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Cause & Effect. Warm-up Why did you choose ECNU? Why are there more girls than boys at ECNU?

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Presentation on theme: "Cause & Effect. Warm-up Why did you choose ECNU? Why are there more girls than boys at ECNU?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cause & Effect

2 Warm-up Why did you choose ECNU? Why are there more girls than boys at ECNU?

3 The Joys of an Old Car What is the thesis statement? How to rephrase it to include the line of development? Write an outline for the essay. How did the author exemplify the economy of an old car? What’s wrong with paragraph 3? How to refute the author’s point in paragraph 4? The pains of an old car?

4 Stresses of Being a Celebrity Outline? Paragraph 3? Paragraph 4? Conclusion?

5 Explain to your audience –The causes –The effects –A combination of both

6 Why are some students successful language learners? Why is Weixin (Wechat) so popular? Why do farmers migrate to the urban area? Why should smoking be prohibited in public? Why do people smoke? Why are there more “leftover ladies” than before? (3S ladies) Plastic surgery

7 Girls don't do as well in math and science as boys. There are several reasons for this. The first and most important reason is that they aren't encouraged to play with toys that build up interest in math and science problems and that build skills for problem solving or understanding how things work. Girls are encouraged to play with toys that foster language and human relations skills. As a result, they can grow up not knowing how an engine works or how to build a model from directions.

8 Second, studies have shown that teachers don't expect girls to be good at math. Even female math and science teachers pay more attention to boys in class and call on boys more often. Because teachers don't expect girls to excel, they don't try very hard, and soon girls are far behind boys in these studies. Finally, girls don't have many role models to look up to. Not very many math and science teachers are women, especially in the later grades. When the media picture mathematicians and scientists, they usually picture men. As a result, girls aren't inspired to choose these fields as careers.

9 effects Therefore so as a result, consequently accordingly because of this Thus. hence for this reason result in causes due to because of owing to as a result of on account of for on the ground of Through Because since as on the ground that Transitional Words and Phrases

10 Multiple causes with a single effect W hat are the reasons for obesity? 1.Hereditary influences 2.Lack of exercise 3.Slow metabolic rate 4.Overeating Why do an increasing number of Chinese students choose to study abroad?

11 I enjoy living in big cities. The main reason is that it is very convenient to live in big cities. There is fast public transport, a wide variety of goods to choose from, all the latest modern conveniences and plenty of public places for enjoyment. Above all, the better health care system helps you live in greater comfort.

12 Organizing the causal analysis essay –Order of familiarity –Order of interest –Order of significance

13 False Cause Reasoning –President X was elected in November. –Three weeks later, our nation suffered an economic crisis. –Therefore, President X caused that economic crisis.

14 Logical fallacy –Over-simplificaiton: Global Warming –Post Hoc: coincidence I overslept this morning. The teacher was absent for today’s class. A meteor was seen in the sky over LA. An earthquake occurred the next morning.

15 Circular reasoning: A is true because B is true; B is true because A is true. –Joe and Fred show up at an exclusive club. When asked if they are members, Joe says “I’ll vouch for Fred.” When Joe is asked for evidence that he’s a member, Fred says, “I’ll vouch for him”.

16 Single cause with multiple effects –Cause: excessive consumption of sugar –Effects Blood sugar imbalance Tooth decay Hyperactivity in children Weight gain 1.Smoking 2.Procrastination 3.Staying up too late 4.Watching TV Exercise strengthens the heart, reduces blood pressure and stress, and helps you lose weight.

17 Cigarette smoke contains nicotine, several cancer producing or irritating substances and carbon monoxide gas. As a result, damage to the lining of the bronchial tubes is much more common among cigarette smokers than nonsmokers, even when there is no obvious disease. Some of these changes are considered to be pre-cancerous. Moreover, lung function is generally reduced among cigarette smokers. Worst of all, cigarette smoking is a greater hazard than other factors-such as community air pollution-in the causation of lung cancer and chronic bronchitis.

18 Outline 1: (If we develop in the side-by-side pattern, we have to keep all the effects, whether negative or positive, at the same order, just like the organisation below.) 1. The cause: I went back to college after ten years of being a housewife. 2. Negative effects: a. My husband feels worried; b. My children have less care from their mother than before; c. I do not have enough time to take care of the family. 3. Positive effects: a. My husband is learning to look after his children; b. My children are learning to be more independent; c. I am learning a lot and becoming more intelligent.

19 Outline 2: ( If we develop the controlling idea in the point-by-point method, we pair the same object (person) with both positive and negative effects.) 1. The cause: I went back to college after ten years of being a housewife. 2. The effects on my husband: My husband feels worried, but he is learning to look after his children. 3. The effects on my children Though my children have less care from their mother than before, they are learning to be more independent. 4. The effects on myself I do not have enough time to take care of the family. However, I am learning a lot and becoming more intelligent.

20 (1) In some areas of the world, you can find many people live to celebrate their 100th birthday, and it is not unusual to see people aged 110 to 140 work in the fields with their great-great- grandchildren. (2) What accounts for this ability to survive to such an old age, and to survive so well? (3) First of all, hard physical work is a way of life for all of these long lived people. (4) They begin their long days of physical labor as children and never seem to stop. (5) Second, they get healthful rewards from the environment in which they work. (6) They all come from mountainous regions at elevations of 1,660 to 4,000 meters above sea level. (7) The air is pollution-free and has less oxygen, which makes the heart and blood vessel system stronger. (8) Another factor that may contribute to the good health is their isolation. (9) To a great extent, they are separated from the pressures and worries of industrial society. (10) Inherited factors also play some role. (11) Most of the longest-lived people had parents and grandparents who also lived to be very old. (12) Finally, although these people don’t eat exactly the same foods, their diets are similar. (13) They eat little animal meat, but a lot of fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains, cheese, and milk.

21 Causal chain –As the price of everything from toothpaste to tuition increases, workers demand higher wages to keep up with rising costs. This can produce further increases in prices or a decreased demand for manufactured goods, or both. Since production tries to keep pace with demand, a decreased demand is followed by decreased production. This, in turn, can lead to layoffs and unemployment, which further decrease the demand for goods.

22 The popularity of Wechat

23 Three passions Shame The professor is a dropout

24 Some people maintain that doctors should tell white lies to their patients when asked about their diseases. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Many young people abroad spend a “gap year” working or travelling before entering colleges and universities. What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of doing so?

25 Three Passions 1.Anguish 2.Echo 3.Poverty 4.Sacrifice 5.Abyss 6.Unfathomable 7.Miniature 8.Wayward 9.Reverberate 10.Torture 11.Rim 12.Famine 13.Mockery 14.Alleviate

26 Three passions Thesis: ____________________ Body: –Topic 1: _____________ –Topic 2: _____________ –Topic 3: _____________ Conclusion: ____________________

27 Thank You!


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