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The Beach Boys, Surf Music, the British Invasion, and the Latin Stream in the 1960s.

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Presentation on theme: "The Beach Boys, Surf Music, the British Invasion, and the Latin Stream in the 1960s."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Beach Boys, Surf Music, the British Invasion, and the Latin Stream in the 1960s

2 Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys Formed in 1961 by Brian Wilson, his two brothers, a cousin, and a friend in Hawthorne, California Formed in 1961 by Brian Wilson, his two brothers, a cousin, and a friend in Hawthorne, California Brian Wilson was the guiding spirit of the band during the group’s first decade. Brian Wilson was the guiding spirit of the band during the group’s first decade. The defining model of the Beach Boys: The defining model of the Beach Boys: –Demonstrate mastery of early rock ’n’ roll –Create original material based on and extending those styles –Branch out beyond the forms, sounds, and lyrics of traditional rock ’n’ roll to create something truly unique

3 Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys The songs of the Beach Boys enshrined Wilson’s somewhat mythical version of California in the consciousness of young Americans. The songs of the Beach Boys enshrined Wilson’s somewhat mythical version of California in the consciousness of young Americans. –“Surfin’ Safari” –“Surfer Girl” –“The Warmth of the Sun” –“California Girls” Wilson’s vision was inclusive even though it remained place specific. Wilson’s vision was inclusive even though it remained place specific.

4 Brian Wilson’s Journey from Imitation, through Emulation, to Innovation The Beach Boys’ first Top 10 hit, the famous “Surfin’ USA” (Number Three, 1963), simply borrows the music of Chuck Berry’s 1958 hit “Sweet Little Sixteen” with new words. The Beach Boys’ first Top 10 hit, the famous “Surfin’ USA” (Number Three, 1963), simply borrows the music of Chuck Berry’s 1958 hit “Sweet Little Sixteen” with new words. The Beach Boys’ next hit, “Surfer Girl” (Number Seven, 1963), reinvigorated the sound and spirit of the doo- wop ballad by infusing it with California beach content. The Beach Boys’ next hit, “Surfer Girl” (Number Seven, 1963), reinvigorated the sound and spirit of the doo- wop ballad by infusing it with California beach content. “Fun, Fun, Fun” “Fun, Fun, Fun” –The group’s first hit of 1964 evoked Chuck Berry. –The solo guitar introduction cops its twelve-bar blues licks directly from Berry’s “Roll Over Beethoven” and “Johnny B. Goode.”

5 Brian Wilson’s Journey from Imitation, through Emulation, to Innovation By mid-1964, Wilson had moved past obvious emulation into a period of aggressive experimentation with his inherited styles and forms. By mid-1964, Wilson had moved past obvious emulation into a period of aggressive experimentation with his inherited styles and forms. “I Get Around” “I Get Around” The Beach Boys’ first Number One recordThe Beach Boys’ first Number One record Turns the up-tempo rock ’n’ roll anthem into a thoroughly individual kind of expressionTurns the up-tempo rock ’n’ roll anthem into a thoroughly individual kind of expression

6 “Surf Music” The popular duo Jan (Berry) and Dean (Torrence) worked with Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys on a number of projects. The popular duo Jan (Berry) and Dean (Torrence) worked with Brian Wilson and the Beach Boys on a number of projects. Wilson co-wrote Jan and Dean’s biggest hit, “Surf City” (Number One, 1963). Wilson co-wrote Jan and Dean’s biggest hit, “Surf City” (Number One, 1963).

7 Dick Dale (b. 1937) The guitar style of Southern California surf music is based on the sound created by Dick Dale of the Del Tones. The guitar style of Southern California surf music is based on the sound created by Dick Dale of the Del Tones. –Solid-body guitar –High-wattage Fender amplifier –Lots of reverb –“Wet” sounding surf guitar One of Dick Dale’s characteristic techniques was the rapid, descending tremolo One of Dick Dale’s characteristic techniques was the rapid, descending tremolo –Borrowed by the Chantays to open their recording of “Pipeline” Sustained national recognition eluded Dick Dale in the 1960s. Sustained national recognition eluded Dick Dale in the 1960s. His music became famous in the 1990s, when his recording of “Misirlou,” from 1962, was used as opening music in the hit film Pulp Fiction. His music became famous in the 1990s, when his recording of “Misirlou,” from 1962, was used as opening music in the hit film Pulp Fiction.

