Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Fundamentals of Project Management Dr. George F. Jergeas Project Management Specialization University of Calgary.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Project Management Dr. George F. Jergeas Project Management Specialization University of Calgary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Project Management Dr. George F. Jergeas Project Management Specialization University of Calgary

2 2 Schedule Day 1 Game Introduction PMI stuff Step 1 - Define phase Step 2 - Plan phase Sequence activities Time estimate Day 2 Cost estimate Step 3 - Organize phase Select team and PM Step 4 - Control phase Step 5 - Close out phase

3 3 References This section is based on: The 5-Phased Project Management- A Practical Planning and Implementation Guide by Joseph Weiss and Robert K. Wysocki Construction Project Administration by Edward R. Fisk Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide, http://www.pmi.org http://www.pmi.org Instructors’ notes Note: Some material is presented in several different formats to exemplify ways of approaching the tools and techniques

4 4 Game Your company is to build a single span bridge using Lego bricks. The span of the bridge is 90 cm and the centre point must be at least 10 cm higher than the base Bridge must be self-standing and stable enough to be measured Time is of the essence to the client and to your company

5 5

6 6 The Blind Men/Women and the Elephant Strong opinions Each is partly right All were wrong Not one of them saw the elephant The moral of the story from a project management perspective… Many experience or read about an aspect or element of project management and think they know it ALL Accidental Project Managers are out there in great numbers

7 7 Learning Objectives Project Management Basics 9 Knowledge areas Tools and technique When and why you use them Business and social aspects of project management Avoid becoming an Accidental Project Manager The session will not turn you into instant project managers Begin to see more of the PM “elephant”

8 8 Agenda PART 1: Basic concepts What is project and project management Key terms and concepts Reasons for project failure/success PART 2: Technical aspects 9 project management knowledge areas Inputs, processes, outputs Sample tools and techniques

9 9 What is a project? A specific, finite task to be accomplished Can be of a long or short term duration Can be large or small task

10 10 Projects Vary in Size and Scope NASA shuttle launch Building a boat Building a hospital Building renovation and & space modification Planning a party or wedding Organizing the Olympic games Developing a new software program Getting a university degree Company mergers

11 11 Project Characteristics Constant communication across organizational boundaries Many people involved, across several functional areas Sequenced events Goal oriented Has an end product or service Multiple priorities Complex and numerous activities Unique, one-time set of events Deadlines Start and end dates Identifiable stakeholders Limited resources and budget

12 12 When is a Project a Project? A task or set of work assignments may be done by one or more persons using a simple “to do” list A task become a project when the characteristics of a project begin to dominate and overwhelm individuals Unable to meet deadlines, budgets and corporate expectations

13 13 Project Management Project management is a method and/or set of techniques based on the accepted principles of management used for planning, estimating and controlling work activities to reach a desired result on time, within budget, and according to the project specifications

14 14

15 15 What is Project Management? Tools/techniques Processes and methodology More than time, cost and scope Hard and soft skills A discipline evolving towards a profession

16 16 Business and Social Aspects of Project Management Hard and soft skills Technical aspects of project management Interpersonal skills Influence Politicking Negotiation

17 17 Project Management Projects and project management are about people and teamwork Who does what? Who takes what risk? Who else is involved or interested/affected?

18 18 Project Management Challenges Lack of a common understanding on the question “What is project management???” Managing stakeholders, expectations, teams, projects, uncertainty Measuring project management results Methodology issues

19 19 Value of Project Management (Why are we doing this?) Improve project/program/firm performance as measured by efficiency, effectiveness Competitive advantage through competency Be more “Successful”

20 20 Value of Project Management (Why are we doing this?) Proactive vs. reactive Root out ill-conceived, directionless projects Increase visibility by providing roadmaps

21 21 Project Management Team Project Sponsor(s) Decision maker, funder, champion Project Manager Manages the big picture Project Leads Manage parts of a project

22 22 Project Management Team Project Team Work on specific tasks Stakeholders Vested interests Many of them Keep them happy

23 23 Major Causes of Project Failure Projects fail for the following reasons: The project is a solution in search of a problem Only the project team is interested in the result No one is in charge There is no project structure The plan lacks detail

