Presentation on theme: "Diversity Among Middle Level Students. “Perhaps more than any other segment of schooling, middle school must exemplify appropriate attention to student."— Presentation transcript:
“Perhaps more than any other segment of schooling, middle school must exemplify appropriate attention to student differences Gender Differences Multiple Intelligences Theory Learning Styles Cultural Differences Socioeconomic Differences Family Differences Academic Differences Students with Special Needs
Gender Differences Media Impact ( magazines, newspapers, etc) portray gender differences in exaggerated ways Gay and Lesbian Students- often spend middle school questioning their sexual orientation Avoiding Differential treatment- calling on boys more than girls Equalizing Expectations- Science and Math
Multiple Intelligence Theory Howard Gardner, 1983 Frames of Mind Old View and New View pg. 58 Eight Intelligences pg.60
Learning Styles Four learning styles: Imaginative-interaction, integration, sharing Analytic- sit and get Common Sense- real life application/hands on Dynamic Learners- risks, challenges, order not necessary, most non-traditional learner
Cognitive Type Theory Eight psychological type preferences (pg. 64) Extroversion Sensing Thinking Judging Introversion Intuition Feeling Perceiving
Self Awareness of how we learn Students must know how they learn. Self awareness is vital component of increasing learning capacities. We must help students identify their… Learning styles Modalities Learning preferences
Cultural Differences Culture: specific shared values, beliefs and attitudes (Rasool & Curtis, 2000) Ethnicity: depends on a “sense of group identification, a common set of values, political and economic interests, behavioral patterns, and the cultural elements that differ from those of other groups within a society” (Banks, 1991, p. 13)
Race: catagorizes individuals into groups (White, Black, Asian) based on certain outward physical characteristics (Rasool & Curtis, 2000) Linguistics: There is a wide gap between what they (ELL) can understand in English and what they can say in English (Teemant, Bernhardt, Rodriquez-Munoz, & Aiello, 2000, p. 30)
Desegreation 1954 Brown v. Board of Education- to dismantle racial segregation in public schools
Generalizations of learning characteristics African American learners More global, focus more on whole picture, rather than parts Use approximations, like time numbers, rather than being precise accuracy Prefer inferential reasoning Rely on non-verbal, as well as verbal communication patterns Sometimes distrust mainstream people and institutions Prefer visual and aural cues
Hispanic/Latino learners More group oriented and inductive thinkers Peer-oriented and more likely to perform better in small groups More external locus of control Prefer more personal and informal relationships with authority figures
Native American learners Not competitive- prefer cooperative learning and sharing environments Have different concept of time than mainstream perspective Frequently exhibit behaviors that seem to indicate a lack of interest in learning Are more reflective than impulsive More visually and imagery oriented than verbally More often have an internal locus of control and are self-directed View teachers as facilitators of learning
Asian American learners Prefer formal relationships with teachers/authority figures Are autonomous and conforming Are obedient to authority Usually conservative and reserved Are more introverted
Socioeconomic Differences More than 35 million Americans are officially poor More than 10 million Americans live in high poverty neighborhoods 30% African Americans and 30% Hispanics were classified as poor in 1995
Family Differences Two biological parents One biological parent One biological parent and a stepparent One step parent grandparents aunts and uncles Adult siblings Foster families Other students in a group home
Academic Differences Academic success is dependent on both ability and effort. How students perceive ability and effort is critical in academic self-esteem (Strahan, 1997) Underachievement: a discrepancy between a child’s school performance and some index of the child’s ability.
Students with Special Needs Until 1975, students with disabilities were accorded no federal rights to an education. The 1975 Education for All Handicapped Act mandated that all children with handicaps be given the right to a free and appropriate public education in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) guided by an Individual Education Plan (IEP).
Special Needs-con’t Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) replaced 1975 Act in 1990 to include autism, deafness, deaf-blindness, hearing impaired, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, visual impairments, traumatic brain injuries Was revised again in 1997 to include assessment, academic accountability piece
Inclusion The assignment of students to a general education classroom. This is the LRE. Often controversial between teachers
Learning Disabled and ADD LD does not imply low intelligence May be strong in some areas and weak in others Inclusion can usually work with a resource teacher (intervention specialist) Attention deficit disorder with or with out hyperactivity: age-inappropriate actions, trouble focusing, impulsivity
Message of Chapter 3 Diversity Among Middle level Students ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL and educators must be aware and sensitive to this!