and lack of stimulation all affect brain development  A. physical -20 percent result from known physical defects  Most are severe or profound  Most menatlly retarded people have no obvious physical brain problems  What would the brain of a very bright person, an average person and a mentally retarded person look like?  The Same  B. environment - nutrition, poor health, infection, drug abuse by pregnant mother, and lack of stimulation all affect brain development

23 Methods of Treatment  A. medicine helps with physical causes of mental retardation  B. programs for environmental causes (intellectual stimulation)  1. special education classes  2. inclusion - keep mentally retarded children in regular classes - can be very affective if conditions are favorable  3. training in motor coordination, practical social skills, and self-care  A. medicine helps with physical causes of mental retardation  B. programs for environmental causes (intellectual stimulation)  1. special education classes  2. inclusion - keep mentally retarded children in regular classes - can be very affective if conditions are favorable  3. training in motor coordination, practical social skills, and self-care

24 Savant Syndrome  person with below-normal mental capacity possesses a particular talent or mental ability to an unusually high degree

25 Creativity - the ability to break set  A. set - a tendency to solve problems in the same way over and over  B. break set - use something in a way different from the way in which it is normally used  C. characteristics of creative students  1. frequently unpredictable and disruptive  2. may act silly  3. contradict teachers  4. have difficulty fitting in to standard educational system  5. IQ’s generally above average  A. set - a tendency to solve problems in the same way over and over  B. break set - use something in a way different from the way in which it is normally used  C. characteristics of creative students  1. frequently unpredictable and disruptive  2. may act silly  3. contradict teachers  4. have difficulty fitting in to standard educational system  5. IQ’s generally above average


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