24 24 Major Causes of Project Failure Projects fail for the following reasons: The project has insufficient budget and/or resources Lack of team communication Straying from original goal The project is not tracked against the plan

25 25 Major Causes of Project Success Stakeholders are identified Stakeholders expectations are known and met Senior Management support There is a clearly stated purpose and a sound plan Goal and objectives are understood and communicated

26 26 Major Causes of Project Success A constructive goal-oriented culture Technically competent team Effective (and committed) team Excellent communication Trust

27 27 Introduction PART 1: Basic concepts What is project management Key terms and concepts Reasons for project failure/success PART 2: Technical aspects 9 project management knowledge areas Inputs, processes, outputs Sample tools and techniques

28 28 Project Management Knowledge Areas Scope Time Cost Human Resources Communication Procurement Quality Risk Management Integration

29 29 Knowledge Areas and Key Terms A project manager juggles 9 + balls (knowledge areas) and many tools and techniques

30 30 Scope Management Initiate the project Feasibility, market, customer or business need Environmental analysis, business case Project selection practices and management decision practices Project link to the firm’s strategy or corporate goals

31 31 Scope Management Initiate the project Identify the project manager Develop a charter Formally recognize the existence of the project Include the business need and product description, constraints and assumptions Approval to proceed Funding, authority, sponsor

32 32 Charter links http://web.mit.edu/pm/devcharter.ht ml http://web.mit.edu/pm/devcharter.ht ml http://www.cio- dpi.gc.ca/emf/solutions/ProjectCharte rGuide/CharterGuide e.html http://www.cio- dpi.gc.ca/emf/solutions/ProjectCharte rGuide/CharterGuide e.html http://csintranet.csd.sc.edu/smartstre ampro/sschartr.html http://csintranet.csd.sc.edu/smartstre ampro/sschartr.html

33 33 Charter links http://www.pmi.org/standards/wbsch arter.htm http://www.pmi.org/standards/wbsch arter.htm http://www.virginia.edu/~iscat/PROJE CT%20CHARTER.html http://www.virginia.edu/~iscat/PROJE CT%20CHARTER.html http://www.stanford.edu/group/AIS- proj/projectcharter.html http://www.stanford.edu/group/AIS- proj/projectcharter.html

34 34 Scope Management Plan and define the scope in detail Conduct a cost/benefit analysis, consider alternatives, get expert opinion and review historical databases, brainstorm What is in scope? What is out of scope? What are the criteria for completing phases?

35 35 Scope Management Plan and define the scope in detail Develop a work breakdown structure (WBS) Create a scope statement with assumptions and constraints Project justification, product description, deliverables, success criteria, scope management plan Use for future project decisions

36 36 Scope Management Verify the scope What is the process and criteria for accepting the scope of work delivered? Work results and documents Inspection Acceptance form Control the scope Performance reports, change requests, issues management form, scope management plan, corrective action, lessons learned

37 37 Scope Tips Be inclusive – involve stakeholders Work on securing and maintaining their commitment to the project Commitment: funding, approvals Spend more time planning the project…then follow it (with updates of course)

38 38 Scope Tips Define project success and communicate it Steering committee with authority and decision making power Supportive and decisive sponsor

39 39 Time Management Purpose: Create a realistic schedule with the team Identify the activities (tasks) Activities are action steps (HOW) and different from deliverables that are tangible results (WHAT) Use the WBS and scope statement Develop activity lists and revise the WBS Sequence activities Consider dependencies

40 40 Time Management Estimate durations (time) Top down, bottom up estimates, Monte Carlo simulations Estimating formulae (PERT estimates) Expert opinion Consider resource capabilities Look at similar projects Develop the schedule (Gantt chart) Document assumptions and decisions Use project management scheduling software e.g. MS Project

41 41 Estimating formulae PERT Estimate (weighted average) [Pessimistic + (4 x Likely) + Optimistic]/6 Pessimistic time to get to work = 30 min Optimistic time to get to work = 10 min Likely time to get to work = 15 minutes PERT Estimate = 30 + (4x15) + 10/6 100/6=16.6 = 17 min

