Word Study: Differentiation distant vs. remote ( p. 226 ) Distant suggests that space makes contact difficult or that sheer time becomes a barrier. With reference to attitudes, the word suggests a wandering mind. Remote has the overtone implying isolation that results from being out of the way or off the beaten track and it also suggests difficulties that make for an unlikely prospect.
Differentiation misgiving vs. uneasiness ( p.226 ) Misgiving is doubt about the outcome of an action, of a feeling of apprehension caused b such doubt. Uneasiness does not necessarily apply to fear about the future, but suggest that actual physical discomfort or restlessness accompanies the apprehensive or fearful state.
Differentiation fundamental vs. basic (p. 226) Fundamental is the more formal of the two and is more natural in a philosophical context. When applied in an educational context, it strongly suggests something that is indispensable or a prerequisite to more advanced development. While fundamental often points to what is ideally necessary, basic points to what is actually the case or what i necessary but what is accepted or standard.
Differentiation Wrong and mistaken can be used interchangeably in sentences like “I was wrong/mistake about it as a chance remark.” (p. 226) But wrong may suggest that there is something unsatisfactory about the situation, person, or thing you are talking about. The word is also used to refer to activities or actions that are considered to be morally bad and unacceptable. Mistaken specifically refers to incorrect understanding and the harmful consequences brought about.
Useful Word Parts multi- Meaning: many, much Examples: multifold, multilingual, multiply, multitude, multinational, multifunctional mono- Meaning: one Examples: monopoly, monotype, monologue, monocycle
Warm-up & Background Info Warm-up Background Info About “culture” About the relationship between “language” and “culture” About “cultural shock” About the author About dichotomies in translation studies
Warm-up (I) 1.Can you name some Chinese words originating from English? For your reference: 巴士 的士 酷 脱口秀 T 恤 夹克 克隆 基因 酒吧 卡通 蜜月 咖啡 2. Can you name some English words originating from Chinese? For your reference: pinyin fengshui mahjong kung fu typhoon lychee longan Zen cheongsam dim sum
Warm-up (II) Read through Text I and answer the following question: According to Prof. Bassnett, compromising is a key notion in translation. Numerous examples are used to explain and exemplify this notion. Do you remember some of her examples and can you supply one or two extra ones?
Background Info—What is culture? Culture, in anthropology ( 人类学 ), is the patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share. Culture distinguishes one human group from others. It also distinguishes humans from other animals. A people’s culture includes their beliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and cooking food, religion, and political and economic systems.
Background info—Language & Culture It is apparent that culture, as an ingrained set of behaviors and modes of perception, becomes highly important in the learning of a second language. A language is a part of a culture, and a culture is a part of a language; the two are intricately interwoven so that one cannot separate the two without losing the significance of either language or culture. The acquisition of a second language, except for specialized, instrumental acquisition, is also the acquisition of a second culture ~ H. D. Brown
Background Info—What is cultural shock? Cultural shock is the anxiety and feelings of surprise, confusion, disorientation, etc when operating within an entirely different cultural or social environment, such as a foreign country. Phases of Cultural Shock The “Honeymoon Phase” 蜜月期 The Negotiation Phase 磨合期 The Adjustment Phase 适应期 The Reverse Culture Shock 再冲击期
Another version Phases of Cultural Shock The Honeymoon Phase 蜜月阶段 The Anxiety or Rejection Phase 沮丧（或敌意）阶段 The Regression and Adjustment Phase 恢复调整阶段 The Acceptance and Adaptation Phase 适应阶段 The Reverse Culture Shock 重返本文化冲击
Background Info—The Author Susan Bassnett is Professor of Comparative Literature at the University of Warwick and the head of the Centre for British and Comparative Cultural Studies; has written extensively in the fields of comparative literacy studies, theatre, women‘s studies, and translation studies; also writes poetry; is a practising translator.
Background Info—The Author Her major works are Translation Studies (1980), Constructing Cultures (1998), and The Translator as Writer (2006), etc.
A Detailed Study of Text I Type of writing & Organization Theme & Structure A Structural Analysis A Close Reading
Type of Writing & Organization Text I is an___________________ essay featuring strict logic. The author adopts the _________________ approach when developing her argument. ARGUMENTATIVE DEDUCTIVE
Revision Argumentation A well-defined theme Sufficient evidence Good logic Clear organization An honest and friendly attitude
Theme & Structure The THEME statement is: Most fundamental is the profound relationship between language and culture that lies at the heart of society and one that we overlook at our peril. (Para. 3) The essay falls into the following ____________ parts: ♦ ♦ ♦ THREE Part I (Para. 1—3) Introduction Part II (Para. 4—7) Body Part III (Para. 8) Conclusion
A Detailed Structural Analysis Part I (1-3): put forward the thesis/topic What is the topic sentence of the text? “Most fundamental is the profound relationship between language and culture that lies at the heart of society and one that we overlook at our peril.” (the last sentence of Para. 3) Part II (4-7): body—prove point of view Part III (8): conclusion— The immense function or great significance of intercultural understanding.