8 Ventures The most successful instrumental group associated with surf rock The most successful instrumental group associated with surf rock Seattle-based ensemble Seattle-based ensemble Adopted aspects of the style after it became popular in California Adopted aspects of the style after it became popular in California The Ventures hit Number Four with “Hawaii Five-0” The Ventures hit Number Four with “Hawaii Five-0” –Theme song of the hit TV show –Featured on American Bandstand

9 The Beatles, the British Invasion, and the American Response The Beatles The Beatles –If greatness is measured in commercial success and popularity, the Beatles were the greatest popular musicians of the twentieth century. They started out as a performing band modeled on Buddy Holly’s group, the Crickets. They started out as a performing band modeled on Buddy Holly’s group, the Crickets. After some initial shifts in personnel, the Beatles achieved a stable lineup by 1962, consisting of After some initial shifts in personnel, the Beatles achieved a stable lineup by 1962, consisting of –John Lennon and George Harrison (lead and rhythm guitars and vocals), –Paul McCartney (bass and vocals), and –Ringo Starr (drums and occasional vocals).

10 The Beatles During their extended apprenticeship period, the Beatles played at clubs in their hometown of Liverpool and elsewhere. During their extended apprenticeship period, the Beatles played at clubs in their hometown of Liverpool and elsewhere. In Hamburg, Germany, they performed an imitative repertoire that centered on covers of songs by the American rock ’n’ roll artists they most admired. In Hamburg, Germany, they performed an imitative repertoire that centered on covers of songs by the American rock ’n’ roll artists they most admired.

11 Listening: “Please Please Me” (1962) Written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney Written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney Performed by the Beatles Performed by the Beatles An excellent example of the Beatles’ early songwriting and performing. An excellent example of the Beatles’ early songwriting and performing. Straightforward, up-tempo love song in a typical AABA form Straightforward, up-tempo love song in a typical AABA form Clever internal rhymes: “complainin’” is rhymed with “rain in [my heart]” at the beginning of the B section. Clever internal rhymes: “complainin’” is rhymed with “rain in [my heart]” at the beginning of the B section.

12 Listening: “Please Please Me” (1962) Formal structure with two levels Formal structure with two levels –The A sections have their own distinctive form, aabc:a phrases have descending melodic motion; b phrase text simply repeats the words “come on, come on,” building intensity; the c phrase is the melodic high point of the section. AABA AABA –Aa a b c –B d d’ –A a a b c

13 Listening: “Please Please Me” (1962) A –a Descending melodic motion –a Again –b “Come on, come on” — builds intensity –c “Please, please me” — melodic high point of the section B –d “ I don’t…” Bridge — new music –d’ “I do…” Change/extension of phrase A Exact repetition of A section A Exact repetition of A section

14 Listening: “A Hard Day’s Night” (1964) Written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney Written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney Performed by the Beatles Performed by the Beatles Number One in 1964 Number One in 1964 Title song of the Beatles’ first movie Title song of the Beatles’ first movie Begins with dissonant guitar chord — effective hook Begins with dissonant guitar chord — effective hook

15 Listening: “A Hard Day’s Night” (1964) Overall form is AABA Overall form is AABA The A section is twelve bars long, has three four-bar phrases, and uses blue notes that do not follow the typical blues harmonic structure. The A section is twelve bars long, has three four-bar phrases, and uses blue notes that do not follow the typical blues harmonic structure.  More than the three traditional chords are used.  The chord changes don’t always happen in the expected places.