42 42 MS Project HELP Http://www.officeupdate.microsoft.co m/welcome/project.asp Http://www.officeupdate.microsoft.co m/welcome/project.asp Http://support.microsoft.com/director y/ Http://support.microsoft.com/director y/ Http://www.woodyswatch.com Http://www.msproject.com

43 43 Planning & Scheduling Software http://www.sea.net.au/project_mana gement/scheduling_tools/ http://www.sea.net.au/project_mana gement/scheduling_tools/ http://www.projectkickstart.com/html /psoftware.htm http://www.projectkickstart.com/html /psoftware.htm http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/s taff/dwfarthi/projman.htm http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/s taff/dwfarthi/projman.htm

44 44 Time Management Control the schedule Performance reports, change requests, time management plan, corrective action, lessons learned E.g. baseline Gantt chart and then update Frequency Roles and responsibilities Control techniques e.g. meetings, 1:1

45 45 Cost Management Plan resources (people, equipment, materials) Consider WBS, scope statement, organizational policies, staff pool Identify resource requirements Cost centers at Your company? Time is money

46 46 Cost Management Cost budgeting Resource leveling Cost baseline Control costs Performance reports, change requests, cost management plan, corrective action, lessons learned e.g. budgeted, actual, variance (with explanation)

47 47 Time and Cost Tips Its OK to ask. Talk to subject matter experts Avoid single point estimates, use validated range estimates Factor in the learning curve, resource productivity, experience level etc.

48 48 Time and Cost Tips Use the appropriate tools, techniques, rules of thumb Document assumptions for estimates Negotiate

49 49 Quality Management Plan for quality Quality product and quality project management practices Quality standards Conform to specifications (project produces what it said it would) Fitness for use (satisfy needs) Prevention vs. inspection Plan, do, check, act Benchmark, checklists, flow charts, cause/effect diagrams

50 50 Quality Management Quality management plan Organizational structure, processes, resources, procedures, responsibilities to ensure quality plan is implemented Quality metrics Checklists Quality Assurance Follow the quality management plan, audits, improvements

51 51 Quality Management Quality control Process and product results Control charts, Pareto diagrams, trend analysis

52 52 Quality Tips Start with a clear view of quality in mind What is quality? Implications for ALL knowledge areas

53 53 Human Resources Management Organizational plan Organizational chart, roles and responsibilities Linkages between project and functional areas, and other business units. Staffing needs Unions, human resources department/practices, constraints RACI+ Staffing plan (training, orientation, job descriptions, performance evaluations, redeployment), project organizational chart

54 54 RACI Chart TaskResponsible party Accountable to Coordinate with Inform 1 2

55 55 Human Resources Management Get staff Assess experience, interests, personal characteristics, availability Negotiate Beg and borrow but don’t steal Develop the team Team building, reward and recognition program, support practices Don’t “control” people Managerial control is different from micromanaging

56 56 Human Resources Management Tips Listen to understand Be responsive Provide positive feedback Act on problems in a timely manner Deal with problems They won’t go away, but will get BIGGER Provide constructive criticism Document appropriately Take time to have FUN

57 57 Communications Management Develop the project communication plan Stakeholder analysis Information to be shared (to who, what, how, when, why) Technology Distribute information Project databases, filing system, software / hardware Report up, down and across the firm

58 58 Communications Management Report performance Project plan, work results Project performance reports Variance reports, trend analysis, change requests Report the Good, Bad & Ugly Administrative closure Knowledge management Archives Acceptance forms Lessons learned

59 59 Sample communication formats Status reports Team meetings Project files PR initiatives Newsletters E-mail Databases Website RACI Posters Coffee room chats Milestone celebrations Kickoff meeting Close out meeting Lessons learned sessions Paraphrase & Validate Drawings Schedule update

60 60 Communications Management Tips If you think you have communicated enough…go back and do it again Use different formats Frequently use modes of communication that allow you to “see the whites of their eyes”

61 61 Risk Management Identify risks What could go wrong (harm, loss, opportunities and threats) Consider ALL knowledge areas Internal and external risks Sources of risk: product technology, people (misunderstandings, skills), project management etc.