A Close Reading Comprehension check Language points Sentence highlights
Part I (Para. 1—3) We live in an age of easy access to the rest of the world and this global communications revolution is linked to the expansion of English. Tower of Babel
Comprehension Check 1. What do cheap flights and the Internet mean? 2. Exemplify and explain that English has become the most important international language.
Language Points 1. back-packing (Para. 1): --If you go backpacking, you go traveling with a backpack. 2. go off: to leave (Para. 1) --Don’t go off until he comes. 3. text messaging (Para. 1): the sending of written messages using a mobile phone text message （短信） : a written message that is sent or received on a mobile phone or pager
Language Points 4. provided: conj. (often with that) on the condition or understanding (= on condition that / so long as) (Para. 2) --We will pay you a £100 bonus ~ the job is completed on time. --Using this license, others can download and redistribute your work in a non-commercial way ~ they credit you as the author. Cf. providing
Language Points 5. regardless of: phr-prep. in spite of, notwithstanding --The time limit was the same ~ the difficulty of the task. --It pays to take a marketing class ~ your major or position in your company. --He stood for freedom of speech for everyone ~ color, race or creed.
Language Points 6. essential (Para. 2): It is essential that every child has the same educational opportunities. It is essential that every child have the same educational opportunities. Usage: In it is important/ vital / essential/ necessary/ desirable that…structure, it doesn’t matter whether the structure is in the present or past tense or whether the subject in the that-clause is in the singular or plural form, we should use the “should + basic form of the verb” pattern, especially in formal writing.
Language Points 7. facilitate: vt. to make an action or process easier or more likely to happen (para. 2) --The new airport will ~ the development of tourism. --The Center has academic agreements with several American universities which ~ exchanges of faculty. 8. stepping stone: [C] (Para. 2) --A job or event etc can be described as a ~ when it helps you to make progress, especially in someone’s career. --Many students now see university as a ~to a good job.
Language Points 9. misgiving (Para. 3): [U / C] a feeling of doubt or fear about what might happen or about whether sth. is right -- Some have already expressed their ~s that the expansion will lead to greater loss. --Prince Harry will be sent to Iraq despite ~s over security.
Language Points 8. …and why does the rise of English as a global language… (Para. 3) the rise of (a movement / activity, etc): an increase in the popularity or influence of a movement or activity, etc --The rise of modern sports made the Greek have the idea of resuming the ancient Olympic Games. --The rise of the city is closely associated with the transition from handicraft to machine industry.
Language Points 9. at one’s peril (Para. 3): used to say that what someone is intending to do is dangerous or could cause them problems --Politicians ignore this issue at their peril. --Anyone who breaks the law does so at their peril.
Paraphrases 1. We live in an age of easy access to the rest of the world...while the Internet enables us to communicate with the remotest places and the traditional postal services are now referred to almost mockingly as “snail mail”. (Para.1) The age we are living in provide us with convenient ways to reach any part of the world…while the Internet makes it possible for us to share or exchange opinions or information, etc. with people in faraway places, and the traditional postal services are so slow that people often jokingly use the term “snail” to describe its delivery speed.
Paraphrases 2. Significantly also, this great global communications revolution is also linked to the expansion of English, which has now become the leading international language. (Para. 2) In addition, it is of remarkable significance that this great worldwide revolution in communications is also closely related to the immense development of English, which has now become the most important international language.
Paraphrases 3. English has simply become the language that facilitates communication, and for many people learning English is an essential stepping stone on the road to success. (Para. 2) English has simply become the language that makes it easier for people to communicate with each other, and for many people learning English is an important springboard to attain great achievements.
Paraphrases 4. Most fundamental is the profound relationship between language and culture that lies at the heart of society and one that we overlook at our peril. (Para. 3) What is most important is the deep and strongly felt relationship between language and culture that forms the core of society. If we fail to notice this relationship, we shall almost certainly be in great danger.
A Look Back: Part I Can you pick out the topic sentences and key words / phrases of the first three paragraphs? How does the writer exemplify the topic sentences?
A Look Back (For your reference) Para 1: topic sentence / key words easy access / global communication To exemplify/illustrate the topic sentence: Cheap flights enable millions of people to visit places their parents could only dream about. The Internet enables us to communicate with the remotest places quickly and conveniently. ( ) Mobile phones can make you connect the others who’s far away at any hour of the day.