16 Listening: “A Hard Day’s Night” (1964) A Blues-like twelve-bars A Blues-like twelve-bars –It’s been a hard day’s night… –But when I get home to you… A –You know I work… –And it’s worth it… –So why on earth…

17 Listening: “A Hard Day’s Night” (1964) B When I’m home… bridge — new music B When I’m home… bridge — new music A — Exact repetition of first A A — Exact repetition of first A A — Instrumental — Guitar solo, eight bars A — Instrumental — Guitar solo, eight bars Voice enters for last four bars of section Voice enters for last four bars of section B When I’m home… as before B When I’m home… as before A It’s been a hard day’s… as before A It’s been a hard day’s… as before

18 Listening: “Yesterday” Instrumentation—acoustic guitar and strings Instrumentation—acoustic guitar and strings Distinguishing features of Beatles’ style: Distinguishing features of Beatles’ style: –Reference to popular style –Emphasis on melody –Imaginative instrumentation –Responsiveness to text

19 Listening: “Yesterday” Romantic ballad with strong roots in Tin Pan Alley popular song tradition Romantic ballad with strong roots in Tin Pan Alley popular song tradition Form: AABABA—variation of Tin Pan Alley thirty-two-bar AABA form Form: AABABA—variation of Tin Pan Alley thirty-two-bar AABA form Opening A section Opening A section –1. Yesterday –2. All my troubles… –3. Now it looks… –4. Oh, I believe…

20 Listening: “Eleanor Rigby” (1966) Instrumentation: String quartet—violins, viola, cello Instrumentation: String quartet—violins, viola, cello The lyrics describe two lonely people whose lives have been exercises in futility The lyrics describe two lonely people whose lives have been exercises in futility The harmony emphasizes the feeling of loneliness by alternating between two chords without reaching a goal. The harmony emphasizes the feeling of loneliness by alternating between two chords without reaching a goal. The melody does not lead anywhere; there is no sense of melodic development. The melody does not lead anywhere; there is no sense of melodic development. Verse-Chorus form—alternation of a persistent refrain and narrative. Verse-Chorus form—alternation of a persistent refrain and narrative.

21 The Rolling Stones Of all the British Invasion acts other than the Beatles, the Rolling Stones have had the greatest cumulative influence in America. Of all the British Invasion acts other than the Beatles, the Rolling Stones have had the greatest cumulative influence in America. They cultivated an image as “bad boys,” in deliberate contrast to the friendly public image projected by the Beatles. They cultivated an image as “bad boys,” in deliberate contrast to the friendly public image projected by the Beatles. “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” –Perhaps their most famous hit record –Number One in 1965 –Composed by band members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards  Memorable buzzing guitar hook  Unrelenting beat  Unabashedly self-oriented and ultimately sexual lyrics –The song perfectly exemplifies the distinctive low-down, hard-rocking essence of both the Rolling Stones themselves and their music.

22 Other British Invasion Bands The other British Invasion acts that had a long-term impact in America started as the Beatles did: with firm roots in American R&B and rock ’n’ roll. The other British Invasion acts that had a long-term impact in America started as the Beatles did: with firm roots in American R&B and rock ’n’ roll. On the whole, the Rolling Stones, the Animals, the Who, the Kinks, and Eric Clapton remained closer to these roots during their careers than the Beatles did. On the whole, the Rolling Stones, the Animals, the Who, the Kinks, and Eric Clapton remained closer to these roots during their careers than the Beatles did.

23 Beach Boys Brian Wilson, inspired by the Beatles’ album Rubber Soul (1965), produced what is arguably rock’s first concept album, Pet Sounds. Brian Wilson, inspired by the Beatles’ album Rubber Soul (1965), produced what is arguably rock’s first concept album, Pet Sounds. –Released in mid-1966 –Modest seller, compared with some other Beach Boys albums –Had an enormous impact on other musicians Paul McCartney affirmed that Pet Sounds was the single greatest influence on the Beatles’ landmark 1967 album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. Paul McCartney affirmed that Pet Sounds was the single greatest influence on the Beatles’ landmark 1967 album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.