62 62 Risk Management Quantify risks Risk interactions, risk tolerance High, Medium, Low (HML) - qualitative Expected Monetary Value (EMV) - quantitative

63 63 Risk Quantification Technique: High, Medium, Low (HML) Probability of occurrence and impact High, Medium, Low grid Focus on HHs and less on LLs Keep it simple

64 64 Risk Quantification Technique: Expected Monetary Value (EMV) EMV=risk event probability X risk event value 25% chance of rain X $1,000 impact of damage to convertible car interior = EMV of $250 75% chance of rain X $1,000 impact of damage to convertible car interior = EMV of $750

65 65 Risk Management Develop risk response plan Opportunities and threats to respond to and opportunities and threats to accept Avoid – eliminate cause Mitigate – reduce risk occurrence Accept – contingency plans, accept losses Its OK to do any of these Insurance, contingency plans, procurement, alternative strategies, contracts Risk management template

66 66 Risk Management Control risk responses Workarounds (defined as – when it hits the fan unexpectedly and you need to deal with it then and there) Ongoing process of risk management Corrective action Update risk management plan

67 67 Risk Management Tips Start Risk Management at the beginning of the project Review risks throughout the project (e.g. weekly, monthly) Update and project schedules, budget, staffing etc. as risk management plans are changed

68 68 Procurement Management Plan procurement needs (goods and services external to the firm that you need to deliver the product) Make or buy decisions Contract type options (risk sharing) Solicitation Procurement management plan Vendor selection process and criteria Proposals, contracts, legal issues

69 69 Procurement Management Select and manage sources (vendors, partners) Negotiations Manage contracts Close contracts Formal acceptance and closure

70 70 Procurement Tips Develop charters with vendors and partners Rules of the game, conflict management guidelines, escalation process Take lead times into account Do risk management on procurement (and all other knowledge areas)

71 71 Integration Management Pulling all the knowledge areas together As you go through the various project phases, consider the links between knowledge areas Plan the plan Execute the plan Project deliverables and project management outputs Control the plan

72 5-Step Project Management

73 73 5 Step Project Management PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION DEFINE Identify project activities Estimate time and cost Sequence Project Activities Identify Critical Activities Write Project Proposal ORGANIZE CONTROL PLANCLOSE State the Problem IdentifyProjectGoals List the Objectives DeterminePreliminaryResources Identify Identify Assumptions Assumptions and Risks and Risks Determine Personnel Needs Recruit Project Manger Recruit Project Team Organize Project Team Assign Work Packages Define Management Style Establish Control Tools Prepare Status Reports Review Project Schedule Issue Change Orders Obtain Client Acceptance Install Deliverables Document the Project Issue Final Report Conduct Post- Implementation Audit Project overview WBS Recruit Criteria Variance Reports Final Report Project network Define Work packages Status Reports Audit Reports Critical Path Assign Work Packages Staff Allocation Reports

74 Step 1- Define the Project

75 75 Agenda State the problem Develop project goal Develop project objectives Identify assumptions and risks Identify stakeholders Criteria for project success Project Charter/overview document

76 76 5 Step Project Management PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION DEFINE Identify project activities Estimate time and cost Sequence Project Activities Identify Critical Activities Write Project Proposal ORGANIZE CONTROL PLANCLOSE State the Problem IdentifyProjectGoals List the Objectives DeterminePreliminaryResources Identify Identify Assumptions Assumptions and Risks and Risks Determine Personnel Needs Recruit Project Manger Recruit Project Team Organize Project Team Assign Work Packages Define Management Style Establish Control Tools Prepare Status Reports Review Project Schedule Issue Change Orders Obtain Client Acceptance Install Deliverables Document the Project Issue Final Report Conduct Post- Implementation Audit Project overview WBS Recruit Criteria Variance Reports Final Report Project network Define Work packages Status Reports Audit Reports Critical Path Assign Work Packages Staff Allocation Reports

77 77 State the Problem/Opportunity Specific questions must be asked before a project begins: What is the problem and what are the opportunities? Do we really need the project? If these questions can not be answered, then: Pick the wrong project The project will probably not succeed

78 78 State the Problem/Opportunity Document the need and the benefits to the organization for undertaking the project Short, crisp and to the point Descriptor for those who although not directly involved on the project team are indirectly involved in supporting the project A need that must be addressed New product, service, process, facility, or system It may involve opening a new market

79 79 Example “Membership in PM Association has declined in the past four years and attendance at conference has declined in the past three years. The viability and financial stability of the Association depends on maintaining membership and successful annual conference.”