A Look Back (For your reference) Para 2: topic sentence / key words: English / language determinism To exemplify and explain that English has become the most important international language: Conference and business meetings… English has simply become the language that facilitates communication. For many people learning English is an essential stepping stone on the road to success.
A Look Back (For your reference) Para 3: topic sentence / key words: problems with the communication revolution To exemplify/illustrate the topic sentence: Misgivings and feelings of uneasiness about the rise of English as a global language
Part II (Para. 4—7) Language transports a cultural subtext, and learning how to negotiate cultural and linguistic differences is essential to survival in modern times. Tower of Babel
Comprehension Check 1. What is the function of languages the author points out in the 4th paragraph? 2. What is suggested about the citation of the examples in early Bible translation? 3. According to Prof. Bassnett, what does “compromising” mean? And when and how shall we compromise? 4. What’s the attitude some native English speakers bear toward other languages? 5. Why does the author think that native English speakers are losing out?
Language Points 1. longing (Para. 4): a strong persistent yearning or desire, especially one that cannot be fulfilled --Jane ached with ~ to return home and see her family. --Everyone of us has moments of ~ for the past. 2. angst: n. a feeling of anxiety or insecurity, etc, often accompanied by depression. (Para. 4) --I can imagine nothing more absurd than the sight of a 53 year old standing publicly bleating songs of adolescent ~.
Language Points 3. head-on (Para. 5): --If you deal with a problem ~, you deal with it in a very direct way. --If two vehicles crash ~, the front of one vehicle hits the front of the other. 4. come up with sth. (Para. 5) ： to think of an idea, answer etc. --Is that the best excuse you can come up with? 5. regarding (Para. 6): with respect to, concerning --Jeff and Taylor came to terms ~ the new contract.
Language Points 6. staple (Para. 6): a. (of products, esp. food) most basic and important for a particular place or group of people --Such ~s as meat, butter and even milk were frequently missing from stores during the war. 7. hybrid (Para. 7): n. (usu. singular) a mixture of different things or styles --the artificial ~s of DNA and RNA --English abounds with ~s—words made up from different languages
Language Points 8. lose out (Para. 7) --If one loses out, s/he suffers a loss or disadvantage because s/he has not succeeded in what s/he was doing.
Paraphrases 1. Faced with unsurmountable linguistic problems, translators negotiated the boundaries between languages and came up with a compromise. (Para. 5) Encountering insolvable language problems, translators tried to find balance between languages and finally arrived at a compromise.
Paraphrases 2. Communicating in another language involves not only linguistic skills, but the ability to think differently, to enter into another culture's mentality and shape language accordingly. (Para. 7) Conveying ideas, feelings, or information in another language requires not only linguistic skills, but also the ability to think in a different way, to share another culture’s customary way of thinking and then to know how to use the language appropriately and idiomatically.
Paraphrases 3. But even as more people become multilingual, so native English speakers are losing out, for they are becoming even more monolingual… (Para. 7) Although more and more people are able to speak more than one language, native English speakers don’t get it well, because most of them can speak English only…
Paraphrases 4. Millions of people are discovering how to bridge cultures, while the English-speaking world becomes ever more complacent and cuts down on foreign language learning programs in the mistaken belief that it is enough to know English. (Para. 7) Numerous people are looking for a way to interrelate different cultures, while the English-speaking community becomes ever more satisfied with their knowledge of English and spends less on foreign-language-learning programs because they develop the mistaken idea that it is enough to know English.
A Look Back Can you briefly relate the example(s) the author cites to illustrate insurmountable linguistic problems in the process of translation in this part? The untranslatability of expressions from Bible which are heavily loaded with religious messages, e.g. “the Lamb of God”, “the forbidden fruit”, “the Garden of Eden”, etc.
Part III (Para. 8) By not feeling the need to learn other languages these days, native English speakers may lose the skills to understand other cultures. Tower of Babel
Comprehension Check 1. According to the writer, what is the great function of intercultural understanding? 2. Who will probably be most able to help the process of world peace in the future?
Language Points 1. the state of the art: the highest level of development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field, achieved at a particular time 技术发展水平 --the state of the art in space travel
Paraphrase Those best placed to help that process may not be the ones with the latest technology and state of the art mobile phones, but those with the skills to understand what lies in, under and beyond the words spoken in many different languages. (Para. 8) Those who are most able to contribute to that process of world peace probably are not the ones who have grasped the latest technology or the ones who are most skilful at using mobile phones, but those who have acquired the skills to understand the literal, implied, and cultural meanings of the words used in different languages.
A Look Back The immense function/ great significance of intercultural understanding world peace intercultural understanding those who understand different languages
Appreciation: Writing Tips Effective Use of Brief Examples Examples can help us clarify complex concepts. Examples as supporting material offer the advantage of helping our readers or listeners visualize the meaning of the message. What is a brief example? A brief example is a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point. Two cases in point: Paragraph 1 & Paragraph 5 What impressions do you think the author intends to create in these two paragraphs?
