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Coaching. Three Major Objectives Win Have fun Develop – Physically – Psychologically – Socially.

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Presentation on theme: "Coaching. Three Major Objectives Win Have fun Develop – Physically – Psychologically – Socially."— Presentation transcript:

1 Coaching

2 Three Major Objectives Win Have fun Develop – Physically – Psychologically – Socially

3 Factors That Influence Objectives Importance Choices – Well being vs. development Priorities

4 Coaching Philosophy Consistent with objectives Cornerstone – Athletes first, winning second Other factors – Striving to win – Commitment – Sportsmanship – Keeping winning in perspective

5 Coaching Styles Command Submissive Coperative

6 Command Coach makes all the decisions Role of athlete  respond to the coach’s commands Coach has knowledge and experience – Tells athletes what to do Athlete’s role – Listen – Absorb – Comply

7 Submissive Roll out the balls Babysitter Little instruction Minimal guidance Resolves problems only as a last resort Lacks competence and/or lazy

8 Cooperative Recognizes their responsibility to provide structure and leadership Guide athletes toward achieving objectives Young athletes can not become responsible adults without learning to make decisions

9 Main Challenge Let athletes learn Sport skills need to be taught so they have meaning to the athlete – Mental and physical aspects – Athletes Initiate learning Make mistakes & learn from them Develop academically & socially

10 What Makes a Successful Coach Knowledge of the sport Motivation Empathy – Understand thoughts, feelings, emotions – Listen and express understanding

11 Motivation “why you do what you do” Driving force by which humans achieve their goals Intrinsic – interest/enjoyment in the task itself – Drive/desire  activates behavior that is aimed at a goal Extrinsic – comes from outside of the individual (ex. grades)

12 Coaching Careers Why do people choose coaching careers? – Love of the sport, influence on others, benefits of participating in physical activity, love of children, etc. Coaching responsibilities – Instructional: conducting practice, coaching a game – Managerial: recording statistics, dealing with equipment, giving interviews, recruiting opportunities – Institutional: teaching or department duties/meetings – Represent organization – Counseling athletes – Professional development at clinics/conventions

13 Qualities of Effective Coaches Organizational skills Communication skills Instructional skills Motivational skills Human relations skills

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15 Competencies for Beginning Teachers - NASPE Content knowledge Growth and development Diverse learners Management and Motivation Communication Learning and Instruction Learner Assessment Reflection Collaboration

16 NASPE Standards for Athletic Coaches A framework for the education of coaches includes 8 domains: – Injuries: Prevention, Care, and Management – Risk Management – Growth, Development, and Learning – Training, Conditioning, and Nutrition – Social/Psychological Aspects of Coaching – Skills, Tactics, and Strategies – Teaching and Coaching – Professional Preparation and Development

17 The Coaches Code of Conduct Ensure that the health, well-being and development of athletes is considered over the win/loss record. Serve as role models. Exemplify honesty, integrity, fair play, and sportsmanship despite the outcomes of competition. Maintain professional demeanor in all relationships. Treat everyone with respect and dignity. Committed to the education of athletes and encourage academic achievement.

18 Increasing Professional Marketability Build on skills and talents – Need for bilingual educators. Additional coursework – Adapted physical education Dual certification – Become certified to teach more than one subject or even driver education. Practical experience – Join professional organizations and network. Demonstrate use of technology

19 Coaching and Communication Successful coaches are masterful communicators Necessary to communicate with – Athletes – Administrators/teachers – Support staff – Parents – Community members – Officials

20 3 Dimensions of Communication Sending – receiving Verbal – non verbal Content - emotion

21 6 Steps of Communication 1.Have thoughts/ideas you want to convey 2.Translate thoughts into a message 3.Message transmitted 4.Message received 5.Message interpreted 6.Internal response to message

22 Why Communications Are Ineffective Content is wrong for the situation Transmission of the message does not communicate what you intend because it is lacking verbal/non verbal information Message not received because listener is not paying attention Content is misinterpreted or not understood Inconsistent messages

23 Keys to Effective Communication Credibility Consistency Positive messages Messages high in information and low in judgment Active listening Effective use of non verbal communication Teach so athletes can gain a complete understanding of the fundamentals Understand and use the principles of reinforcement

24 Developing Credibility Most important aspect of communication Develop specific knowledge Messages high in content and importance Speak the truth Send positive messages Respect Cooperative style coach Honest about knowledge Reliable, fair, consistent Acceptance & empathy Realistic expectations Focus on long term success

25 Specific Instruction Sport evaluates through competition Allow athletes to make mistakes in practice – Part of learning Provide evaluation when it is clear that athletes do not know what is correct or incorrect 75% of all coaching messages should be specific instructions

26 Communicating With Consistency This is a challenge – Easy to preach one thing and do another – Do one thing one day and the opposite the next Keep your word Respect all Develop deep trust Remember the influence you have Be as good as your word

27 Age Groups Pre adolescence – Under 10 years old – Elementary school Early adolescence – 11 to 14 yrs – Middle school Middle adolescence – 15 to 17 years – High school Late adolescence – Young adult – 18 to 21 years – college

28 Listening Recognize the need to listen Concentrate on listening – Undivided attention to what is being said Search for the meaning of the message rather than the details Avoid interrupting Respect the rights of the speaker Avoid responding with emotion – Think about the motivation for the message – Respond constructively

29 Active Listening Involves interacting – Proof that you understand Work to find out the meaning of what is being said Brings together many concepts: empathy, the dimensions of communication, etc. Keys – Convey that you accept feelings – You want to understand and help Lets individuals know that their ideas and feelings are respected and understood – More willing to listen to you in return

30 Non-Verbal Communication Key component in the communication process The more in tune you become with non-verbal cues the better you will become at expressing your feelings and attitudes non- verbally – Will help you understand athletes’ feelings and attitudes – Observe non-verbal feedback Five categories of non-verbal communication Body motion Physical characteristics/appearance Physical contact Voice characteristics Body position

31 The Coach as a Model for Communication Every action is a form of non-verbal communication Communicate respect The coach’s actions can teach more than just the skills and rules of the sport Actions speak louder than words

32 Principles of Reinforcement Behavior modification – Systematic use of the principles of reinforcement – Reinforcement vs. punishment Reinforcement – Positive (giving something good) – Negative (removing something undesirable) Punishment – Consequence decreases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated

33 Reinforcement Keys People do not respond to positive and negative reinforcements in the same way Reinforcements are relative, not absolute Need to be consistent and systematic

34 Rewards Decide what behaviors need to be rewarded Distinguish planned rewards from accidental reinforcements Understand: frequency, timing and type Reward – Performance, not outcome – Effort, not success – Steps to achieving a larger goal – Learning & performance of emotional and social skills

35 Learning new skills Reward frequently Reward as soon as possible after correct behavior Skills are learned Reward occasionally (variable reinforcement) Reward only after praise is earned – perfect performance

36 Shaping Behavior Break skills into small steps Develop one component of a skill at a time Always put the current level of performance on a variable schedule of reinforcement before moving on to higher performance levels When teaching a new skill or combining skills into a complex movement relax standards for achieving rewards If one shaping procedure is not working try another – Insanity is repeating the same tactic and expecting different results

37 Motivation Why you do what you do Young athletes – Have fun – Build self-worth To increase motivation – Success as a consequence of ability  inspires repeated behavior – Low amount of self-doubt and anxiety


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