80 80 State Project Goal A statement of purpose and direction helps to direct the course of the project effort Initiates the project Serves as a point of reference for settling disputes and misunderstandings Clarifies expectations Helps in justifying requests for resources

81 81 Goal Statements Action oriented Short and simple Understandable Prepare and launch the International Space Station on April 21, 2000, from Cape Canaveral, Florida Connect France and England via a covered tunnel and railway under the English Channel, facility to be opened to traffic no later than September, 1996

82 82 Goal Statements Design and complete pilot testing by March 2002, a product accounting software package that performs basic financial analyses for the company Obtain a BSc degree in engineering from U of C by spring, 2004

83 83 Example Reverse the downward trend in membership and annual conference attendance by organizing a highly successful conference

84 84 Develop Project Objectives Objectives represent major components or milestones Objectives are sub-goals Roadmap to aid decision makers understand the purpose of the project Basis for determining project time line and resource requirements To achieve the goal all objectives must be realized

85 85 Example Develop the Program Set the Conference Site and Date Design and Implement the Marketing Plan

86 86 Criteria for Evaluating Project Success Project expectations: Project on time Within budget According to specifications Happy client

87 87 Example At least 200 of 450 PM Association membership will register to attend At least 50 of previous years conferences attendees will attend At least 1.5% of the non-members receiving conference brochure will attend At least 5% of the non-member attendees will join PM Association

88 88 Identifying Assumptions and Risks Each objective will have its own risks and assumptions Helps think through the project process and issues associated with execution Identifies resource needs and issues involving resource availability Identifies potential delays and the impact of these delays Potential cost overruns can be predicted and resolved

89 89 Example Interest in PM Association can be renewed through the annual conference A quality professional program will attract members and non-members Key speaker(s) fail to show up or submit written paper

90 90 Risk Management Template Monitoring Schedule Response Plan OwnerImpactProbabilityRisk

91 91 Stakeholders Individual or organisations actively involved in the project or directly or indirectly affected by its execution or results Roles must be identified at the start of the project Needs and expectations must be communicated and influenced in a positive and constructive manner so that the project will be success for all

92 92 Who are the People Involved? Owner, Contractor, Consultant (in-house and outside) Sub-consultants, Subcontractors Suppliers (Vendors) Trade unions End users Operators

93 93 External Issues Factors within a Project Manager’s sphere of responsibility, but which he or she has no formal control or authority over: Corporate interests Operating priorities Financial interests Government interests and actions Public interests Economic conditions Social priorities

94 94 Stakeholders How to find them? Ask who will decide on the success of your project How to involve them? Ask for (appropriate) advice Get their buy-in to project plans

95 95 Stakeholders How to work with them? Active listening Understand their interests and needs Keep everyone informed How to keep them on side? Respond to concerns Manage expectations and make adjustments

96 96 Common Concerns Political fallout Social, cultural, economic impacts Benefits: Training Employment Business opportunity “Way of life” Just go away!

