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Diversity Among Middle Level Students. “Perhaps more than any other segment of schooling, middle school must exemplify appropriate attention to student.

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Presentation on theme: "Diversity Among Middle Level Students. “Perhaps more than any other segment of schooling, middle school must exemplify appropriate attention to student."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diversity Among Middle Level Students

2 “Perhaps more than any other segment of schooling, middle school must exemplify appropriate attention to student differences  Gender Differences  Multiple Intelligences Theory  Learning Styles  Cultural Differences  Socioeconomic Differences  Family Differences  Academic Differences  Students with Special Needs

3 Gender Differences  Media Impact ( magazines, newspapers, etc) portray gender differences in exaggerated ways  Gay and Lesbian Students- often spend middle school questioning their sexual orientation  Avoiding Differential treatment- calling on boys more than girls  Equalizing Expectations- Science and Math

4 Multiple Intelligence Theory  Howard Gardner, 1983 Frames of Mind  Old View and New View pg. 58  Eight Intelligences pg.60

5 Learning Styles  Four learning styles:  Imaginative-interaction, integration, sharing  Analytic- sit and get  Common Sense- real life application/hands on  Dynamic Learners- risks, challenges, order not necessary, most non-traditional learner

6 Learning Modalities  4 Basic learning modalities:  Visual  Auditory  Kinesthetic  Tactile  Fig. 3.4 pg. 62

7 Cognitive Type Theory  Eight psychological type preferences (pg. 64)  Extroversion  Sensing  Thinking  Judging  Introversion  Intuition  Feeling  Perceiving

8 Self Awareness of how we learn  Students must know how they learn. Self awareness is vital component of increasing learning capacities.  We must help students identify their…  Learning styles  Modalities  Learning preferences

9 Cultural Differences  Culture: specific shared values, beliefs and attitudes (Rasool & Curtis, 2000)  Ethnicity: depends on a “sense of group identification, a common set of values, political and economic interests, behavioral patterns, and the cultural elements that differ from those of other groups within a society” (Banks, 1991,  p. 13)

10  Race: catagorizes individuals into groups (White, Black, Asian) based on certain outward physical characteristics (Rasool & Curtis, 2000)  Linguistics: There is a wide gap between what they (ELL) can understand in English and what they can say in English (Teemant, Bernhardt, Rodriquez-Munoz, & Aiello, 2000, p. 30)

11 Desegreation  1954 Brown v. Board of Education- to dismantle racial segregation in public schools

12 Generalizations of learning characteristics  African American learners  More global, focus more on whole picture, rather than parts  Use approximations, like time numbers, rather than being precise accuracy  Prefer inferential reasoning  Rely on non-verbal, as well as verbal communication patterns  Sometimes distrust mainstream people and institutions  Prefer visual and aural cues

13  Hispanic/Latino learners  More group oriented and inductive thinkers  Peer-oriented and more likely to perform better in small groups  More external locus of control  Prefer more personal and informal relationships with authority figures

14  Native American learners  Not competitive- prefer cooperative learning and sharing environments  Have different concept of time than mainstream perspective  Frequently exhibit behaviors that seem to indicate a lack of interest in learning  Are more reflective than impulsive  More visually and imagery oriented than verbally  More often have an internal locus of control and are self-directed  View teachers as facilitators of learning

15  Asian American learners  Prefer formal relationships with teachers/authority figures  Are autonomous and conforming  Are obedient to authority  Usually conservative and reserved  Are more introverted

16 Socioeconomic Differences  More than 35 million Americans are officially poor  More than 10 million Americans live in high poverty neighborhoods  30% African Americans and 30% Hispanics were classified as poor in 1995

17 Family Differences  Two biological parents  One biological parent  One biological parent and a stepparent  One step parent  grandparents  aunts and uncles  Adult siblings  Foster families  Other students in a group home

18 Academic Differences  Academic success is dependent on both ability and effort.  How students perceive ability and effort is critical in academic self-esteem (Strahan, 1997)  Underachievement: a discrepancy between a child’s school performance and some index of the child’s ability.

19 Students with Special Needs  Until 1975, students with disabilities were accorded no federal rights to an education.  The 1975 Education for All Handicapped Act mandated that all children with handicaps be given the right to a free and appropriate public education in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) guided by an Individual Education Plan (IEP).

20 Special Needs-con’t  Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) replaced 1975 Act in 1990 to include autism, deafness, deaf-blindness, hearing impaired, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, visual impairments, traumatic brain injuries  Was revised again in 1997 to include assessment, academic accountability piece

21 Inclusion  The assignment of students to a general education classroom. This is the LRE.  Often controversial between teachers

22 Learning Disabled and ADD  LD does not imply low intelligence  May be strong in some areas and weak in others  Inclusion can usually work with a resource teacher (intervention specialist)  Attention deficit disorder with or with out hyperactivity: age-inappropriate actions, trouble focusing, impulsivity

23 Message of Chapter 3 Diversity Among Middle level Students  ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL and educators must be aware and sensitive to this!

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