24 “Good Vibrations” Wilson furthered his experimentation with the late 1966 single “Good Vibrations,” which reached Number One on the charts and has remained probably the Beach Boys’ most famous song. Wilson furthered his experimentation with the late 1966 single “Good Vibrations,” which reached Number One on the charts and has remained probably the Beach Boys’ most famous song. Written and produced by Brian Wilson Written and produced by Brian Wilson Performed by the Beach Boys Performed by the Beach Boys Innovative hit single Innovative hit single

25 “Good Vibrations” Virtually every aspect of the record is unusual. Virtually every aspect of the record is unusual. –No name for the form –Unique yet effective Wilson uses a rich sound palette to communicate the sensuous experience that is the essential subject matter of “Good Vibrations.” Wilson uses a rich sound palette to communicate the sensuous experience that is the essential subject matter of “Good Vibrations.” –Memorable melodic hooks and a wide, colorful palette of chords Extremely costly recording to produce Extremely costly recording to produce Milestone in the developing history of rock production Milestone in the developing history of rock production

26 Listening: “Good Vibrations,” 1966 A “I love the colorful clothes…” A “I love the colorful clothes…” –High solo voice –Organ accompaniment –Flutes –Percussion –Minor key

27 Listening: “Good Vibrations,” 1966 B “I’m picking up good vibrations” B “I’m picking up good vibrations” –Bass voice enters –Accompanied by cello, theremin, percussion –Group enters with vocals –Major key

28 Listening: “Good Vibrations,” 1966 A again A again B again structure suggests verse/chorus B again structure suggests verse/chorus C Soft humming, then “I don’t know but she sends me there…” C Soft humming, then “I don’t know but she sends me there…” –Steadily builds tension –No stable key

29 Listening: “Good Vibrations” 1966 Instrumental transition Instrumental transition –New key established (major) D “Gotta keep those lovin’ good vibrations happenin’ with her” D “Gotta keep those lovin’ good vibrations happenin’ with her” –Solo voice, then group –Organ accompaniment –Text repeats, fades out

30 Listening: “Good Vibrations,” 1966 Transition—“Aah!” Transition—“Aah!” Variations on B, “I’m picking up good vibrations…” Variations on B, “I’m picking up good vibrations…” –Full group texture –Overlapping vocals –Major key –Voices drop out –Cello and theremin

31 Smile At the time Wilson was completing “Good Vibrations,” he was also at work on an album to be called Smile. At the time Wilson was completing “Good Vibrations,” he was also at work on an album to be called Smile. Eagerly anticipated for many months, Smile was abandoned in Eagerly anticipated for many months, Smile was abandoned in Wilson returned to and completed Smile in Wilson returned to and completed Smile in 2004.

32 The Latin Stream in the 1960s Three distinct tributaries of Latin influence on mainstream popular music emerged between 1962 and 1966: Three distinct tributaries of Latin influence on mainstream popular music emerged between 1962 and 1966:  Bugalú, or Latin soul  Bossa nova  Mexican music

33 Bugalú, or Latin soul Emerged in New York City as a fusion of the rumba and mambo with black American popular music Emerged in New York City as a fusion of the rumba and mambo with black American popular music Biggest hit was “Watermelon Man,” recorded by Ramon “Mongo” Santamaria Biggest hit was “Watermelon Man,” recorded by Ramon “Mongo” Santamaria “El Watusi,” by Ray Barretto and his Charanga Moderna “El Watusi,” by Ray Barretto and his Charanga Moderna –More closely aligned with Latin American music –Pop chart success largely as a result of the Watusi dance craze

34 Bossa nova Brazilian genre, blend of samba rhythms and the West Coast style of modern jazz Brazilian genre, blend of samba rhythms and the West Coast style of modern jazz João Gilberto most often credited with initiating João Gilberto most often credited with initiating First recording of the genre made by Antônio Carlos Jobim (version of “Chega de Saudade”) First recording of the genre made by Antônio Carlos Jobim (version of “Chega de Saudade”) “The Girl from Ipanema” on the album Getz/Gilberto, sung by João Gilberto’s wife, Astrud, with Stan Getz on tenor sax “The Girl from Ipanema” on the album Getz/Gilberto, sung by João Gilberto’s wife, Astrud, with Stan Getz on tenor sax –Biggest hit of the bossa nova era

35 Mexican-style music Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass  “Ameriachi” sound  10 albums in the Billboard Top Ten between 1965 and 1968  “The Lonely Bull”  “A Taste of Honey”


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