97 97 Common Concerns Public Involvement - Right to know Environmental protection and conservation Loss of control Fear of change Power and influence Native land claims

98 98 Stakeholder Management Process 1. Monitoring 2. Analysis 3. Assessment 4. Applications Educate and communicate Mitigate Compensate 5. Appraisal and feedback

99 99 STAKEHOLDER Their Objective/Purpose Their Strategy How They Operate Where they gain Support Their Potential Impact on the project How to Manage them and your plan for mitigation Stakeholder Analysis

100 100 Summary Understand the role of the various stakeholders Identify the real nature of each stakeholder and their interest in the project Understand their motivation and behaviour

101 101 Summary Issues external to the project that can impact the outcome of a project Project manager should: Understand what they are Consider them early Analyze their potential impact Decide which to mitigate and have a plan

102 102 Summary Assess how they will react to various approaches Remember that projects managed in ignorance of External Influences: Never get off the ground Mid-flight crash Technical success but commercial failure

103 103 Charter/Overview Document The “define” phase focuses on producing a project Charter/Overview document which is used as: A tool in the initial “go/no go” decision by management A general information document for other managers An early statement of the project goal and direction A statement of the problems and opportunities to be addressed by the project

104 104 Charter/Overview Document Once the project is approved for go ahead, the Project Charter/Overview becomes the foundation for the detailed planning activities which follow and: Provides a control point for reporting project progress and an audit point Reference base for addressing questions and conflicts Tool for building the team

105 105 Project overview Project Name - PM Conference Project Manager Problem/Opportunity Membership in PM Association has declined in the past four years and attendance at conference has declined in past three years. The viability and financial stability of the organization depends on maintaining membership and successful annual conference. Goal Reverse the downward trend in membership and annual conference attendance Objectives 1. Develop the Program 2.Set the Conference Site and Date 3.Design and Implement the Marketing Plan Success Criteria 1.At least 50 of previous years conferences attendees will attend 2.At least 150 of 450 members will attend 3. At least 1.5% of the non-members receiving conference brochure will attend 4.At least 5% of the non-member attendees will join PM Assumptions and Risks 1.Interest in PM can be renewed through the annual conference 2.A quality professional program will attract members and non-members 3.Key speaker(s) fail to show up or submit written paper. Prepared by Date Approved by Date

106 106 Summary When defining a project you should be able to: Describe what is expected Define the project characteristics Develop a project Charter/overview Problem statement Project goal and objectives State the risks and assumptions State success criteria

107 107 Exercise In groups develop a Project Charter/Overview document” for a project you currently involved with Please use “Tool Kit” attached at the conclusion of this book

108 Step 2 - Plan the Project

109 109 Agenda Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) Estimate Time and Cost

110 110 5 Step Project Management PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION DEFINE Identify project activities Estimate time and cost Sequence Project Activities Identify Critical activities Write Project Proposal ORGANIZE PLANCLOSE State the Problem Identify Project Goals List the Objectives Determine Preliminary Resources Identify Assumptions and Risks Determine Personnel Needs Recruit Project Manger Recruit Project Team Organise Project Team Assign Work Packages Define Management Style Establish Control Tools Prepare Status Reports Review Project Schedule Issue Change Orders Obtain Client Acceptance Install Deliverables Document the Project Issue Final Report Conduct Post- Implementation Audit Project overview WBS Recruit Criteria Variance Reports Final Report Project network Define Work packages Status Reports Audit Reports Critical Path Assign Work Packages Staff Allocation Reports CONTROL

111 111 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Reduces complex projects to a series of tasks that can be planned WBS represents the project in the form of a hierarchy of goal, objectives and activities Identifies activities to be done from beginning to completion of the project Foundation for the definition, planning, organising and controlling of the project

112 112 Composition of a Project WBS Overall goal Activities Objective

113 113 WBS Activities in the WBS are broken-down until the entire project is displayed as a network of separately identified activities The breakdown of activities continues until there are no overlapping activities

114 114 WBS Each activity should be: Status and completion are easily measured Of a specific time duration with defined beginning and end Easy to derive time and cost estimates Of a single purpose and have clearly understood deliverables Responsibility for completion clearly assigned

115 115 The 5-step procedure: Example 1. Partition the project into its major objectives 1.1Develop the Program 1.2Set the Conference Site and Date 1.3Design and Implement the Marketing Plan

