Presentation on theme: "Linguistics The seventh week. Revision The phenomenon of the linking of words in speech, in particular when the second word begins with a vowel, is."— Presentation transcript:
Linguistics The seventh week
Revision The phenomenon of the linking of words in speech, in particular when the second word begins with a vowel, is called______. The loss of a sound or sounds in speech is called ______.
Sounds of one word or syllable can cause changes in the sounds belonging to neighboring words or syllables. This is called ________.
Chapter 2 The Sounds of Language 2.3 Phonology
Key points the definition of phonology the definition of phoneme the minimal pairs
Difficult points the definition of phonology the difference between phonetics and phonology the definition of phoneme
the definition of phonology
Phonology studies the system of speech sounds of a particular language; it aims to discover how speech sounds in a language form patterns and how these sounds are used to convey meaning in linguistic communication. (source: 何兆熊，梅德明， 1999 ： 31 ）
Phonology is concerned with the linguistic patterning of sounds in human languages, with its primary aim being to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in languages, and to explain the variations that occur. (source: 胡壮麟， 2001 ： 54 ）
Phonology is the scientific study of the sound system and patterns of a language. (source: 刘润清， 2006 ： 36 ） This definition is widely accepted.
The study scope of phonology: Phonology studies: 1. the ways in which the speech sounds of a language form patterns and systems; 2. and how they convey meaning in the system of the language.
Differences between phonetics and phonology They differ in two aspects: study subject study scope
In study subject: Phonetics studies all the speech sounds used in all languages. Phonology studies the sound system and patterns of a particular language.
In study scope: Phonetics describes individual speech sounds and indicates their physical or phonetic properties. Phonology studies the ways in which these sounds form patterns and systems and how they work to convey meaning in the system of language.
Extended exercises Exemplify the difference between Chinese and English phonology.
a. sip zip b. fine vine c. chunk junk
the definition of phoneme A phoneme is the minimal distinctive linguistic unit in a language. (source: 孙延弢， 2001 ： 37 ）
Key points of phoneme Phoneme is the study focus of phonology. A phoneme distinguishes meaning. A phoneme is language-specific.
Minimal pairs [b æn] and [bin] [bet] and [b/\t] [f æ n] and [v æ n] [siŋk] and [ziŋk] [sait] and [said] [tſ/\ŋk and [d ƺ /\ŋk]
the definition of the minimal pairs Minimal pairs are two words which are identical in every way except for one sound that occurs in the same place in the sound strings.
In order to determine which are distinctive sounds phonemes, the customary practice is to set up minimal pairs. This practice is also called commutation test( 替换法 / 测试）. (source: 刘润清, 2002 ： 93 ）
Some of the minimal pairs of English phonemes( source: Crystal, 1997:162) beat---bit /i:/ --- /i/ bit---bet /i/ --- /e/ bet---bat /e/ --- / æ / bat---but / æ / --- / /\ / but---heart / /\ / --- /a:/
Assignments 1. Definition: (1) phonology (2) phoneme 2. The following sets of minimal pairs show that English sounds [p] and [b] contrast in initial, medial and final positions. initial medial final pit/bit rapid/rabid cap/cab Find similar sets of minimal pairs for each pair of consonants given: (1) [k]-[g] (2) [m]-[n] (3) [b]-[v] (4) [b]-[m] (5) [p]-[f]