Appreciation: Writing Tips (cont.) When do people often use brief examples? Brief examples can be used to introduce a topic. A writer or speaker can also pile brief examples one upon another until the desired stronger impression is created.
Notes on the Present Progressive The present progressive is mainly used for the following purposes: To denote an action in progress at the moment of speaking. To denote an action in progress at a period of time including the present. To denote a future happening according to a definite plan or arrangement.
Integrated Skills: E-C Translation Translate the following sentences into Chinese. 1. We live in an age of easy access to the rest of the world. (Para.1) 2. Everyone, it seems, provided, of course, they can afford to do so, need never be out of touch. (Para. 1) 3. Most fundamental is the profound relationship between languages and culture that lies at the heart of society and one that we overlook at our peril. (Para. 3)
Integrated Skills: E-C Translation 4. Different cultures are not simply groups of people who label the world differently; languages give us the means to shape our views of the world and languages are different from one another. (Para. 4) 5. The early Bible translators hit the problem of untranslatability head-on. (Para. 5) 6. Faced with unsurmountable linguistic problems, translators negotiated the boundaries between languages and came up with a compromise. (Para. 5)
Integrated Skills: E-C Translation 7. When there are no words in another language for what you want to say, you make adjustments and try to approximate. (Para. 6) 8. Inevitably, the spread of English means that millions of people are adding another language to their own and are learning how to negotiate cultural and linguistic differences. (Para. 7) 9. Communicating in another language involves not only linguistic skills, but the ability to think differently, to enter into another culture’s mentality and shape language accordingly. (Para. 7)
Key to Textbook Exercises IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences taken from the text. (p. 225) 1. The age we are living in provides us with convenient ways to reach any part of the world. 2. It seems that everyone is able to get in touch with anyone else if he or she can afford to send text messages on mobile phone. 3. Culture is deeply rooted in society. 4. We are running a risk in neglecting the importance of the relationship.
Key to Exercises 5. The problem that some parts of the Bible could not be translated emerged right in front of the early translators. 6. Encountering insolvable language problems, translators tried to find balance between languages and finally arrived at a compromise. 7. To negotiate cultural and linguistic differences is a fundamental skill in today's world, where different cultures interact. 8. Numerous people are looking for a way to interrelate different cultures.
Key to Exercises Vocabulary exercises I. Explain the italicized part in each sentence in your own words. (p. 226) 1. if and only if; can never fail to be informed of the latest information 2. unrelated to/irrespective of 3. do not notice (the relationship) at great risk 4. may more or less be described by those words 5. were directly confronted/met with the problem that something in one language cannot b( rendered into another 6. discussed and decided on the limits of differences
Key to Exercises Grammar exercises I. Put the verbs into the present progressive form. (p. 228) 1. is doing 2. is boiling 3. is always changing 4. is putting, rewiring, is building 5. am working 6. Are... doing, am packing, am catching
Key to Exercises Grammar exercises II. Choose the correct form. (p. 229) 1. do you belong to 2. I think 3. can see 4. I’m going over 5. Do you believe 6. prefers 7. I miss 8. always reads
Key to Exercises Grammar Exercises III. Complete the following sentences with the correct verb forms. (p. 229) 1. helps 2. hope, are enjoying, sunbathe, go, are going 3. is being 4. is typing 5. am not eating 6. am reading 7. are always leaving 8. go, belongs, wants, is using
Key to Exercises Grammar Exercises IV. Correct the errors, where found, in the following sentences. (p. 229) 1. Smith passes the ball to Brown, and Brown shoots, and it's a goal! 2. 3. Why are you crying? Is something wrong? 4. 5. I know Adam well. I’ll introduce you to him. 6. I gather Peter’s looking for a job.
Integrated Skills: Dictation The main reason for the widespread demand for English / is its present-day importance as a world language. / Besides serving the infinite needs of its native speakers, / English is a language / in which some of the most important works in science, technology, and other fields are being produced, / and not always by native speakers. / It is a language of wider communication for a number of developing countries, / especially former British colonies. / Many of these countries have multi-lingual populations / and need a language for internal communication / in such matters as government, commerce, industry, law and education / as well as for international communication / and for access to the scientific and technological developments in the West.
Oral Practice: A Survey We are different. Each group is to conduct a survey on your classmates’ understanding of the major differences between Chinese culture and some foreign culture (e.g. American culture, Japanese culture, etc.) Step I: Work out a list of questions (more than 6). Step II: Interview your classmates. Step III: Report to the class the survey results.
Supplementary Reading Find and read stories about the following biblical terms to gain a better understanding of Text I. The Lamb of God Jonah The Tower of Babel