116 116 The 5-step procedure: Example 2.Partition the objectives into activities 1.1 Develop the Program 1.1.1Establish Theme and Topics 1.1.2Obtain Speakers 1.1.3Prepare Handout Materials 1.2 Set the Conference Site and Date 1.2.1Set Conference Date 1.2.2Select and Commit Conference Site 1.2.3Confirm Arrangements 1.3 Design and Implement the Marketing Plan 1.3.1Develop and Print Conference Brochure 1.3.2Obtain Label Sets for Direct Mail 1.3.3Mail Conference Brochures 1.3.4Receive and Acknowledge Registrations

117 117 The 5-step procedure: Example 3.Check each activity for compliance with activity characteristics and further partition any that do not comply 1.1.3 Prepare Handouts 1.1.3.1Obtain Handout Materials from Speakers 1.1.3.2Prepare and Print Conference Notebook

118 118 WBS Worksheet -PM Conference

119 119 Hierarchical Representation CONFERENCE PLANNING SITEMARKETINGPROGRAM DATEPLACETHEMEMATERIALSSPEAKERSLISTSBROCHUREREGISTER OBTAIN MATERIALS PREPARE KITS DESIGN BROCHURE MAIL BROCHURE

120 120 Estimating Activity Time Time to complete a task is random: Skill levels and knowledge of the individuals Machine/equipment variations Material availability Unexpected events Illness Strikes Employee turnover and accidents Changed soil/site conditions

121 121 Estimating Activity Time We know unexpected events and occurrences will happen but are unable to predict the likelihood with any confidence We must however account for the possibility of the occurrence of these events

122 122 Estimating Activity Time Use a statistical relationship if you can estimate Optimistic completion Pessimistic completion time Most likely completion time Can acquire this information from discussions with individuals that have first hand experience in projects

123 123 Estimating Activity Time Optimistic Completion Time - is the time the activity will take if everything goes right Pessimistic Completion Time - is the time the activity will take if everything that can go wrong does go wrong but the project is still completed Most Likely Completion Time - is the time required under normal circumstances It can also be the completion time that has occurred most frequently in similar circumstances

124 124 Estimating Activity Time To compute the expected duration time the following formula is used: E = (O+4M+P)/6 E = Expected duration time O = Optimistic time M = Most likely time P = Pessimistic time

125 125 Estimated times for conference planning ACTIVITY TIME IN WEEKS (O)(M)(P) (E) ASet conference date 1.02.03.0 2.0 BEstablish theme & program 2.05.08.0 5.0 CSelect conference site 4.05.06.0 5.0 DObtain mailing labels 4.06.08.0 6.0 EDevelop brochure 3.010.011.0 9.0

126 126 Estimated times for conference planning ACTIVITY TIME IN WEEKS (O)(M)(P) (E) FObtain mailing labels 3.04.59.0 5.0 GMail brochure 1.02.03.0 2.0 HObtain speaker materials 3.03.57.0 4.0 IReceive registrations 4.06.08.0 6.0 JConfirm arrangements 0.51.01.5 1.0 KPrepare conference kits 1.02.03.0 2.0

127 127 Sequencing Activities Bar chart Produce a Logical Network Critical Path Method Arrow Diagrams Precedence Diagrams Identify Critical Activities Locate the Critical Path Floats

128 128 5 Step Project Management PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION DEFINE Identify project activities Estimate time and cost Sequence Project Activities Identify Critical activities Write Project Proposal ORGANIZE PLANCLOSE State the Problem Identify Project Goals List the Objectives Determine Preliminary Resources Identify Assumptions and Risks Determine Personnel Needs Recruit Project Manger Recruit Project Team Organize Project Team Assign Work Packages Define Management Style Establish Control Tools Prepare Status Reports Review Project Schedule Issue Change Orders Obtain Client Acceptance Install Deliverables Document the Project Issue Final Report Conduct Post- Implementation Audit CONTROL

129 129 Bar Charts/Gantt Chart Most projects, however complex, start by being depicted on a bar chart. The principles are very simple: Prepare list of project activities Estimate the time and resources needed Represent each activity by a bar Plot activities on a chart with horizontal time scale showing start and end

130 130 Project Schedule - Sample Project: ____________________Project Manager: ____________________Date: _____________

131 131 RACI Charts Responsibility - Action - Coordination - Information Identify the roles of participants in each element of a project Effective communications road map 4 to 8 weeks look ahead

