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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An Evidence-Based Approach to the Practice of Educational Leadership First Edition Ronald W. Rebore Angela L. E. Walmsley Saint Louis University This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of this program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 3: Pluralism and Cultural Analysis in Evidence-Based Leadership
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Instructional Objectives To learn how to create a culture of evidence that will enhance the ability of a school or school district to create a positive environment that supports high student achievement and quality professional service. To provide information that can be used to engage stakeholders in discourse, which will provide the opportunity to create a positive culture in school and school districts.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Instructional Objectives To explain how the cultural governance function operates in public school districts from an evidence-based perspective To exemplify how cultural analysis promotes student, teacher, staff, and administrator diversity
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Instructional Objectives To explain how the evidence-based approach can enhance student, teacher, staff, and administrator appreciation for pluralism To demonstrate the most effective methods of carrying out cultural analysis in schools and school districts
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An Evidence-Based Approach to Pluralism CITE1 Immigration is changing the ethnic composition of the population as well as the religious orientation of the United States. Religious diversity must be considered along with ethnic pluralism.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An Evidence-Based Approach to Pluralism The rights and responsibilities of people bring into play certain tensions manifested through intolerance and discrimination. Discrimination based on age, disability, gender, illness, and lifestyle is further complicated by religious and ethnic pluralism.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An Evidence-Based Approach to Pluralism Diversity is found in schools extends to all. Of considerable concern is recruiting administrators, teachers, and staff members from these religious and ethnic groups.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An Evidence-Based Approach to Pluralism Utilize philosophical norms as standards for human interaction rather than religious norms due to the diversity of beliefs. Administration need to develop ideas about human relations as an orientation around which superintendents and principals can exercise their leadership.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An Evidence-Based Approach to Pluralism Assimilation is a continuum. Non-assimilation implies a total conscious rejection of other heritages in developing human relations norms. Total assimilation implies a conscious rejection of personal heritage as a norm for human relations. It is impossible for a person to be completely unaffected or totally dismiss surrounding heritages.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evidential Issues Related to Pluralism Three aspects of pluralism: 1.Values are conditional 2.Conflict is unavoidable 3.The conditionality of values will significantly influence the way in which conflict resolution is carried out.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evidential Issues Related to Pluralism Values differ culturally and generationally. All values are worthy of consideration. Values are naturally or humanly occurring. There are primary and secondary values.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evidential Issues Related to Pluralism Conflict occur over how primary and secondary values are implemented. Conflict is unavoidable. Resolution of all conflict must rest on the quality of reasonableness. Values are constituents of what a person considers life requirements.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evidential Issues Related to Pluralism In order to rank values, certain conditions must be met: –Quality level of the tradition –Active imagination –Freedom to make choices based on experience and wellbeing
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evidential Issues Related to Pluralism To promote pluralism: –Recognize the importance of values –Understand there is no value which overrides all others –Distinguish between deep and variable convictions –Identify primary and secondary values –Acknowledge other’s deeply held convictions as a life requirement
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Context of Cultural Analysis in a Pluralistic Society Qualitative analysis is a dimension of evidence-based analysis. Cultural analysis is one qualitative technique. Cultural analysis is significant and helpful to educational leadership.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Context of Cultural Analysis in a Pluralistic Society When people come together for the purpose of collectively initiating an activity or service, they create an organization. Organizations take on a life of their own when institutionalized.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Context of Cultural Analysis in a Pluralistic Society Organizations are composed of attitudes, beliefs, values, feelings, and opinions and thus are constantly changing. Culture is a quality inherent within an organization that creates an atmosphere setting it apart from other organizations.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Context of Cultural Analysis in a Pluralistic Society Table 3.1: Elements of Cultural Analysis Column 1Column 2Column 3 AttitudesActivitiesDescribing BeliefsTalkListening Values BehaviorReading Feelings generate analyzed by Observing leading Opinions to interpretation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Basic Notion School and school district cultures consist of those attitudes, beliefs and values, feelings, and opinions that are shared by a significant number of its influential members and that are communicated to others. School culture requires systematic analysis.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Components of Culture Attitudes: mental perspectives that fashion the way a person views his or her personal circumstances Beliefs: ideas about the meaning of existence, life, and death Values: self-regulating principles that people use to direct their conduct and that are based on beliefs
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Feelings: synonymous with emotions Opinions: conclusions that people draw from their broad base of experiences and applied to a specific situation Opinions are not always logical and are influenced by attitudes, beliefs and values, and feelings.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Expressions of Culture Activities: engagement of administrators, teachers, and staff members in routine and extraordinary professional activities, and social settings Talk: verbal exchanges that take place between people; professional discussion differs greatly from casual discussion
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Behavior: way of physically reaction to a situation; behavior is observable and demonstrative and includes body posturing, engagement, and verbal communication or lack thereof Schools and district culture is affected by the actions of individuals and significantly affected by the accumulation of activities, talk, and behaviors of those individuals.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Analysis of Culture To improve communication, first analyze the culture of the school or district. The purpose of analysis of culture is to understand the personal experience of both the sender and receiver of the communication.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Four dimension of the analysis of culture: 1.Describing 2.Listening 3.Reading 4.Observing
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Describing: process of gathering and organizing information; can be formatted in the following ways: 1.Describing the routine events of the day in the life of the school or district 2.Describing the routine events of the day in the life of individual administrators, teachers, staff, or students
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership 3. Describing the interaction of routine institutional events with the routine events in the lives of individuals 4. Describing critical events that occur in the life of the school or district and in the lives of individuals 5. Formulating the routine and critical events into narrative format setting forth the relationship between the individuals and the school or district
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Listening: process of discerning the meaning behind the dialogue between administrators, teachers, staff, students, parents, and taxpayers Questions that constitute the basis of interpretation: –What emotions are evoked by the dialogue? –What is the thought pattern in the dialogue? –What is unique about the words used?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Reading: can reveal the nuances of an institution’s culture Questions that constitute examples of tonality that can be detected in school documents: –Do the documents of the school or district foster a sense of excellence in the performance of administrators, teachers, staff members, and students?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership –Do the documents of the school or district foster a sense of community in which all members are lifelong learners? –So the documents of the school or district foster the caring community ideal? –Do the documents of the school or district foster innovation and risk taking?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership Observing Characteristics of a quality environment: –Identity focus –Collaboration focus –Concern for people focus –Coordination focus –Empowerment focus –Risk supportive focus
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizational Culture in Evidence- Based Leadership –Performance focus –Criticism tolerance focus –Outcomes focus –Change focus
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Discussion Questions and Statements 1.How does diversity and pluralism affect evidence-based leadership? 2.Explain the difference between primary and secondary values and how they impact evidence-based leadership. 3.Since value conflict is unavoidable, how does effective evidence-based leadership function in such a milieu?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Discussion Questions and Statements 4. Explain how conflicts can be resolved. 5. What are the leadership implications of content and context values? 6. Because some values are incompatible, what evidence-based leadership approaches can be utilized by a superintendent or a principal? 7. Define culture as it is used in relation to evidence analysis.
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