132 132 RACI Charts Update weekly to: Reset expectations Ensure right people involved in detailed planning Ensure everyone knows what needs to be done by whom

133 133 Deliverable:_____________________ Manager:___________________ Project:_________ ACTION DATES Activity Another activity Build something Another Item Yet another Design a bit Design more Sneeze Gesundheit Another thing Wait for item More stuff Finish A C G C F M J W B D M H F W L S W E R A A C I I - I C 120 400 - R C I A A I A - 50 50 R - A C I I - C - 345 1,500 - R C I A A I A - 127 - R A A C I I - I C 90 9,000 R - A C I I - C - 55 1,700 - A R I C C A I I 455 875 R C A A I C I - - 200 7,785 - R I I C - - - - 65 - A C R - C I C - - 20 100,000 - I C A A R I A I 655 - R A - I C I A A A 80 - A I C I I A A A R 12 100 Budget Actual W/Hrs. W/Hrs. Cost Cost 2.4.5 Major Element Amelia Drover Fred 2-5 RACI Charts (F. T. Hartman, 2000)

134 134 Video: The Power of Scheduling How long it takes to build a house?

135 135 CPM: Critical Path Method Graphic network based scheduling technique Arrow Diagrams Precedence Diagrams Use activities created by the WBS process Analysis of timing and sequencing logic Aids in identifying complex interrelationship of activities

136 136 CPM: Critical Path Method Allows for easy revision of schedule and simulation and evaluation of the impact of changes Also used as a control tool during execution of the project

137 137 Producing a Logical Network The sequencing identifies activities that must be completed before another activity can start and which activities can occur simultaneously. Different methods: 1. “Low-tech” approach: use post-it labels Each label has one activity written on it Through iterative process the labels can be arranged and rearranged

138 138 Producing a Logical Network 2. Ask yourself the following: Which activities must be completed before this activity starts? Which activity cannot start until this activity is completed? Which activities have no logical relationship with this activity and therefore take place at the same time (concurrent activities)?

139 139 Producing a Logical Network 3. Identify immediate predecessor activities, which are activities that must be completed before another activity can begin

140 140 Steps in Producing a Networks List the activities Produce a logical network of activities Assess the duration of each activity Produce a schedule - determine the start and finish times and the float available for each activity

141 141 Steps in Producing a Networks Determine the time required to complete a project and the the longest path on the network The longest path is the Critical Path Assess the resources required

142 142 Activity sequencing ACTIVITYIMMED. TIME(WEEKS) PRED.(E) ASet conference date -2.0 BEstablish theme/program-5.0 CSelect conference siteA5.0 DObtain speakersB6.0 EDevelop brochureC,D9.0 FObtain mailing labelsC,D5.0 GMail brochureE,F2.0 HObtain speaker materialsD4.0 IReceive registrationsG6.0 JConfirm all arrangementsH,I1.0 KPrepare conference kitsJ2.0

143 143 Sample Network start bd a c f e gi h jkend

144 144 Activity Times/Critical Path Start b5d6 a 2c f5 e gi h4 j1k2End 0 2 2 7 11 20 5 9 20 22 22 28 2 6 28 29 29 31 4 6 6 11 11 20 20 22 22 28 11 16 0 5 5 11 11 15 28 29 29 31 0 5 5 11 24 28 15 20

145 145 Critical Path Calculations for precedence diagrams and arrow diagrams are essentially the same Critical path is where there is zero slack time If an activity takes longer than estimated on the critical path then the project will be delayed The critical path can change if there is a delay that make an alternative path longer

146 146 Float (Slack) Slack or float time is amount of delay that could be tolerated in the start or completion time without causing a delay in completion of the project Total float or calculations to determine how long each activity could be delayed without delaying the project Total float = LF - ES - duration

147 147 Summary Critical path identifies the project time requirements Slack or float time is amount of delay that could be tolerated in the start or completion time without causing a delay in completion of the project Zero slack time equals the critical path


Download ppt "Fundamentals of Project Management Dr. George F. Jergeas Project Management Specialization University of Calgary."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google